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1.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 874-878, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957761

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the in vitro susceptibility of fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains from superficial and deep infections to 8 antifungal drugs, and to compare drug resistance mutations in these strains. Methods:According to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) protocol M27-A4, 26 deep infection-derived and 33 superficial infection-derived drug-resistant Candida albicans strains were tested for in vitro susceptibility to 8 antifungal drugs (fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, fluorocytosine, terbinafine, and micafungin) alone or in combination. DNA was extracted from all drug-resistant strains, and mutations in 3 drug resistance genes, including ERG3, ERG11 and FUR1, were detected by PCR. Normally distributed measurement data with homogeneous variance were compared between two groups by using two-independent-sample t test, non-normally distributed measurement data with non-homogeneous variance were compared using Mann-Whitney U test, and enumeration data were compared using chi-square test. Results:The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and fluorocytosine all significantly differed between the superficial infection group and deep infection group (all P < 0.05) , while there was no significant difference in the MIC of amphotericin B or micafungin between the two groups (both P > 0.05) . The MIC of terbinafine was >64 μg/ml in 96.6% of the above strains, so could not be compared between groups. As combination drug susceptibility testing revealed, the combination of terbinafine with azoles (fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole or posaconazole) showed synergistic inhibitory effects against 15 Candida albicans strains (7 strains from deep infections, 8 strains from superficial infections) , with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices being 0.033 to 0.187; no marked synergistic effect was observed in the combinations between fluorocytosine and azoles, between fluorocytosine and amphotericin B, or between amphotericin B and fluconazole, with the FIC indices being 0.56 to 1.125. The missense mutation V351A in the ERG3 gene was identified in all the 33 (100%) superficial infection-derived strains, as well as in 13 (50%) deep infection-derived strains, and the mutation A353T in the ERG3 gene was identified in 4 (15%) deep infection-derived strains; as for the ERG11 gene, missense mutations identified in the superficial infection-derived strains included I437V (32 strains, 97%) , Y132H (23 strains, 70%) , T123I (16 strains, 48%) , K128T (6 strains, 18%) , D116E (5 strains, 15%) , A114S (4 strains, 12%) , E266D (2 strains, 6%) , G448E (2 strains, 6%) , and G465S (2 strains, 6%) , while missense mutations identified in the deep infection-derived strains included I437V (23 strains, 88%) , E266D (13 strains, 50%) , E260G (5 strains, 19%) , and V488I (4 strains, 15%) ; the missense mutation R101C in the FUR1 gene was identified in 11 (33%) superficial infection-derived strains, but not identified in deep infection-derived strains. Conclusion:The drug susceptibility and drug resistance mutations differed to some extent between superficial infection- and deep infection-derived fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains.

2.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 316-320, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933550

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarize clinical characteristics of patients with Aspergillus fumigatus infection in a hospital in Nanjing, to preliminarily assess azole resistance in clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, and to investigate risk factors for the emergence of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus. Methods:Clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus were collected from inpatients in Department of Laboratory, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from March 2017 to February 2021. Clinical data on these infected patients were analyzed, azole sensitivity testing and mutation analysis of the cyp51A gene and its promoter region were performed for these Aspergillus fumigatus isolates. Results:A total of 201 strains of Aspergillus fumigatus were collected, and mainly isolated from sputum specimens. Among the infected patients, there were 131 males and 70 females, and their age were 64.2 ± 15.8 years. The patients were mainly collected from department of respiratory medicine (79 cases), department of intensive medicine (34 cases), department of rheumatology (19 cases), etc. Among these patients, common underlying diseases included interstitial pneumonia (32 cases), malignant tumors (18 cases), pneumonia (13 cases), trauma (12 cases), systemic lupus erythematosus (8 cases), etc. Drug susceptibility testing showed that 6 (2.99%) strains of Aspergillus fumigatus were resistant to itraconazole and posaconazole, and 3 patients infected with azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus had used antifungal drugs before testing. Sequencing was performed on the cyp51A gene and its promoter region in the 6 strains of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus, and showed TR34/L98H/S297T/F495I mutation in 5 strains and TR34/L98H mutation in 1 strain. Conclusion:Compared with previously published data about azole resistance in China during 2010 -2015, the resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus to azoles in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital did not increase from 2017 to 2021, and the mechanism of azole resistance was mostly associated with TR34/L98H/S297T/F495I mutation in the cyp51A gene and its promoter region.

