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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878316

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and glycemic indices, including plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour postload glucose (2h-PG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), remains inconclusive. We aimed to explore the associations between glycemic indices and SUA levels in the general Chinese population.@*Methods@#The current study was a cross-sectional analysis using the first follow-up survey data from The China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort Study. A total of 105,922 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 40 years underwent the oral glucose tolerance test and uric acid assessment. The nonlinear relationships between glycemic indices and SUA levels were explored using generalized additive models.@*Results@#A total of 30,941 men and 62,361 women were eligible for the current analysis. Generalized additive models verified the inverted U-shaped association between glycemic indices and SUA levels, but with different inflection points in men and women. The thresholds for FPG, 2h-PG, and HbA1c for men and women were 6.5/8.0 mmol/L, 11.0/14.0 mmol/L, and 6.1/6.5, respectively (SUA levels increased with increasing glycemic indices before the inflection points and then eventually decreased with further increases in the glycemic indices).@*Conclusion@#An inverted U-shaped association was observed between major glycemic indices and uric acid levels in both sexes, while the inflection points were reached earlier in men than in women.


Subject(s)
Aged , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Blood Glucose/analysis , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Female , Glucose Tolerance Test , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Glycemic Index , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Uric Acid/blood
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829022

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Liver fibrosis is an important predictor of mortality in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Peripheral artery disease (PAD) and liver fibrosis share many common metabolic dysfunctions. We aimed to explore the association between PAD and risk of fibrosis deterioration in NAFLD patients.@*Methods@#The study recruited 1,610 NAFLD patients aged ≥ 40 years from a well-defined community at baseline in 2010 and followed up between August 2014 and May 2015. Fibrosis deterioration was defined as the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) status increased to a higher category at the follow-up visit. PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial index of 1.40.@*Results@#During an average of 4.3 years' follow-up, 618 patients progressed to a higher NFS category. PAD was associated with 92% increased risk of fibrosis deterioration [multivariable-adjusted odds ratio ( ): 1.92, 95% confidence interval ( ): 1.24, 2.98]. When stratified by baseline NFS status, the for progression from low to intermediate or high NFS was 1.74 (95% : 1.02, 3.00), and progression from intermediate to high NFS was 2.24 (95% : 1.05, 4.80). There was a significant interaction between PAD and insulin resistance (IR) on fibrosis deterioration ( for interaction = 0.03). As compared with non-PAD and non-IR, the coexistence of PAD and IR was associated with a 3.85-fold (95% : 2.06, 7.18) increased risk of fibrosis deterioration.@*Conclusion@#PAD is associated with an increased risk of fibrosis deterioration in NAFLD patients, especially in those with IR. The coexistence of PAD and IR may impose an interactive effect on the risk of fibrosis deterioration.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ankle Brachial Index , China , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Epidemiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773432

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The objective of this study is to determine whether coronary atherosclerotic plaque composition is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Chinese adults.@*METHODS@#We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 549 subjects without previous diagnosis or clinical symptoms of CVD in a community cohort of middle-aged Chinese adults. The participants underwent coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography for the evaluation of the presence and composition of coronary plaques. CVD risk was evaluated by the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score.@*RESULTS@#Among the 549 participants, 267 (48.6%) had no coronary plaques, 201 (36.6%) had noncalcified coronary plaques, and 81 (14.8%) had calcified or mixed coronary plaques. The measures of CVD risk including FRS and ASCVD risk score and the likelihood of having elevated FRS significantly increased across the groups of participants without coronary plaques, with noncalcified coronary plaques, and with calcified or mixed coronary plaques. However, only calcified or mixed coronary plaques were significantly associated with an elevated ASCVD risk score [odds ratio (OR) 2.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-5.32] compared with no coronary plaques, whereas no significant association was found for noncalcified coronary plaques and elevated ASCVD risk score (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.71-2.21) after multivariable adjustment.@*CONCLUSION@#Calcified or mixed coronary plaques might be more associated with an elevated likelihood of having CVD than noncalcified coronary plaques.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Cardiovascular Diseases , Epidemiology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Diagnostic Imaging , Epidemiology , Risk Factors
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773397

