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1.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 416-422, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985662

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the influencing factors of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) with organ or system impairment in pregnant women, and to analyze and compare the differences of HDP subtypes in different regions of China. Methods: A total of 27 680 pregnant women with HDP with complete data from 161 hospitals in 24 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities were retrospectively collected from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2018. According to their clinical manifestations, they were divided into hypertension group [a total of 10 308 cases, including 8 250 cases of gestational hypertension (GH), 2 058 cases of chronic hypertension during pregnancy] and hypertension with organ or system impairment group [17 372 cases, including 14 590 cases of pre-eclampsia (PE), 137 cases of eclampsia, 2 645 cases of chronic hypertension with PE]. The subtype distribution of HDP in East China (6 136 cases), North China (4 821 cases), Central China (3 502 cases), South China (8 371 cases), Northeast China (1 456 cases), Southwest China (2 158 cases) and Northwest China (1 236 cases) were analyzed. By comparing the differences of HDP subtypes and related risk factors in different regions, regional analysis of the risk factors of HDP pregnant women with organ or system impairment was conducted. Results: (1) The proportions of HDP pregnant women with organ or system impairment in Northeast China (79.05%, 1 151/1 456), Central China (68.42%, 2 396/3 502) and Northwest China (69.34%, 857/1 236) were higher than the national average (62.76%, 17 372/27 680); the proportions in North China (59.18%, 2 853/4 821), East China (60.85%, 3 734/6 136) and South China (59.56%, 4 986/8 371) were lower than the national average, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). (2) Univariate analysis showed that the proportions of primiparas, non-Han, non-urban household registration, irregular prenatal examination and PE history in the hypertension with organ or system impairment group were higher than those in the hypertension group, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that primiparas, non-Han, non-urban household registration, irregular prenatal examination and PE history were independent risk factors for HDP pregnant women with organ or system impairment (all P<0.05). (3) Primipara: the rates of primipara in Northeast China, North China and Southwest China were higher than the national average level, while those in South China, Central China and Northwest China were lower than the national average level. Non-Han nationality: the rates of non-Han nationality in Northeast China, North China and Northwest China were higher than the national average, while those in East China, South China and Central China were lower than the national average. Non-urban household registration: the rates of non-urban household registration in Northeast China, North China, and Southwest China were lower than the national average, while those in East China, Central China were higher than the national average. Irregular prenatal examination: the rates of irregular prenatal examination in North China, South China and Southwest regions were lower than the national average level, while those in Northeast China, Central China and Northwest China were higher than the national average level. History of PE: the incidence rates of PE in Northeast China, North China, South China and Southwest China were lower than the national average level, while those in Central China and Northwest China were higher than the national average level. Conclusions: Primiparas, non-Han, non-urban household registration, irregular prenatal examination, and PE history are risk factors for HDP pregnant women with organ or system impairment. Patients in Northeast, Central and Northwest China have more risk factors, and are more likely to be accompanied by organ or system function damage. It is important to strengthen the management of pregnant women and reduce the occurrence of HDP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Female , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Incidence
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 25-32, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is associated with high neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, the influences of cesarean section (CS) on neonatal outcomes in preterm pregnancies complicated with PPROM are not well elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of delivery modes on neonatal outcomes among pregnant women with PPROM.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 39 public hospitals in 14 cities in the mainland of China from January 1st, 2011 to December 31st, 2011. A total of 2756 singleton pregnancies complicated with PPROM were included. Adverse neonatal outcomes including early neonatal death, birth asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), pneumonia, infection, birth trauma, and 5-min/10-min Apgar scores were obtained from the hospital records. Binary variables and ordinal variables were respectively calculated by binary logistic regressions and ordinal regression. Numerical variables were compared by multiple linear regressions.@*RESULTS@#In total, 2756 newborns were involved in the analysis. Among them, 1166 newborns (42.31%) were delivered by CS and 1590 newborns belonged to vaginal delivery (VD) group. The CS proportion of PPROM obviously increased with the increase of gestational age (χ = 5.014, P = 0.025). Compared with CS group, VD was associated with a higher risk of total newborns mortality (odds ratio [OR], 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.102-5.118; P = 0.027), and a lower level of pneumonia (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.126-0.811; P = 0.016). However, after multivariable adjustment and stratification for gestational age, only pneumonia was significantly related with CS in 28 to 34 weeks group (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.120-0.940; P = 0.038). There were no differences regarding to other adverse outcomes in the two groups, including neonatal mortality, birth asphyxia, Apgar scores, RDS, pneumonia, and sepsis.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The proportion of CS of pregnant women with PPROM was very high in China. The mode of delivery does not affect neonatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated with PPROM.