3.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 80-83, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933496

ABSTRACT

Antifungal agents have shown good efficacy and tolerability in the general population. However, the antifungal treatment remains a great challenge in some special populations due to their special conditions, such as children, the elderly, pregnant women and patients with hepatic insufficiency. This review summarizes recommendations for the use of common antifungal agents in the above special populations.

4.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 741-743, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911518

ABSTRACT

Tinea of vellus hair is caused by dermatophyte infection of vellus hairs, and commonly affects children. It usually occurs on the face, and clinically manifests as annular or semi-annular erythema gradually spreading to the surrounding area, with central clearing and a slightly elevating border covered with papules and papulovesicles. Intense inflammation, which may manifest as pustules, erosions, exudation, scales and crusts, can be observed in patients with severe tinea of vellus hair. Direct microscopy of fungi showed abundant hyphae and/or spores on vellus hairs. Topical antifungal therapy is usually ineffective, and systemic antifungal therapy should be considered. In order to reduce the high rate of missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis, and to improve clinicians′ understanding of this disease, this review summarizes the incidence, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of tinea of vellus hair.

5.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 484-487, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912067

ABSTRACT

Candida auris ( C. auris) is a recently emerged multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen, featured by difficulty in identification, high mortality and easy spread in hospital environments. Furthermore, C. auris is resistant to various frontline antifungals. However, the mechanisms governing drug resistance remain unclear. This review summarized the mechanisms of triazole resistance in C. auris, including ERG11 missense mutations or overexpression, the activity of efflux pumps, missense mutations in TAC1 B, the gain of an extra copy of chromosomeⅤ, the role of Hsp90 and biofilm formation. In addition, the factors associated with the resistance to other drugs including echinocandins, polyenes, nucleoside analogues and acrylamide were also reviewed.

6.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 74-82, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-824828

ABSTRACT

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is a rare, persistent and recurrent infection affecting skin, nails, and oral and genital mucosae. It is mainly caused by Candida albicans and hard to be cured with routine antifungal therapy. Usually, CMC is a primary immunodeficiency disease and can be di-vided into two categories. The most common one is CMC disease ( CMCD) , which defined as Candida infec-tion confined to the surface of the skin and mucous membranes and not complicated by systemic Candida al-bicans infection or other clinical symptoms. The other category is systemic CMC ( SCMC) complicated by in-fections caused by other pathogens, systemic invasive fungal infections, or other clinical symptoms apart from the symptoms of CMCD. It is currently believed that both CMCD and SCMC are related to immunodeficiency caused by gene mutations related to IL-17 signal pathway. The inhibited Th17 proliferation, decreased secre-tion of IL-17 or IL-22 cytokine, or increased IL-17 or IL-22 neutralizing antibody induced by the mutations promoted the susceptibility to Candida or other pathogens. In the treatment of CMC, in addition to the tradi-tional antifungal drugs such as azoles, polyenes and echinocandins, biological agents and target gene therapy offer potential new therapeutic strategies. This article reviewed the association between congenital immunode-ficiency in the IL-17 signaling pathway and CMC, and the possible immunological therapeutic approaches and new therapeutic targets.