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) could predict a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the association between ideal CVH and subclinical atherosclerosis in a population cohort of Chinese adults aged ⪖ 40 years.@*METHODS@#This study was designed as a cross-sectional analysis of 8,395 participants who had complete data at baseline and a prospective analysis of 4,879 participants who had complete data at 4.3 years of follow-up. Ideal CVH metrics were defined according to the American Heart Association. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated by plaques in carotid arteries, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR).@*RESULTS@#Both the prevalence and incidence of atherosclerosis measures were found to be decreased with increasing numbers of ideal CVH metrics at baseline (all P values for trend < 0.01). The levels of CIMT and UACR at follow-up showed an inverse and significant association with the numbers of ideal CVH metrics at baseline (both P values for trend < 0.05) but a borderline significant association with baPWV (P for trend = 0.0505). Taking participants with 0-1 ideal metric as reference, we found that participants with 5-6 ideal metrics had significantly lower risks of developing carotid plaques (odds ratio, OR = 0.46; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.27-0.79), increased CIMT (OR = 0.60; 95% CI 0.42-0.84), and increased baPWV (OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.34-0.97) after full adjustments. A significant interactive effect of age and CVH was detected on CIMT and baPWV progression (both P values for interaction < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The numbers of ideal CVH metrics showed a significant and inverse association with the risk of developing subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, whereas its dose-response effect was attenuated in individuals aged ≥ 60 years and partially weakened in male participants.


Subject(s)
Aged , Atherosclerosis , Epidemiology , China , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The association between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain, especially in the Asian population. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the association between Lp(a) levels and MetS in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese cohort.@*METHODS@#A cross-sectional study of 10,336 Chinese adults aged 40 years or older was conducted in Jiading District, Shanghai, China. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between serum Lp(a) levels and MetS.@*RESULTS@#In the overall population, 37.5% of participants had MetS. Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile of serum Lp(a) levels, those in the highest quartile had a lower prevalence of MetS (30.9% vs. 46.9%, P for trend < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that compared with participants in the bottom quartile of serum Lp(a) levels, those in the top quartile had decreased odds ratio (OR) for prevalent MetS [multivariate-adjusted OR 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.39-0.51); P < 0.0001]. Additionally, Lp(a) level was conversely associated with the risk of central obesity, high fasting glucose, high triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol, but not with hypertension. Stratified analyses suggested that increasing levels of Lp(a) was associated with decreased risk of MetS in all the subgroups.@*CONCLUSION@#Serum Lp(a) level was inversely associated with the risk of prevalent MetS in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese cohort.


Subject(s)
Aged , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , China , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lipoprotein(a) , Blood , Male , Metabolic Syndrome , Blood , Epidemiology , Middle Aged
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To examine the association between serum uric acid levels and cardiovascular disease risk among individuals without diabetes.@*METHODS@#We investigated the association between serum uric acid levels and the risk of prevalent cardiometabolic diseases, 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease, and 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) among 8,252 participants aged ⪖ 40 years without diabetes from Jiading district, Shanghai, China.@*RESULTS@#Body mass index, waist circumference, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and serum lipids increased progressively across the sex-specific quartiles of uric acid (all P trend < 0.05). Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile, those in the higher quartiles had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia (all P trend < 0.05). A fully adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that individuals in the highest quartile had an increased risk of predicted cardiovascular disease compared with those in the lowest quartile of uric acid. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for the highest quartiles for high Framingham risk were 3.00 (2.00-4.50) in men and 2.95 (1.08-8.43) in women. The multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest quartile for high ASCVD risk were 1.93 (1.17-3.17) in men and 4.53 (2.57-7.98) in women.@*CONCLUSION@#Serum uric acid level is associated with an increased risk of prevalent obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease, and 10-year risk for ASCVD among Chinese adults without diabetes.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Blood , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , China , Coronary Disease , Blood , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans , Lipids , Blood , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Uric Acid , Blood
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296507