3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 933-938, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687006

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>In the mainland of China, the trial of labor after cesarean section is still a relatively new technique. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of labor onset, oxytocin use, and epidural anesthesia on maternal and neonatal outcomes for vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) in a tertiary hospital in China.</p><p><b>Methods</b>This was a retrospective study carried out on 212 VBAC cases between January 2015 and June 2017 in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University. Relevant data were acquired on a form, including maternal age, gravidity and parity, body mass index before pregnancy, weight gain during pregnancy, type of labor onset, gestational age, the use of oxytocin and epidural anesthesia, birth mode, the duration of labor, and neonatal weight. The factors affecting maternal and neonatal outcomes for cases involving VBAC, especially with regards to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and fetal distress, were evaluated by univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression.</p><p><b>Results</b>Data showed that 36 women (17.0%) had postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and 51 cases (24.1%) featured fetal distress. Normal delivery took place for 163 infants (76.9%) while 49 infants (23.1%) underwent operative vaginal deliveries with forceps. There were 178 cases (84.0%) of spontaneous labor and 34 cases (16.0%) required induction. Oxytocin was used in 54 cases (25.5%) to strengthen uterine contraction, and 65 cases (30.7%) received epidural anesthesia. The rate of normal delivery in cases involving PPH was significantly lower than those without PPH (61.1% vs. 80.1%; χ = 6.07, P = 0.01). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that the intrapartum administration of oxytocin (odds ratio [OR] = 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-5.74; P = 0.04) and birth mode (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.18-0.87; P = 0.02) was significantly associated with PPH in VBAC cases. Operative vaginal delivery occurred more frequently in the group with fetal distress than the group without (49.0% vs. 14.9%, χ = 25.36, P = 0.00). Multivariate logistic analysis also revealed that the duration of total labor (OR = 1.01; 95% CI = 1.00-1.03; P = 0.04) and the gestational week of delivery (OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.05-1.11; P = 0.00) were significantly associated with fetal distress in VBAC.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>The administration of oxytocin during labor and birth was identified as a protective factor for PPH in VBAC while birth mode was identified as a risk factor. Finally, the duration of total labor and the gestational week of delivery were identified as risk factors for fetal distress in cases of VBAC. This information might help obstetricians provide appropriate interventions during labor and birth for VBAC.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , China , Gestational Age , Labor Onset , Odds Ratio , Oxytocin , Therapeutic Uses , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaginal Birth after Cesarean
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1137-1146, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350338

