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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799983

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the serological and genotypic characteristics of a pedigree with B(A).06 subtype.@*Methods@#Serological methods was used to identify the ABO phenotypes. Exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene and flanking regions were subjected to direct sequencing and TA clonal sequencing in order to determine the genotype of individuals with inconsistent results for forward and reverse serological typing.@*Results@#Among 12 individuals from 4 generations, 5 were identified with a AwB phenotype, along with a c. 803C>G mutation in exon 7 of the B allele, which was named as B(A).06. The B(A).06/O.01.01 phenotype may be easily missed due to its weak anti-A antibody in the serum upon initial serological test.@*Conclusion@#A B(A).06 subtype family was identified. The serological phenotype of individuals carrying the B(A).06 allele may be affected by the opposite DNA strand.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781310

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the serological and genotypic characteristics of a pedigree with B(A).06 subtype.@*METHODS@#Serological methods was used to identify the ABO phenotypes. Exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene and flanking regions were subjected to direct sequencing and TA clonal sequencing in order to determine the genotype of individuals with inconsistent results for forward and reverse serological typing.@*RESULTS@#Among 12 individuals from 4 generations, 5 were identified with a AwB phenotype, along with a c.803C>G mutation in exon 7 of the B allele, which was named as B(A).06. The B(A).06/O.01.01 phenotype may be easily missed due to its weak anti-A antibody in the serum upon initial serological test.@*CONCLUSION@#A B(A).06 subtype family was identified. The serological phenotype of individuals carrying the B(A).06 allele may be affected by the opposite DNA strand.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , Genetics , Alleles , Genotype , Humans , Pedigree , Phenotype , Point Mutation
3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1394-1398, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737841

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the epidemic situation of animal plague in Junggar Basin natural plague foci.Methods Data on epidemics of plague and on population involved,as well as results on antibodies and pathogens,were analyzed.Samples on animals and vectors were collected from 18 counties in Junggar Basin plague natural foci between 2007 and 2016.Results The density of Rhombomys (R.) opimus was temporally fluctuant,from 2.1/hm2 to 22.6/hm2 respectively.However,the spatial distribution appeared asymmetrical,with the highest seen in Kelamayi and Wumuqimidong counties,as 14.2/hm2 and 13.0/hrn2 respectively.Rates of capture on nocturnal rodents were from 4.2% to 10.1%,with the highest rate as 10.1% in 2014.Meriones meridianus appeared the dominant species in the nocturnal community of rodents,which accounted for 81.9%.Regarding the spatial and temporal distributions,rates ofR.opimus with fleas appeared fluctuant,with an average rate as 90.7% and the average total flea index was 10.44.In flea community of R.opimus,Xenopsylla (X.)skrjabini was found the dominant species,popular in distribution and accounted for 47.8%.The average rate of nocturnal rodents with flea was 20.2%,with total flea index as 1.20 and the dominant fleas were X.conformis conformis and Nosopsyllus laeviceps.A total of 13 species with 9 087 serum samples from rodents were detected as having Y.pestis antibody by IHA,with 617 positive samples.Of them,the positive rate of having R.opimus appeared the highest (9.4%),followed by D.sagitta (1.1%).Spatially,two clustered areas were found,with one in the eastern Junggar Basin from Changji to Mulei county,with the antibody positive rates ofR.opimus as 14.3%.The other one was in the central area of Junggar Basin,including Kelamayi,Shawan and Wusu counties,with the antibody positive rate as 13.6%.The prevalence of plague on R.opimus was fluctuant,with the lowest seen in 2008,with the average antibody positive rate of R.opimus as 1.0% and the highest as 19.3% in 2013.A total of 18 strains were isolated from 2007 to 2016.However,most of the strains were isolated from R.opimus and parasitic fleas,accounted for 8/9,in Kelamayi,Wulumuqi-midong and Jimusaer,respectively.Conclusions Complex ecosystem was seen in the Junggar Basin natural plague foci,with the multiple composition of species and different community structure of hosts and vectors,plus the flustering prevalence.Animal plague was seen in the whole region with succession of the plague nature foci.Passive transmission of plague between human beings and animals through close contacts was seen which was driven by economic benefits to some degree.