ABSTRACT

This current cross-sectional study investigates the relationship between thyroid hormones and peripheral artery disease (PAD) among euthyroid Chinese population aged 40 years and above. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid antibodies were measured. PAD was defined as ankle-brachial index (ABI) < 0.9. There were 91 (2.9%) PAD cases among the 3,148 euthyroid study participants. Participants in the highest quartile of FT3 and free-triiodothyronine-to-free-thyroxin (FT3/FT4 ratio) had a decreased risk of prevalent PAD (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.15-0.62, P for trend = 0.01 and 0.31, 0.13-0.66, P for trend = 0.004, respectively) compared to those in the lowest quartile. To conclude, FT3 levels and the FT3/FT4 ratio was inversely associated with prevalent PAD in euthyroid Chinese population aged 40 years and above.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Blood , Risk Factors , Thyroxine , Blood , Triiodothyronine , Blood
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2102-2108, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307460

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Two recent whole-exome sequencing researches identifying somatic mutations in the ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) gene in pituitary corticotroph adenomas provide exciting advances in this field. These mutations drive increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and promote adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production. This study was to investigate whether the inhibition of USP8 activity could be a strategy for the treatment of Cushing's disease (CD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The anticancer effect of USP8 inhibitor was determined by testing cell viability, colony formation, apoptosis, and ACTH secretion. The immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were conducted to explore the signaling pathway by USP8 inhibition.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Inhibition of USP8-induced degradation of receptor tyrosine kinases including EGFR, EGFR-2 (ERBB2), and Met leading to a suppression of AtT20 cell growth and ACTH secretion. Moreover, treatment with USP8 inhibitor markedly induced AtT20 cells apoptosis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Inhibition of USP8 activity could be an effective strategy for CD. It might provide a novel pharmacological approach for the treatment of CD.</p>


Subject(s)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Metabolism , Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Physiology , Cell Survival , Physiology , Endopeptidases , Metabolism , Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport , Metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Humans , Indenes , Pharmacology , Mice , Pyrazines , Pharmacology , ErbB Receptors , Metabolism , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase , Metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292527

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop the national neglect norms for rural children aged 3 to 6 years, which are suitable for Chinese situations.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>According to the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling principle, 84 towns of 10 provinces or municipalities were selected in China. Children aged 3 to 6 years were surveyed in November 2010, the sample of analysis were 3240 (of whom males were 49.6% (1608/3240) and the Han nationality were 93.3% (3023/3240)). Questionnaire was designed by authors and deleted items that did not meet the requirements through several statistical analysis methods, such as item analysis method, factor analysis method, reliability analysis method. The reliability analysis and validity analysis were used to test the stability and reliability of the norm. The evaluation criteria of the scale was determined by the percentile method, then the initial development of the norm completed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After deleting inappropriate items by statistical processing, finally, the scale consisted of 57 items, and included 6 neglected dimensions (physical neglect, emotional neglect, educational neglect, safe neglect, medical neglect and social neglect). Its item loadings ranged from 0.359 to 0.789, which met the statistical requirements. The scale's total Cronbach α coefficients 0.904, the total split-half reliability coefficients were 0.820, the 6 neglect dimensions' Cronbach α coefficients ranged from 0.620 to 0.815, the 6 neglect dimensions' split-half reliability coefficients ranged from -0.034 to 0.789, the scale's parallel reliability were 0.785 and it's re-test reliability were 0.613. After construct validity, external validity and content validity testing, the result showed that this scale could effectively reflect the real neglected status of children investigated. The total neglect cut-off score of this scale were 121.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The scale has good stability and reliability. And it adapts Chinese conditions and it's convenient to operate.</p>


Subject(s)
Child Abuse , Diagnosis , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Humans , Male , Psychological Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Rural Population , Sampling Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reference Standards
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292526