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>No national research on maternal and fetal complications and outcomes has been carried out in the mainland of China in recent years. This study was to provide a scientific basis for better control of obstetrical and neonatal diseases and better allocation of medical resources by analyzing the epidemiological characteristics of obstetrical diseases in the mainland of China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Hospitalized obstetrical cases from 19 tertiary and 20 secondary hospitals in 14 provinces (nationally representative) during the period January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011 were randomly selected. The general condition, pregnancy complications, and perinatal outcomes of the patients were studied.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The top five medical and surgical complications of pregnant women in the mainland of China were anemia (6.34%), uterine fibroids (2.69%), thyroid disease (1.11%), thrombocytopenia (0.59%), and heart disease (0.59%). The incidences of premature rupture of membranes (PROM), preterm birth, prolonged pregnancy, hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy (HDCP), multiple pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), placenta previa, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, and amniotic fluid embolism were 15.27%, 7.04%, 6.71%, 5.35%, 1.57%, 1.22%, 1.14%, 0.54%, 3.26% and 0.06%, respectively. The incidences of anemia and prolonged pregnancy were significantly lower in tertiary than secondary hospitals (P < 0.001), whereas the incidence of uterine fibroids, thyroid diseases, thrombocytopenia, heart disease, PROM, preterm birth, HDCP, multiple pregnancy, ICP, placenta previa, and placental abruption were significantly higher in tertiary than secondary hospitals (P < 0.001). The cesarean section (CS) rate was 54.77%. The newborn sex ratio was 119:100, and 1.03% of the neonates were malformed. The percentages of low birth weight and fetal macrosomia in full-term babies were 2.10% and 7.09%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The incidence of some obstetrical diseases is still high in the mainland of China. The CS rate is much higher than World Health Organization recommendations, in which CS delivery by maternal request (CDMR) accounted for a large proportion. The government should propose solutions to reduce CS rate, especially the rate of CDMR. Most obstetrical complications have higher incidence in tertiary hospitals compared with secondary hospitals. It is important to manage the health of pregnant women systematically, especially those with high-risk factors.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , China , Epidemiology , Genital Diseases, Female , Epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications , Epidemiology
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3298-3304, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275516

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>In recent years, the incidence of cervical cancer has been rising, particularly in young adults, as the second most common gynecological cancer in China. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence change and the epidemiological characteristics of cervical cancer in Beijing over the past 16 years.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>All the cases of the study were limited to Beijing residents diagnosed with cervical cancer and registered in Beijing from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2008. A total of 4100 patients with cervical cancer were obtained from the Statistics Database of Beijing Cancer Registry (BJCaR). According to the registered data, we retrospectively reviewed all original cases which we can acquired in reported hospital. Cervical situ cancer, cervical metastatic cancer, non-Beijing residents and repeatedly registered cases were excluded. Totally, 3641 registered cases were verified correctly. Meanwhile, we also collected the following data: Age, occupation, detected methods, histological type, and staging. The trends of incidence and mortality were analyzed by Joinpoint Regression Program 4.1.1.1 produced by National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA). The annual percent change (APC) was calculated using the Joinpoint regression model.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The crude rates of incidence and mortality were 10.4 and 1.0 per 100,000 women, respectively during 1993 to 2008. The average WHO age-standardized incidence rates were 11.5 per 100,000 women. There was a decrease in incidence annually by 8.0% (P = 0.3) during 1993-1996 and a rapid increase annually by 18.9% after 1999 (P < 0.01). The median age was 67 years in 1993, but the median age decreased to 45 years in 2008. The peak of the age-specific incidence curve was at 40 years in the most recent period (2005-2008), which was 25-30 years earlier than that in previous periods (1993-1996). In the 2224 cases, the numbers of patients with stage I, II, III and IV were 910 (40.9%), 601 (27%), 542 (24.4%), 171 (7.7%), respectively. The percentage of patients with stage I was 7.6% (13/171) in 1993-1996, but the percentage increased to 51.6% (643/1247) in 2005-2008 (P < 0.01). Otherwise the percentage of advanced stage (stage III-IV) during the same period was dropped down significantly from 52.0% (89/171) to 22.5% (280/1247) (P < 0.01). Unemployed and housewife ranked first accounting for 27.3% of the total (607/2224). Urban low-income people such as worker ranked the second accounting for 17.0% (377/2224), the third place was farmer accounting for 14.0% (312/2224). Only 381 (17.1%, 381/2224) women in 2224 were first detected cervical cancer by routine screenings. Company staff (36.5%, 139/381), professional and technical personnel (22.6%, 86/381), national official (22.0%, 84/381) occupied the top three (total 81.1%) in the 381 patients detected cervical cancer by screening.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The cervical cancer incidence has showed a continuous rise in Beijing since 1999. Government-led mass screening should target the low socioeconomic population primarily. Meanwhile the government should enhance public health education of cancer screening to increase the rate of screening.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Age Distribution , Beijing , Epidemiology , China , Epidemiology , Incidence , Mass Screening , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Epidemiology
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 4517-4519, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331343