7.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 74-82, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798766

ABSTRACT

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is a rare, persistent and recurrent infection affecting skin, nails, and oral and genital mucosae. It is mainly caused by Candida albicans and hard to be cured with routine antifungal therapy. Usually, CMC is a primary immunodeficiency disease and can be divided into two categories. The most common one is CMC disease (CMCD), which defined as Candida infection confined to the surface of the skin and mucous membranes and not complicated by systemic Candida albicans infection or other clinical symptoms. The other category is systemic CMC (SCMC) complicated by infections caused by other pathogens, systemic invasive fungal infections, or other clinical symptoms apart from the symptoms of CMCD. It is currently believed that both CMCD and SCMC are related to immunodeficiency caused by gene mutations related to IL-17 signal pathway. The inhibited Th17 proliferation, decreased secretion of IL-17 or IL-22 cytokine, or increased IL-17 or IL-22 neutralizing antibody induced by the mutations promoted the susceptibility to Candida or other pathogens. In the treatment of CMC, in addition to the traditional antifungal drugs such as azoles, polyenes and echinocandins, biological agents and target gene therapy offer potential new therapeutic strategies. This article reviewed the association between congenital immunodeficiency in the IL-17 signaling pathway and CMC, and the possible immunological therapeutic approaches and new therapeutic targets.

8.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 425-428, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-710400

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the roles of Dectin-1 in phagocytosis of Candida albicans (C.albicans) by macrophage-like cells derived from a human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1.Methods THP-1 macrophage-like cells served as the target cells,and were transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Dectin-1 to down-regulate the expression of Dectin-1 receptor (siRNA-Dectin-1 group).THP-1 macrophage-like cells transfected with nonsense siRNA (siRNA-NC) served as a negative control group.After transfection,the THP-1 macrophage-like cells in the above 2 groups were cocultured with heat-killed C.albicans separately.And then,fluorescence microscopy was performed to count THP-1 macrophage-like cells phagocytosing C.albicans,and flow cytometry was used to determine the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of dihydrorhodamine (DHR)-123 fluorescent cells.Statistical analysis was done by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t test with the SPSS19.0 software.Results After transfection with siRNA-Dectin-1,the mRNA and protein expression of Dectin-1 significantly decreased in THP-1 macrophage-like cells (t =26.163,P < 0.001).After 1-,2-,4-hour co-culture of THP-1 macrophagelike cells with C.albicans,fluorescence microscopy showed that the phagocytosis rates of C.albicans by THP -1 macrophage-like cells were significantly lower in the siRNA-Dectin-1 group than in the negative control group (17.5% vs.22.1%,18.6% vs.24.3%,39.2% vs.59.1%,respectively,all P < 0.05),so were the percentage of THP-1 macrophage-like cells phagocytosing more than 3 C.albicans cells (2.2% vs.4.7%,2.5% vs.5.4%,5.1% vs.8.3%,respectively,all P < 0.05).After 30-minute,1-,2-and 4-hour co-culture of THP-1 macrophage-like cells with DHR-123-labelled C.albicans,flow cytometry showed that the MFI of C.albicans-phagocytosing cells was significantly lower in the siRNA-Dectin-1 group than in the negative control group (36.8 vs.45.7,54.3 vs.62.4,72.1 vs.84.9,93.6 vs.116.7,respectively,all P < 0.05).Conclusion Dectin-1 receptor plays an important role in the phagocytosis of C.albicans by macrophages.

9.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 382-384, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-710394

ABSTRACT

A 55-year-old male patient presented with plaques on the face for more than 20 years,and no immunodeficiency diseases were diagnosed.Skin examination showed large areas of pink plaques on the nose,bilateral cheeks and upper oral lips with slight desquamation,verrucous hyperplasia on the dorsal area of the nose,and a bean-sized verrucous protuberance on the tip of the nose.Histopathological examination of the skin lesions revealed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the epidermis and hyphae-like structures in the stratum corneum.Moreover,there was diffuse infiltration of inflammatory cells in the dermis,which mainly included neutrophils,lymphocytes,histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells.Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive spore-like structures were observed in the multinucleated giant cells.Culture of the lesional tissues on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) medium showed grey-brown villous colonies.Microculture on the potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium yielded dark septate hyphae and pycnidia filled with a large number of spores.Microsphaeropsis arundinis was identified by fungal molecular biological techniques.The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Microsphaeropsis arundinis.The patient was treated with CO2 laser for the removal of verrucous protuberance on the tip of the nose,and oral itraconazole capsules at a dose of 200 mg twice a day.After 3-month treatment,the skin lesions subsided and the drug was withdrew.During 6-month follow-up,no relapse occurred.