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the status of child neglect among rural areas children aged 0 - 6 years in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 7411 rural children aged 0 - 6 years old who were composed of two age groups (3315 children aged 0 - 2 years old and 4096 children aged 3 - 6 years old) were multistage stratified randomly sampled from 84 villages which were representative of 10 provinces of China, in accordance with sex and age in November 2010. To identify the child neglect based on the Neglect Norms for Children Aged 0 to 2 and 3 to 6 Years Old in Rural Areas of China, SPSS 13.0 was employed for analyzing neglect frequency and degree for every group of different age, sex and neglect type (including physical, emotional, educational, medical, safety and social neglects). χ(2) test and analysis of variance were also used.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The degree of child neglect for the children aged 0 - 2 years old was 45.01 ± 7.56, the neglect frequency was 54.9% (1819/3315); the degree of child neglect for the children aged 3 - 6 years old was 44.42 ± 7.57, the neglect frequency was 53.8% (2203/4096). The neglect frequency of children aged 0, 1, 2 years old were 58.5% (654/1117), 52.2% (597/1144), 53.9% (568/1054) (P < 0.05). For children aged 3 - 6 years old, the degrees of emotional and safety neglect for males (44.60 ± 7.86, 36.82 ± 9.03) were higher than females (44.03 ± 7.72, 36.25 ± 9.05) (P < 0.05); and the frequencies of emotional and social neglect for males (16.8% (349/2072), 28.3% (586/2072)) were also higher than females (14.1% (286/2024), 24.8% (503/2024)) (P < 0.05). All children of two age groups suffered neglect mainly on one of the six neglect types (incidences were 20.6% (683/3315) and 22.7% (931/4096)). For 0-2 age groups, the higher neglect frequencies happened in the single-parent family and the remarried family (62.5% (15/24) and 63.2% (12/19)), but for children aged 3 - 6 years old groups, it happened in the single-parent family (60.0%, 27/45).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Degree and frequency of child neglect among children aged 0 to 6 years old in the rural areas of China are high, and we should find out risk factors and provide efficient prevention measures.</p>


Subject(s)
Child Abuse , Child, Preschool , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Rural Population , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292525

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the status of child neglect among urban areas children and adolescents aged 3 - 17 years in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method, 8001 children and adolescents were recruited from 30 cities of 14 provinces in December 2008. The investigation was carried based on The 3 - 6 years old children Neglect Norms of city in China and The 6 - 17 years old children Neglect Norms of city in China. SPSS 13.0 was employed for analyzing neglect rate and degree for group of areas, age, sex and neglect type (including neglect of physical, emotional, educational, medical, safety and social).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The degrees of child neglect for urban children aged 3 - 6 (children aged 6 were not in school), 6 - 8 (children aged 6 were school children), 9 - 11, 12 - 14 and 15 - 17 were 42.2 ± 6.9, 42.8 ± 8.4, 42.1 ± 9.1, 46.4 ± 9.2 and 49.7 ± 8.4(P < 0.05), the neglect rates were 28.0% (326/1163), 28.8% (431/1496), 27.2% (543/1962), 22.4% (373/1664) and 32.8% (563/1716) (P < 0.05), respectively. There were differences in six neglect types for each group; the neglect degrees and rates were high in the group aged 12 - 14 and 15 - 17 (46.4 ± 9.2 and 49.1 ± 8.4, 22.4% (373/1664) and 32.8% (563/1716), respectively); for each neglect type, the neglect degree of children aged 15 - 17 were highest (52.8 ± 8.0, 47.3 ± 11.6, 49.5 ± 10.8, 42.4 ± 10.3, 52.2 ± 16.0, 56.0 ± 10.1). The degree and rate of neglect in West were highest, Middle was next, the East was lowest (the neglect degrees were 45.4 ± 9.1, 45.0 ± 9.3 and 44.0 ± 8.8, P < 0.05;the rates were 30.7% (1340/4361), 25.0% (756/3024) and 21.2% (131/616), P < 0.05). Degree and rate of child neglect for children without siblings were lower than children with siblings (the neglect degrees were 44.2 ± 9.0 and 47.6 ± 9.1, P < 0.01; the rates were 26.1% (1572/6017) and 33.0% (655/1984), P < 0.01). Neglect degree of school children aged 6 years old (43.1 ± 7.3) was higher than children not in school (40.7 ± 7.8) (P < 0.01), but neglect rate was lower (the rates were 35.4% (60/169) and 21.3% (84/394), P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Neglect degree and rate of urban children and adolescents aged 3 - 17 years in China were both high, and neglect deserved more attentions.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child Abuse , Child, Preschool , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Urban Population
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269218