ABSTRACT

Twin pregnancy with mosaic partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) and survival of two healthy fetuses following in vitro fertilization and embryos transfer (IVF-ET) is a rare situation and is considered a challenge for management. A 32-year-old Chinese woman conceived twin pregnancy following IVF-ET. At 22 weeks' gestation, an additional intrauterine echogenic mass with features of PHM were shown by successive ultrasound examinations. At 35 weeks' gestation, two live male infants and two placentas were delivered by caesarean section (CS). Histologic examination of the abnormal placenta confirmed mosaic PHM. Genetic study showed the abnormal placental mosaicism (expressed in molar-69XXY and normal vili-46XY), co-existing with a hypospadia new-born (46XY) in one amniotic sac. However, the other one was normal. Serial serum β-hCG levels showed a declining trend and serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were undetectable at 6 months after delivery. The case demonstrated that it is possible to prolonged gestation by PHM under close surveillance during the entire pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Fertilization in Vitro , Hydatidiform Mole , Genetics , Mosaicism , Placenta , Metabolism , Pathology , Pregnancy, Twin , Genetics
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3738-3745, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273982

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Down syndrome (DS) is the most common form of human aneuploidy, and there is no effective therapy for the chromosomal abnormalities. We aimed to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying DS and to provide clues to prenatal screening.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A series of proteomics-based experiments was conducted using 19 patients with DS fetuses and 17 normal pregnancies. The proteome of placenta was investigated as displayed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and comparisons were made between placentas that developed under DS and normal pregnancy conditions. Multivariate analysis of the resulting protein patterns revealed DS-specific protein expression. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight/time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometer (MS)-based identification was successful for 12 out of 17 selected protein spots.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among those, three proteins involved in the resist of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neurogenesis were more abundant in the DS placenta (superoxide dismutase 1, endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 and heat shock protein beta-1), while peroxiredoxin-6 involved in cell defense mechanism against ROS was expressed at a higher level in the normal pregnancies.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Knowledge of the DS placenta proteome emphasizes the role of proteins involved in anti-oxidation during DS, and may form the basis of a potential approach to minimize the incidence of DS in the clinical setting.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Blotting, Western , Computational Biology , Down Syndrome , Metabolism , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Placenta , Metabolism , Proteomics , Methods , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1000-1005, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242529

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Oligonucleotide microarrays are increasingly being used to identify gene expression profiles that associated with complex genetic diseases. Peripheral lymphocytes communicate with cells and extracellular matrixes in almost all tissues and organs in human body, suggesting that the gene expression profiles in peripheral lymphocytes may reflect the presence of disease in the body. This study aimed to identify molecular biomarkers for cervical cancer in peripheral blood lymphocytes by using oligonucleotide microarrays.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Total RNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes of 24 early stage cervical cancer patients and 18 healthy controls. We used 22K Human Genome microarrays to profile peripheral blood lymphocytes from 4 early stage cervical cancer patients and compared their gene expression profiles with those from 3 healthy controls. Differentially expressed genes would be identified if they had adjusted P values of less than 0.05 and a groupwise average fold change greater than 1.5 or less than 0.67. Then the selected 5 genes were validated in the remaining 20 early stage cervical cancer patients and the 15 healthy controls by using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Genes identified by the gene selection program expressed differently between the blood samples of the early stage cervical cancer patients and those of the healthy controls. To validate the gene expression data, 5 genes were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. In three of the 5 identified genes, tenasin-c (TNC), nuceolin (NCL), and enolase 2 (ENO2) showed a significant up-regulation in the blood samples of the early stage cervical cancer patients versus that of the healthy controls.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The up-regulation of TNC, NCL, and ENO2 in peripheral blood may be used to identify novel blood biomarkers for detecting cervical cancer in a clinically accessible surrogate tissue, and thus to provide a possibility to develop a noninvasive and predictive diagnosis for the disease.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Biomarkers, Tumor , Blood , Metabolism , Lymphocytes , Metabolism , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Metabolism
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2548-2554, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285791