4.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1394-1398, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736373

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the epidemic situation of animal plague in Junggar Basin natural plague foci.Methods Data on epidemics of plague and on population involved,as well as results on antibodies and pathogens,were analyzed.Samples on animals and vectors were collected from 18 counties in Junggar Basin plague natural foci between 2007 and 2016.Results The density of Rhombomys (R.) opimus was temporally fluctuant,from 2.1/hm2 to 22.6/hm2 respectively.However,the spatial distribution appeared asymmetrical,with the highest seen in Kelamayi and Wumuqimidong counties,as 14.2/hm2 and 13.0/hrn2 respectively.Rates of capture on nocturnal rodents were from 4.2% to 10.1%,with the highest rate as 10.1% in 2014.Meriones meridianus appeared the dominant species in the nocturnal community of rodents,which accounted for 81.9%.Regarding the spatial and temporal distributions,rates ofR.opimus with fleas appeared fluctuant,with an average rate as 90.7% and the average total flea index was 10.44.In flea community of R.opimus,Xenopsylla (X.)skrjabini was found the dominant species,popular in distribution and accounted for 47.8%.The average rate of nocturnal rodents with flea was 20.2%,with total flea index as 1.20 and the dominant fleas were X.conformis conformis and Nosopsyllus laeviceps.A total of 13 species with 9 087 serum samples from rodents were detected as having Y.pestis antibody by IHA,with 617 positive samples.Of them,the positive rate of having R.opimus appeared the highest (9.4%),followed by D.sagitta (1.1%).Spatially,two clustered areas were found,with one in the eastern Junggar Basin from Changji to Mulei county,with the antibody positive rates ofR.opimus as 14.3%.The other one was in the central area of Junggar Basin,including Kelamayi,Shawan and Wusu counties,with the antibody positive rate as 13.6%.The prevalence of plague on R.opimus was fluctuant,with the lowest seen in 2008,with the average antibody positive rate of R.opimus as 1.0% and the highest as 19.3% in 2013.A total of 18 strains were isolated from 2007 to 2016.However,most of the strains were isolated from R.opimus and parasitic fleas,accounted for 8/9,in Kelamayi,Wulumuqi-midong and Jimusaer,respectively.Conclusions Complex ecosystem was seen in the Junggar Basin natural plague foci,with the multiple composition of species and different community structure of hosts and vectors,plus the flustering prevalence.Animal plague was seen in the whole region with succession of the plague nature foci.Passive transmission of plague between human beings and animals through close contacts was seen which was driven by economic benefits to some degree.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810902

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the histopathological and ultrastructural pathology changes of great gerbils in the Junggar Basin to Yersinia pestis infection.@*Methods@#Forty captured great gerbils from the Junggar Basin that tested negative for anti-F1 antibodies were infected. The Y. pestis strain 2504, isolated from a live great gerbil in the natural plague foci of the Junggar Basin in 2005 with a median lethal dose (LD50) of <10 CFU/ml, was used in this study. Forty great gerbils were divided into seven infection groups and were subcutaneously infected with 7.4×105, 7.4×106, 7.4×107, 7.4×108, 7.4×109, 7.4×1010, or 3.0×1011 CFU/ml of 2504. One milliliter of physiological saline was injected in the noninfected group as a control. We collected the liver, spleen, heart, and lung from all animals for histopathologic and ultrastructural pathology examination.@*Results@#Great gerbils in the 7.4×108-3.0×1011 CFU/ml groups did not survive and exhibited pathological changes and altered ultrastructural pathology. The liver tissue of infected great gerbils showed spotty necrosis and fatty degeneration, intranuclear canaliculi with increased hepatocytes, and uneven distribution of organelles. Additionally, reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue in the spleen, blood sinusoid lacunae with neutrophil infiltration, and phagocytosed bacteria in phagocyte cells were observed. Myocardial fiber hypertrophy and interstitial indistinction, nuclear matrices decreased in cardiac myocytes, and loose arrangement of myogenic fibers in myocardial cells were also observed. Angiectasia, capillary congestion, and tissue necrosis were found in the lung. No significant difference in histopathological and ultrastructural pathology in the parenchymal organ was observed between the 7.4×105-7.4×107 CFU/ml groups and the 7.4×108-3.0×1011 CFU/ml groups, and no specific death caused by Y. pestis infection was apparent in the 7.4×105-7.4×107 CFU/ml groups.@*Conclusion@#Y. pestis infection altered tissue and ultrastructural pathology in the parenchyma apparatus of great gerbils. In particular, the liver and spleen appeared to be the primary site of Y. pestis infection in great gerbils.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808588