10.
Chinese Journal of Ultrasonography ; (12): 1064-1068, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-734221

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the clinical diagnostic value of Doppler flow parameters of right pulmonary artery ( RPA) in the diagnosis of fetal ventricular outflow tract obstruction . Methods Thirty-two cases of fetuses with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction ( LVOTO ) and 35 cases with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO) were enrolled ,and 107 normal singleton fetuses served as control group . The definition of different segments of RPA was as following :the proximal RPA was defined as the first segment just distal to the originating from the main pulmonary artery ( PA 1) ;the mid RPA was the most distal aspect of the RPA in the extraparenchymal segment ,just before the artery entering the right lung parenchyma ( PA2) ; and the distal RPA was defined as the intraparenchymal segment at the first branching point within the right lung ( PA3) . All Doppler parameters were obtained from three RPA segments , and the maximum flow velocity ( Vmax) ,minimum flow velocity ( Vmin) and pulsation index ( PI) of each segment in each group as well as PA1 segment velocity time integral ( VTI-PA1) and PA1 segment flow from three groups were compared . Results The results of comparison of control group with LVOTO and RVOTO demonstrated that there were significant differences in VTI-PA1 ,Vmin and PI among three RPA segments ( P <0 .05) . There were significant differences in PA1 flow volume ( P <0 .05) in LVOTO group comparing with control group and RVOTO group . However , there was no statistics difference in flow volume between RVOTO and control group ( P > 0 .05) . Significant differences were found in Vmax of all three RPA segments between RVOTO group and control group ( P<0 .05) . There were significant differences in Vmin and PI of the PA2 and PA3 segments between LVOTO and RVOTO group ( P < 0 .05) . The PI in PA2 and PA3 segments in the RVOTO group were lower than those in LVOTO and control group ( P <0 .05) . Conclusions The differences of PI in PA2 and PA3 segments of RPA between fetuses with ventricular outflow tract obstruction and normal fetuses can provide a reference for the differential diagnosis of fetal ventricular outflow tract obstruction .

11.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 562-566, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-612131

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate effects of the yeast form of Sporothrix schenckii on activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in macrophagelike THP-1 cells,which were differentiated from the human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1.Methods THP-1 macrophage-like cells were divided into 3 groups to be treated with the yeast form of Sporothrix schenckii at a concentration of 2 × 106 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml (yeast form group),100 mg/L curdlan (curdlan group) and RPMI 1640 medium (blank control group) respectively.Real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR was performed to measure the mRNA expression of IL-6 in THP-1 macrophage-like cells in the above 3 groups after 3-and 6-hour treatment separately,and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the level of IL-6 in the culture supernatant of THP-1 macrophagelike cells after 24-hour treatment.Western blot analysis was conducted to determine the protein expression of p38MAPK and phosphorylated p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK) in the above 3 groups after 30-and 60-minute treatment separately.Other THP-1 macrophage-like cells were pretreated with 100 nmol/L dexamcthasonc (a p38MAPK inhibitor) for 30 minutes,and then were divided into 3 groups to be treated with the yeast form of Sporothrix schenckii,curdlan and RPMI 1640 medium respectively,and changes in the level of pp38MAPK and mRNA expression of IL-6 were also detected.Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS19.0 software by using one-way or multi-way analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) test.Results Significant differences in the mRNA expression of IL-6 in THP-1 macrophage-like cells were observed among the yeast form group,curdlan group and blank control group (F =5 552.22,P <0.001) after 3-hour treatment (56.81 ± 7.36,26.69 ± 1.22 and 0.97 ± 0.05,respectively) and 6-hour treatment (378.03 ± 16.67,276.24 ± 39.13 and 1.02 ± 0.04,respectively).Additionally,the yeast form group showed significantly higher mRNA expression of IL-6 after 6-hour treatment than that after 3-hour treatment (q =16.74,P < 0.001).After 24-hour treatment,the level of IL-6 in the culture supernatant of THP-1 macrophage-like cells also significantly differed among the yeast form group,curdlan group and blank control group (59.96 ± 18.16 pg/L,91.01 ± 17.27 pg/L,5.50 ± 2.30 pg/L,respectively;F =26.62,P < 0.01),and was significantly higher in the yeast form group than in the blank control group (P < 0.01).After 30-and 60-minute treatment,the protein expression of p-p38MAPK was significantly higher in the yeast form group than in the blank control group (both P < 0.01).Moreover,the mRNA expression of IL-6 (4.46 ± 1.03 vs.493.52 ± 113.87,P < 0.001) and protein expression of p-p38MAPK (2.29 ± 0.37 vs.4.55 ±0.46,q =10.81,P < 0.01) were both significantly lower in the yeast form group with dexamethasone pretreatment than in that without dexamethasone pretreatment.Conclusion In vitro treatment with the yeast form of Sporothrix schenckii can enhance the expression of IL-6 in human THP-1 macrophage-like cells by activating the p38MAPK signaling pathway.