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>This is a prospective clinical study based on a large sample gathered from multiple centers in China, subordinating to 10th Five-Year Plan of National Science & Technology Progression. We analyzed the high-risk factors inducing hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) and estimated the potential effect of anti-oxidants administration, including vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) and Salvia Miltiorrhiza L (SML), a Chinese herb medicine, in amelioration of the high-risk factors in pregnancy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From April 2005 to July 2006, 4814 pregnant women from 24 national wide cooperative hospitals were involved in this prospective research. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: 1607 cases were in anti-oxidants group with administration of vitamins and SML; 3207 cases were in control group without any medicine given. Every participant was under monitoring for the morbidity of HDP and the high-risk factors were investigated in HDP cases in each group.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The morbidity of HDP was 3.55% in anti-oxidants group vs. 4.18% in control group. No statistical difference existed between the two groups (P > 0.05). (2) In anti-oxidants group, the HDP morbidities among three subgroups: VC + VE + SML, VC + VE and SML only, were 5.51%, 3.05% and 5% respectively. It showed no statistical difference among three remedies (P > 0.05). (3) The related index of factors affecting HDP showed in intensity sequence as follows: family HDP history > profession > education level > age > body weight. The incidence of HDP in normal population was 3.51%, and the incidence of HDP in high-risk pregnant women (family HDP history, heavy physical labor, low education level (middle school and below), age ≥ 40, body mass index ≥ 24) was 5.84%, which was obviously higher than that in normal population (P < 0.01). In anti-oxidants group, the probability of HDP in women with high-risk factors was 3.81%, which was obviously lower than that in control group with high-risk factors at 7.14% (P < 0.01). (4) In control group, the morbidity of HDP in women with family HDP history (especially with sisters'), heavy physical labor, middle school and below, age ≥ 35 was: 50.00%, 15.22%, 6.33%, 26.28% and 5.75%, respectively, and that in anti-oxidants group was 0, 7.69%, 3.74%, 9.27% and 2.67%, respectively, which was obviously lower than that in control group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The high-risk factors prone to induce HDP included: family history of HDP, heavy physical labor, low education level, aging and obesity. No impressive effect of anti-oxidants application was found in preventing HDP in general population but the remedy demonstrated positive effect on preventing HDP in pregnant women with high-risk factors.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Age Factors , Antioxidants , Therapeutic Uses , Body Weight , Hypertension , Drug Therapy , Logistic Models , Pregnancy Complications , Drug Therapy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 133-137, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-277674

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence and relationship between high risk human papillomavirus(HR-HPV)and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN)in married women from Beijing.Methods From March 2007 to September 2008,a total of 6185 married women were sampled,covering 137 communities in 12 districts.The samples were screened by high-risk HPV DNA test(HC2)and cytological test.For those participants with cytological test results≥ASCUS,pathological tests were performed.An interview was also carried out with the same questionnaire.Results from the tests were inputted into the database twice using EpiData 3.0,reviewed,analyzed,using SPSS 15.0.Results(1)The prevalence rates of HR-HPV and CIN were 9.9% and 6.0%,respectively for the age group 25 to 54.(2)The peak age groups for HR-HPV and CIN prevalence rates were 30 to 34 years old.(3)The prevalence rates of positive cytology(40.3%)and CIN (30.4%)in HR-HPV positive female population were significantly higher than that in HR-HPV negative group.(4)Data from unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that,when comparing with the normal subjects,the risk odds ratios of HR-HPV with low grade CIN and cervical cancer/high grade CIN were 8.385 and 97.416 and the attributable risk proportions with these groups were 88.1% and 99.0%,respectively.Conclusion HR-HPV infection seemed to be the main risk factor for CIN.Married women,from age group 30-34,were under the high risk group in both HR-HPV infection and CIN incidence.