ABSTRACT

Objective To develop the National Norms of Negligence (NNN) for rural children aged 0 to 35 months.Methods According to multi-stage stratified cluster sampling principle,10 provinces or municipalities (Jilin,Shaanxi,Shanxi,Beijing,Anhui,Jiangsu,Hunan,Hubei,Yunnan,Chongqing) in China were selected.A national research group was formed collaboratively.A questionnaire was designed by ourselves.According to several statistical analysis methods,such as item,factor and reliability analysis etc.we determined the norm.The evaluation criteria of the scale were determined by percentile method.Finally,the reliability and validity of the norm were evaluated.Results In total,2310 children were surveyed,in which the effective sample were 2227,with an effective rate as 96.4%.The scale consisted of 6 neglected dimensions and 65 items in total.The total Cronbach's α coefficient of the scale was 0.903,with the split-half reliability coefficient as 0.829,the parallel reliability as 0.720 and the re-test reliability as 0.678,respectively.The total neglect cut-off score of this scale was 139.Conclusion The scale seemed to have perfect stability and reliability and all the statistical indicators met the psychometric demands.

13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 140-144, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269202

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate and analyze the situation of urban and rural neglected children aged 3-6,in China,so as to provide basis for the analysis and comparison on relevant risk factors.Methods 1163 urban children aged 3-6 (with 49.6% males and 4.5% with minority ethnicity) were investigated from 25 cities of 14 provinces,autonomous regions and municipalities in the whole country.Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used.Again,using the same sampling method,4096 rural children (of whom 50.6% were males with 6.2% as minorities) were chosen from 26 cities of 10 provinces or municipalities.Identification of children being neglected was based on “Child Neglect Evaluation Norms of Children Aged 3-6 Years in Urban/Rural China”.SPSS-Windows 13.0 was employed for data analysis.Scores,frequency/degrees,age,sex and types (physical,emotional,educational,safety,medical and social) of children under negligence on every group of the regions,were calculated.x2 test (Chi-Square) and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) were processed to determine the significance of their differences.Results The overall frequencies of negligence were 28.0% and 53.7% respectively among the urban and rural children aged 3-6,while the total degrees of negligence were 42.2 and 44.4 respectively.Significant difference was found between children from the urban and the rural areas (P<0.05).Significant difference was also found between urban and rural children on every age group (P<0.05).The frequencies of negligence among males were 32.6% and 55.9% respectively in urban and rural areas while among females,the figures appeared to be 23.7% and 51.6% respectively.The degrees of negligence were 42.7 and 44.6 among male while 41.8 and 44.3 among female children,in the urban or rural areas.Significant differences were found on male or female between urban and rural groups (P<0.05).Frequencies of negligence in urban children aged 3-6 for the six types were from 5.1% to 12.9%,with the frequency in rural areas as 13.1%-26.6%.Significant difference was found between urban and rural group for any other type (P<0.05),in addition to the safety type.The degrees of negligence in urban children aged 3-6 for the different type were between 39.4 and 43.4,while in the rural areas as from 36.5 to 48.2,with significant difference for every type (P<0.05).The degrees of negligence related to education,emotion,or physical strength were more serious on children from the urban than from the rural areas.The highest frequency of child negligence was seen in the single-parent families on both urban and rural groups (42.9% and 60.0% respectively),with no significant difference found (P>0.05).The urban and rural children aged 3-6 were mainly involved in single item of negligence,with incidence rates as 16.5% and 22.7% and proportions as 58.9% and 45.1% respectively,despite the factors as age or sex.Conclusion There were large differences on the situation of negligence between the urban and rural children aged 3-6.The frequencies and degrees of negligence in every age group and different sex for children living in the rural areas were higher than those urban children.The frequency of negligence among boys was higher than girls for both urban and rural areas.The rural children had suffered more serious negligence than the urban children at any other type,in addition to the ‘ safety'.Both urban and rural children had the highest frequency of negligence in single-parent family,and were mainly suffered from single item of negligence.