12.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 417-420, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-618504

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the in vitro synergistic effect of tetrandrine on ketoconazole against Candida parapsilosis complex.Methods According to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 guidelines,the microdilution checkerboard method was used to evaluate in vitro antifungal activities of ketoconazole alone and in combination with tetrandrine against 21 clinical isolates of Candida parapsilosis complex based on the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI).Antifungal effects of the above drugs at different time points were evaluated by the XTT assay,and then time-killing curves were drawn and assessed to investigate the in vitro dynamic antifungal activity.Results The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tetrandrine and ketoconazole alone against 21 clinical isolates of Candida parapsilosis complex were 32-64 mg/L and 0.031 25-2 mg/L,respectively.When ketoconazole was combined with tetrandrine,MICs of tetrandrine and ketoconazole were reduced to 2-8 mg/L and 0.008-0.25 mg/L respectively,and the FICI ranged from 0.09 to 0.5.The time-killing curves revealed that the fungal growth was delayed obviously in the combination group compared with the ketoconazole alone group and tetrandrine alone group.Conclusion Tetrandrine has obvious synergistic effects on ketoconazole against Candida parapsilosis complex in vitro.

13.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 563-567, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-495518

ABSTRACT

A 76?year?old female patient complained of right chest pain for three months. CT scan showed a clump?like high?density shadow measuring 4.8 cm × 3.0 cm in size in the dorsal portion of the right lower lobe of the lung. Aspiration biopsy was performed, and biopsy samples were subjected to fungal culture and histopathological examination. Histopathological examination showed chronic granulomatous inflammation with hyaline septate hyphae. After 4?day culture, white villous dense colonies were formed on the Sabouraud′s agar medium. The center of the colonies was slightly elevated with wrinkles or radiating striae on the surface, and the bottom of the colonies was faint yellow in color. Microculture yielded abundant septate branched hyphae, and very few colorless hyaline quasi?circular spores. DNA sequencing of rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and β?tubulin genes was performed to identify the isolate, and antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out in vitro. The MEGA7.0 software was used to build phylogenetic trees of Aspergillus fumigatus complex and its closely related species. The isolate was identified as Aspergillus fumigatus by molecular biologic sequencing. The patient was diagnosed with pulmonary aspergilloma. After administration of itraconazole oral solution and vorionazole tablets, the condition got better obviously.