11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 138-141, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-277673

ABSTRACT

Objective To determine the prevalence and determinants of the most commonly seen lower reproductive tract infections among women aged 25-54 years in Beijing.Methods The study population consisted of 6339 women aged 25-54 years in 137 communities of Beijing.Focus of this study was to understand the prevalence of the following diseases as:bacterial vaginosis,trichomoniasis and vulvovaginal candidiasis.In addition to their prevalence rates,a generalized equation for estimation was used to analyze those infection-associated factors.Results The overall infection prevalence in the lower reproductive tract was 11.4%,including bacterial vaginitis as 8.7%,trichomonads as 1.0% and vulvovaginal candidiasis as 1.7%.Factors which were found to be significantly associated with lower reproductive tract infections in women were age,profession,family income,number of sex partners and frequency of condom use during sexual contacts.In patients with bacterial vaginitis,both prevalence rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and infection of human papillomavirus were high.Conclusion The prevalence of the most commonly seen lower reproductive tract infections among women aged 25-54 years in Beijing was lower than other areas in China.Lower reproductive tract infections seemed to be related to 30-49 years of age,nongovernmental employee,poverty,higher number of sex partners and not using condoms during sexual contacts.

12.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 813-817, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315589

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the relationship between the expressions of KAI1, nm23, ETS-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvascular density (MVD) and lymph node metastasis and prognosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The Envision immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expressions of KAI1, nm23, ETS-1 and VEGF in 50 cases of non-keratinizing carcinoma (NKC) with cervical lymph node metastasis, 30 cases of NKC without cervical lymph node metastasis at the primary diagnoses and 30 cases of non-tumor nasopharyngeal tissues (NP). The microvascular density was counted by immunostaining with CD34.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The expression rates of KAI1 and nm23 protein in NKC with cervical lymph node metastasis group and without cervical lymph node metastasis group and NP group increased successively , the difference being significant (P < 0.05); The expression rates of ETS-1 and VEGF protein in NKC with cervical lymph node metastasis group and without cervical lymph node metastasis group and NP group increased successively, the difference being significant (P < 0.05). (2) In 80 NKC cases, the MVD was respectively lower in KAI1 and nm23 protein positive groups than those in the negative groups (P < 0.05); the MVD was respectively higher in ETS-1 and VEGF protein positive groups than those in the negative groups (P < 0.05 ). (3) There was significant difference between the MVD, the number of NKC without cervical lymph node metastasis cases in the single expression of KAI1 or nm23 protein and in common expression of KAI1 and nm23 protein (P < 0.05), in the same as between the single expression of ETS-1 or VEGF protein and in common expressions of ETS-1 and VEGF protein (P < 0.05). (4) There was positive correlation between the expressions of KAI1 and nm23 protein (P < 0.01), as well as between the expressions of ETS-1 and VEGF protein (P < 0.01). (5) the 5-year survival rates of the patients correlated with cervical lymph node metastasis and the expressions of KAI1, nm23, ETS-1 and VEGF proteins in NKC (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The expressions of KAI1, nm23, ETS-1 and VEGF proteins were highly related to MVD in NPC,cervical lymph node metastasis and prognosis. They might be considered to be reference indicator for evaluating the cervical lymph node metastasis and prognosis of NPC.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Kangai-1 Protein , Metabolism , Lymphatic Metastasis , NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases , Metabolism , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1 , Metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Metabolism
13.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 358-361, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297354