14.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 697-700, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307218

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the clinical outcomes between China made sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and bare metal stents (BMS) implantation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Consecutive patients with AMI underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomly divided into SES group (n = 87) and BMS group (n = 86). The incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE including death, reinfarction, in-stent thrombosis, restenosis rate, target vessel revascularization) up to 6 months post PCI were assessed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Postprocedure vessel patency, enzymatic release, cardiac function, and the incidence of short-term MACE were similar between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Two in-stent thrombosis was diagnosed in the SES group and bare stents group respectively (2.4% vs. 2.3%, P > 0.05). At 6 months, In-stent restenosis rate (4.5% vs. 40.0%, P < 0.01) and the in-segment restenosis rate (6.8% vs. 44.9%, P < 0.01) as well as MACE (8.0% vs. 24.4%, P < 0.01), which is mainly due to a marked reduction in the risk of target vessel revascularization (3.4% vs. 11.6%, P < 0.05) were significantly lower in SES group compared to BMS group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The China made SES were not associated with an increased risk of in-stent thrombosis but significantly reduced restenosis rate and MACE at 6 months post primary angioplasty in patients with AMI.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Drug-Eluting Stents , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction , Therapeutics , Sirolimus
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1700-1703, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-255523

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Subcutaneous absorption is accelerated by the monomeric conformation of insulin Aspart, which provides good glycemic control with a lower risk of hypoglycemia and less body weight increase. In the present study we investigated the efficacy and safety of a rapid-acting human insulin analogue (insulin Aspart) delivered with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) into Chinese diabetic patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 21 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were recruited for the 2-way cross-over, open-labeled trial, and then randomized to Group A (n = 10, treated with insulin Aspart) or Group B (n = 11, treated with Novolin R). Insulin Aspart and Novolin R were administered by CSII. Capillary glucose concentrations were measured at 8 time points, pre-prandial and postprandial, bedtime (10 pm), midnight (2 am) every day during the treatment.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The average capillary glucose profiles for the day were much better controlled in Group A than in Group B (P < 0.01). The blood glucose levels were particularly better controlled in Group A than in Group B at pre-breakfast ((6.72 +/- 1.24) mmol/L vs (7.84 +/- 1.58) mmol/L, P = 0.014), post-breakfast ((8.96 +/- 2.41) mmol/L vs (11.70 +/- 3.11) mmol/L, P = 0.0028), post-supper ((8.15 +/- 2.10) mmol/L vs (10.07 +/- 2.36) mmol/L, P = 0.008), bed time ((7.73 +/- 1.72) mmol/L vs (9.39 +/- 2.05) mmol/L, P = 0.007) and midnight ((6.32 +/- 1.16) mmol/L vs (7.48 +/- 1.36) mmol/L, P = 0.0049). There was no significant difference in the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes between the two groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Insulin Aspart results in better control of blood glucose levels than regular human insulin (Novolin R) in diabetic patients during delivery by CSII.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Blood Glucose , Cross-Over Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Drug Therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Insulin Aspart , Insulin Infusion Systems , Male , Middle Aged
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-640507