14.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 726-728, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-503770

ABSTRACT

A 59?year?old female patient, who received bilateral lower limb amputation 39 years ago, presented with eczematoid changes in both lower limbs for over 20 years, and with chronic granuloma?like lesions complicated by verrucous hyperplasia for more than 10 years. There were large areas of infiltrative and proliferative lesions with exudation and peripheral erythema at the amputation sites in both knee joints. The lesions were hard with tenderness on palpation. Microscopic examination of lesional scales with 10%KOH showed negative results for fungi. However, three times of culture on the Sabouraud dextrose agar(SDA)medium all grew the same kind of fungus, and the front side and reverse side of its filamentous colony were white and orange yellow respectively. Microculture showed that linear hyaline conidiophores came out from lageniform mother cells with conidia ascending alongside. The conidia looked like dark brown eye lens, with an equatorial germ slit. Based on these findings, this fungus was identified as Arthrinium phaeospermum. Periodic acid?Schiff (PAS) staining showed scattered hyphae in the stratum corneum. The internal transcribe spacer(ITS)sequence of the isolated fungus showed 99%consistency with that of Arthrinium phaeospermum. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous Arthrinium phaeospermum infection, and treated with oral itraconazole capsules 200 mg/d for 16 days. One month later, follow?up showed satisfactory outcomes.

15.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 485-489, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-492556

ABSTRACT

Objective Trichophyton rubrum strains can cause superficial infection and also deep tissue infection, but relevant animal model has not been reported yet.The aim of this study was to construct an animal model of granuloma infected by T.rubrum. Methods Three T.rubrum strains isolated from clinical granuloma tissues, 2 T.rubrum strains isolated from tinea infection and a standard strain of ATCCMYA4438 were selected.Corticosteroids were given to the Balb/C mice before and after the injection of the T. rubrum and mucin suspension and the mice model of granuloma was established.Direct microcopy, culture and histopathologic method were adopt to verify the infection effects. Results The mice inoculated with the T.rubrum granuloma strains with mucin suspension were examined after 21 days in the condition of applying appropriate dose of glucocorticoids.Direct microscopic examination showed the slender mycelium, fungal culture showed the growth of colony and histopathology showed excessive keratinization of foot tissue, formation of granuloma in the dermis with inflammatory cell infiltration of neutro-philic granulocyte and lymphocytes.However, the mice inoculated with the T.Rubrum tinea strains with mucin suspension showed the negative result. Conclusion The rubrum granuloma mice model can be es-tablished using the clinical isolates of T.rubrum granuloma strains with the mucin and glucocorticoids interventions.

16.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 526-530, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-468403

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a superpulse-mode fractional carbon dioxide(CO2) laser for the treatment of onychomycosis. Methods Patients with typical clinical manifestations of onychomycosis and positive for direct microscopic examinations of fungi were enrolled into this study, and treated with a superpulse-mode fractional CO2 laser for eight sessions. The scoring clinical index for onychomycosis (SCIO)and onychomycosis severity index (OSI)were calculated according to patients′ age, clinical type of onychomycosis, thickness of nails, area and length of nail involvement before the treatment, at the end of treatment, 1 month and 3 months after completion of treatment. Mycological clearance was also evaluated according to direct microscopy and fungal culture results. Adverse reactions to laser therapy were recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out by using the chi-square test and Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test with the SPSS 17.0 software. Results Totally, 20 patients with onychomycosis were enrolled into this study, and 75 affected nails were treated. Finally, 18 patients with 71 target nails completed the treatment and follow-up. The SCIO and OSI were 13.07 ± 6.47 and 21.11 ± 11.94 in these patients at baseline respectively, both significantly different from those at the end of treatment(9.03 ± 6.14 and 13.63 ± 12.10, respectively, both P 0.05). The SCIO and OSI decreased from 12.48 ± 5.41 and 16.44 ± 9.89 at the baseline to 5.01 ± 5.56 and 6.44 ± 8.26 at 3 months after the treatment, respectively, in patients with distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO), and from 17.86 ± 3.98 and 34.05 ± 2.56 to 15.88 ± 4.10 and 31.00 ± 7.28 respectively in patients with total dystrophic onychomycosis (TDO). During the treatment, several patients felt transient mild pain, but no subungual hemorrhage or other adverse reactions occurred. Conclusions The fractional CO2 laser in superpulse mode shows a reliable efficacy for the treatment of mild to moderate onychomycosis such as DLSO, especially when the nail plate is superficially invaded and grows rapidly. It directly inhibits and kills fungi, and treatment duration should be prolonged according to conditions.