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinical significance of p16 protein non-expression and p16 gene inactivation by deletions and hypermethylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Immunohistochemical study for p16 protein was carried out in 90 cases of non-keratinizing carcinoma (NKC) of nasopharynx. P16 gene deletions and hypermethylation were also analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and methylation-specific PCR in 23 randomly selected NKC cases.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among the 90 NKC cases studied, 42 cases (46.7%) were negative for p16 protein. The non-expression rate of p16 protein also correlated with the 5-year survival rate. The non-expression rate was 60.0% in patients who died within 5 years, in contrast to 20.0% in those alive for over 5 years after diagnosis. The non-expression rate of p16 protein in cases with or without distant metastasis was 81.8% and 41.8% respectively (P < 0.05), while that in cases with or without local invasion into skull base was 41.7% and 48.5% respectively (P > 0.05). As for molecular analysis, deletion of p16 gene exon 2 was found in 10 of the 23 cases (43.4%) studied, while deletion of p16 gene exon 1 was not detected in these samples. Hypermethylation of p16 gene exon 1 was also noted in 2 of the 23 cases (8.7%). The overall mutation rate of these cases was 52.1%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>There is a high incidence of p16 protein non-expression, deletion of p16 gene exon 2 and hypermethylation of p16 gene exon 1 in NKC. P16 gene inactivation may thus play an important role in the pathogenesis of NKC, especially in terms of its metastatic potential.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , CpG Islands , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 , Metabolism , DNA Methylation , DNA, Neoplasm , Genetics , Exons , Genetics , Gene Deletion , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genes, p16 , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Metastasis , Skull Base Neoplasms , Pathology , Survival Rate
14.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 347-349, 2003.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-242176

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the roles of p27(kip1), p16 gene protein and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The EnVision immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of p27(kip1), p16 gene protein and PCNA in 66 cases of non-keratinized carcinoma (NKC) and 25 cases of non-tumor nasopharyngeal tissue.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) The positive expression rates of p27(kip1), p16 gene protein were 65%, 68% in NKC respectively. There were significant differences between NKC and non-tumor group (P < 0.05). (2) The expression of p27(kip1), p16 protein correlated with cranial nerve encroaching and the 5-year survival rates of the patients (P < 0.05), but had no significant correlation to lymph node metastases and clinical staging (P > 0.05). The expression of PCNA was related to clinical staging and to the patient's 5-year survival rates (P < 0.05), but not to lymph node metastases and cranial nerve encroaching (P > 0.05). (3) The positive expression of p27(kip1), p16 gene protein and PCNA were correlated.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results suggest that immunological labeling of p27(kip1), p16 gene protein and PCNA might be used to determine the prognosis of NKC.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cell Cycle Proteins , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 , Immunohistochemistry , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Chemistry , Mortality , Pathology , Prognosis , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Tumor Suppressor Proteins
15.
Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24)1986.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-639502

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore whether antenatal corticosteroids used can improve the maturation of choroid plexus capillaries in preterm mice.Methods This study was carried out in 2 groups of preterm mice.The study group was made of pregnant women receiving dexamethasone at a dose of 4 mg/(kg?time),1 time/d intraperitoneally.Study group was further subdivided into four subgroups according to the timing of the steroid administration:day 13,14,15 and 16 of pregnancy,each subgroup included 12 premature mice.All animals received a second injection 24 hours after the first one.The control group was given normal saline.The animals were operated to obtain premature mice.The choroid plexus ca-pillaries were assessed for integrity of their basement membranes by electronmicroscopy.Results In the study group,the maturity of the basement membrane of the choroid plexus capillaries was significantly better than that in control animals at any study time.The tendency to become intact.Thickness of the basement membrane.The protein granules to turn to more tightness.Conclusion These findings might provide an experimental basis for the use of antenatal steroids to decrease the incidence of periventricular hemorrhage in premature infants.

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