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the role of imaging diagnosis in surgical treatment of primary aldosteronism(PA). MethodsFrom Jan 1995 to Dec 2004,245 patients with PA were hospitalized in our hospital.Before the operations,all the patients underwent B-ultrasonography and CT scaning,240 received intravenous pyelography and 75 MRI.The preoperative imaging diagnosis were compared with the findings during the operations and postoperative pathologic results. Results Compared with the findings during the operations,the accuracy rates of localized diagnosis for PA with B-ultrasonography,CT scanning and MRI were 92.7%,98.2% and 90.4%,respectively.Compared with the postoperative pathologic results,the accuracy rates of qualitative diagnosis for aldosterone-producing adenoma(APA) with B-ultrasonography,CT scanning and MRI were 83.0%,90.7% and 72.2%,respectively. Conclusion The comprehensive imaging data are helpful in the localized diagnosis of PA.Correct preoperative qualitative diagnosis of APA is the key step for the surgical treatment for PA.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-640407

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the changes of plasma normetanephrine(NMN) and metanephrine(MN) during the resection of adrenal pheochromocytoma. Methods Fourteen patients with adrenal pheocromocytoma and 9 patients with adrenal cortex tumor were recruited in our study. Blood samples were obtained at these time points: after anesthesia induction,the beginning of incision of skin, when exploring the tumor,resection of the tumor, and the end of anesthesia. The NMN and MN were determined by high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC). Results NMN were obviously different among 5 time points in the patients with adrenal pheocromocytoma (P0.05). No significant difference was found between NMN and MN in the patients with adrenal cortex tumor. Conclusion NMN has markedly changed during the resection of adrenal pheochromocytoma, while MN has been relatively stable. The anesthesia induction and exploring of the tumor are the key of a successful operation. MN is the stable index in the diagnosis of adrenal pheochromocytoma.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-640400

ABSTRACT

Objective To discuss the optimal clinical diagnosis and treatment of ectopic ACTH syndrome with occult tumors. Methods Clinical features, imaging examinations and treatment of 17 patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome were described and compared. Results All patients illustrated the typical clinical features of Cushing’s syndrome. They had hypokalemic alkalosis, elevated serum cortisol and plasma ACTH levels. In the high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests, most patients failed to suppress serum cortisol and 24-hour urinary cortisol. CT and MRI are useful imaging modalities to localize the ACTH-secreting tumor in patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome. The patients with overt ACTH-secreting tumors had surgical curative resection soon after diagnosis. Among patients with occult ACTH-secreting tumors, three underwent subtotal bilateral adrenalectomy, two underwent right adrenalectomy, four received inhibitor of steroidogenesis aminoglutethimide. Their hypercortisolism was controlled. Conclusion Surgical curative resection is the optimal treatment of ectopic ACTH syndrome with overt ACTH-secreting tumor. Bilateral adrenalectomy, right adrenal ectomy or chemotherapy to control hypercortisolism is an available treatment of ectopic ACTH syndrome with occult ACTH-secreting tumors.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-639982

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the development,prevention and treatment of primary or secondary acute adrenal hypofunction with hyponatremia. Methods Forty-eight cases of acute adrenal hypofunction with hyponatremia from 1970 to 2006 were collected and divided into groups of hydrocephalus(n=23) and non-hydrocephalus(n=25).The causes,inducing factors,clinical manifestations,laboratory indexes,treatment and outcomes of the two groups were retrospectively analysed.In addition,another 48 patients with chronic adrenal hypofunction and 48 normal controls were included in the study. Results Infection constituted the most common inducing factor for the 48 cases of acute adrenal hypofunction with hyponatremia.Both natremia and urine cortisone were significantly lower in hydrocephalus and non-hydrocephalus patients than those in chronic adrenal hypofunction and controls(P

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-676631

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the possible association of serum adiponectin level with testosterone level in patients with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism(IHH).Methods The diagnosis of IHH was made,based on clinical presentations,laboratory examinations of hormones and GnRH stimulation test.Serum adiponeetin and testosterone levels were measured in 23 IHH patients and 15 normal men.Results After matched for weight,blood pressure and waist-to-hip ratio,serum testosterone level in IHH group was significantly lower than that in control group [(0.23?0.18 vs 4.20?1.90)?g/L,P

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