17.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 535-538, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-468402

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of Candida albicans on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)and activation of the intracellular signaling molecule p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(p38MAPK)in a human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Methods Some THP-1 cells were divided into several groups in vitro: two C. albicans groups treated with 105 CFU/ml and 106 CFU/ml heat-killed C. albicans respectively, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)group treated with 100 μg/L LPS, a blank control group treated with RPMI 1640 medium, two dexamethasone-inhibited groups pretreated with 40 μg/L dexamethasone for 30 minutes followed by treatment with 106 CFU/ml heat-killed C. albicans and LPS respectively. After treatment for 1, 3 and 6 hours, real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR was performed to measure TNF-α mRNA expression in THP-1 cells in the above groups. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)was conducted to determine the level of TNF-α protein in the supernatant of THP-1 cells treated with 106 CFU/ml heat-killed C. albicans, 100 μg/L LPS or RPMI 1640 medium(blank control group)for 24 hours. Western blot was performed to measure the protein expression of p38MAPK and phosphorylated p38MAPK in THP-1 cells after treatment with 106 CFU/ml heat-killed C. albicans or RPMI 1640 medium (blank control group)for 30 and 60 minutes. Statistical analysis was carried out by using two-way analysis of variance, one-way analysis of variance and the least significant difference(LSD)-t test. Results Significant differences were observed in the mRNA expression level of TNF-α among the C. albicans groups, LPS group and blank control group (F = 110.98, P < 0.001). The mRNA expression level of TNF-α in THP-1 cells increased over time in a time-dependent manner after C. albicans treatment, with significant differences among different time points (F = 701.680, P < 0.001). Compared with the blank control group, both 106-CFU/ml C. albicans group and LPS group showed a significant increase in TNF-α protein expression (6385.70 ± 533.99 ng/L and 3212.06 ± 353.00 ng/L vs. 147.10 ± 0.53 ng/L, P < 0.001 and 0.005, respectively). An obvious increase was observed in the expression level of phosphorylated p38MAPK protein, but no significant changes were noted in that of p38MAPK protein, in THP-1 cells treated with 106 CFU/ml C. albicans for 30 and 60 minutes compared with the blank control group. The mRNA expression level of TNF-α significantly decreased in dexamethasone-pretreated 106-CFU/ml C. albicans group and LPS group compared with those without dexamethasone pretreatment(3.77 ± 0.62 vs. 208.50 ± 10.50, 6.20 ± 1.93 vs. 161.35 ± 1.65, both P < 0.001). Conclusions Heat-killed C. albicans can induce the activation of p38MAPK in and secretion of TNF-α by human THP-1 cells, which then participate in the innate immune response against C. albicans.

18.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 390-393, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-475624

ABSTRACT

Objective There have been a few reports on chronically recurrent and generalized superficial mycosis caused by trichophyton rubrum.This article was to investigate the cause, diagnosis and therapy of the mycosis. Methods 5 patients with chron-ically recurrent and generalized superficial mycosis caused by trichophyton rubrum were collected from June 2012 to June 2014 in our hospital.Bacterioscopic examination and cultivation were made on skin lesions of the patients.A typical patient who had 7-year course of desease with toenails seriously infected and widespread skin eruption was selected for histopathology examination on skin lesions, mi-crobiology and molecular biology study on 4 bacterial strains isolated from skin lesions in different parts, and in vitro chemosensitivity assay for drug selection.PCR (rDNA ITS sequence analysis) was performed for diagnosis and early treatment. Results Microscopic examintion on skin lesions demonstrated numerous septate, branched hyphae.Cultivation and molecular biology study identified tricho-phyton rubrum.The strain was identified as trichophyton rubrum by ITS sequence analysis and the isolated strains from different lesions were the same fungal species.Histopathology examination revealed slight hyperplasia of squamous epithelium , epidermal hyperkeratini-zation and the upper dermis presented a sparse perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate.The PAS-stain confirmed the presence of few hyphae in the horny layer.The pathogen of this case was trichophyton rubrum. A combination therapy with systemic itraconazole and topically applied terbinafine hydrochloride cream was successful.A follow-up examina-tion one year later showed no recurrence of symptoms. Conclusion The isolation and identification of pathogen is the key to the diagnosis of chronically recurrent and generalized superficial mycosis, with ad-ditional attention to all or none toenail infection.The therapy should not focus simply on the tinea corporis, while comprehensive treatment combined with chemosensitivity assay is preferred.

19.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 543-546, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-437718

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate whether human neutrophils kill Candida albicans through recognition of insoluble β-glucan in cell walls of C.albicans (CalG) by dectin-1,a C-type lectin receptor.Methods Neutrophils were obtained from peripheral blood of healthy human subjects and cultured in vitro.Real-time PCR was carried out to quantify the mRNA expressions of dectin-1 and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in neutrophils challenged with CaIG of 100 mg/L for 1,6,and 24 hours.A Fluoro hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection kit was used to determine H2O2 levels in some neutrophils exposed to CaIG (100 mg/L) for 15 minutes,2 hours,6 hours,as well as in some neutrophils preincubated with laminarin (a dectin-1 inhibitor) of 100 mg/L and 50 mg/L for 30 minutes followed by challenge with CaIG of 100 mg/L for 2 hours.Colony forming units (CFUs) were counted after the incubation of C.albicans with neutrophils pretreated with laminarin of 100 mg/L and 50 mg/L for 30 minutes.Results The relative mRNA expression level of dectin-1 was 2.8195 + 0.1669,5.4859 + 0.7244 and 3.6041 + 0.5372 in neutrophils challenged with CaIG for 1,6 and 24 hours,respectively,significantly higher than that in unchallenged neutrophils at these corresponding time points (all P < 0.01).The level of H2O2 was (64.55 + 15.67),(290.34 + 30.56),and (208.54 ± 26.88) μ mol/L respectively in neutrophils treated with CaIG for 15 minutes,2 hours,and 6 hours respectively,compared to (22.05 ± 3.99) μmol/L in untreated neutrophils (all P < 0.01).The pretreatment with laminarin of 100 and 50 mg/L attenuated the release of H2O2 in CaIG-treated neutrophils by 73% ((80.45 + 22.41) μ mol/L,P< 0.01) and 45% ((130.42 + 44.55) μmol/L,P< 0.01),respectively,compared with neutrophils treated with CaIG only.The fungicidal activity of neutrophils against C.albicans was also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with laminarin of 50 and 100 mg/L (both P< 0.01).Conclusions Dectin-1 may be involved in the secretion of H2O2 as well as killing of C.albicans by human neutrophils,which may provide a preliminary evidence for adoptive transfer of neutrophils as an approach to the treatment of systemic C.albicans infection.

20.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 538-540, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-427552

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the in vitro activity of seven imidazole antifungals against clinical isolates of common Candida species.Methods According to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilution method M27-A3,the in vitro activity of luliconazole,ketoconazole,miconazole,econazole,clotrimazole,sertaconazole and bifonazole was determined among 183 clinical isolates belonging to 5 species of Candida.Results The minimal inhibitory concentration range was 0.03-8 (geometric mean:0.067) mg/L for ketoconazole,0.03-16 (geometric mean:0.071 ) mg/L for miconazole,0.03-8 (geometric mean:0.207) mg/L for econazole,0.03-8 (geometric mean:0.061 ) mg/L for clotrimazole,0.03-16 (geometric mean:0.187) mg/L for sertaconazole and 0.03 ->16 (geometric mean:1.050) mg/L for bifonazole. Luliconazole exhibited a superior activity against the 5 species of Candida in vitro,with the MIC range being 0.03-8 mg/L,geometric mean MIC 0.087 mg/L,MIC50 0.06 mg/L and MIC90 0.5 mg/L,respectively.However,some Candida isolates were identified to be relatively insensitive to these tested antifungals,including luliconazole.Conclusion All the tested imidazole antifungals,except for bifonazole,show an excellent activity against Candida species in vitro,but there exist a few Candida strains with relative insensitivity.

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