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To observe the dynamics of antibody response in great gerbils infected with Yersinia pestis in experiment.@*Method@#A total of 211 great gerbils were captured in the southern margin of plague natural focus of Junggar Basin of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in 2011. Among them, there were 167 great gerbils without infection of Y. pestis and 44 great gerbils infected by Y.pestis. Y.pestis No. 2504 was employed for this experimental strain, which was strong toxic strain with negativity in the reduction experiment of nitrate. 35 great gerbils without the infection of Y. pestis were divided randomly and averagely into 7 groups including 6 experimental groups and 1 control group. Great gerbils in the 1st to 6th experimental groups were exposed first with 1 × 106-1 × 1011 CFU/ml of bacterial fluid with 10 times of gradient dilution; groin areas of great gerbils in the control group were injected subcutaneously with physiological saline; and the amount of infection was all 1 ml. 17 great gerbils infected with Y. pestis and the first detection of F1-antibody titer in 1∶256-1∶4 096 were grouped according to F1-antibody titer: group 1∶4 096 (n=4), group 1∶2 048 (n=4), group 1∶1 024 (n=3), group 1∶512 (n=3) and group 1∶256 (n=3); and blood in caudal regions was collected in asepsis for the detection of F1-antibody, with a total of 5 times. 9 great gerbils which were selected from the remaining great gerbils infected with Y. pestis and detected F1-antibody negative 2 times were exposed 1×106 CFU/ml of bacterial fluid for the second infection, with the amount of infection being 1 ml. Blood in caudal regions of great gerbils after the first and second infection were collected for the detection of plague F1-antibody on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 15th, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day after infection. Declined regression models for great gerbils' antibodies were established with unary linear regression equation; declined change diagrams for the antibodies were drawn to observe the declined F1-antibody after great gerbils were exposed to Y. pestis.@*Results@#In great gerbils with the first infection of Y. pestis, antibodies were detected in the 1 × 106-1 × 108 CFU/ml of group on the 30th, 15th and 15th day, respectively; the positive rates of antibody were 1/4, 3/4 and 4/5, respectively; the group 1×107 and 1× 108 CFU/ml reached to the highest antibody titer with 1∶256 on the 120th day; antibodies were revealed in the group 1×109, 1×1010 and 1×1011 CFU/ml from the 5th to 7th day when the seroconversion of all antibodies was observed; group 1×1011 CFU/ml reached to the highest antibody titer on the 120th day with 1∶4 096. In the great gerbils with the second exposure to Y.pestis, positive antibodies were detected on the 3rd day with the positive rate being 2/9; and the highest antibody titer with 1∶2 048 was noted on the 90th day. Unary linear regression equation of declined F1 antibody of great gerbils was y=0.045x- 0.321 (F=115.40, P< 0.001), and the shortest duration for F1-antibody titer declining from 1∶4 096 to 0 was 140 d and the longest duration 200 d.@*Conclusion@#Great gerbils infected with the high concentration of Y. pestis fluid show shorter duration in producing F1-antibody, the antibody positive rate is also higher, and the highest antibody titer can reach 1∶4 096. The great gerbils could hold the plague F1 antibodies for a long time which was about 140 to 200 days from the highest titer.

7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 109-113, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321654

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the spatial and temporal distributions of animal plague in Junggar Basin natural plague focus.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Data regarding plague antibody (F1) in serum of Great Gerbil (Rhombomys opimus, R. opimus) which were collected from 2005 to 2012 in Junggar Basin and analyzed. The changing rates on the positivity of F1 that appeared spatially and temporally were also analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 4 825 R. opimus serum samples were collected in 13 administrative regions in Junggar Basin.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>showed that plague R. opimus existed in two areas-Gurbantonggut desert in the eastern-center and the clay desert of western Junggar Basin. However, in these two areas, the intensity of animal plague prevalence was different. In the former region where Yesinia pestis positive serum was detected from R. opimus, the detected rate of R. opimus was 8.39%. However, in the latter areas, the average positive rate was 1.56%. The changing trends of R. opimus plague prevalence were also varied annually. In the western Junggar Basin, the trend showed a slowly downward profile. The serum positive rate of R. opimus for Yesinia pestis decreased, from 7.59% in 2005 to 0.61% in 2008, and appeared as a resting state that none of the positive sample could be found since then. However, in the eastern-center Junggar Basin area-also named as Gurbantonggut desert which had been divided into 3 segments(western, central and eastern, according to related geographical characteristics), the changing trends of animal plague seemed quite complex. In the western segment, the animal plague had two epidemic peaks-in 2006 and 2010, with the interval of 4 years, with the higher peak of all the three geographic segments as 45.65% in 2010 and the positive serum of R. opimus for plague could be detected each year from 2006 to 2012. However, there were 3 epidemic peaks in the same period in the central and eastern segments. In the central segment, the peaks appeared in 2006, 2009 and 2011, with the intervals as 2.5 years and the average positive rate 8.92% was seen the lowest in Gurbantonggut desert. In the eastern segment, the first 2 peaks appeared the same season as in the central segment, but the third peak appeared in 2012, with the peak interval as 3 years. The positive rate of R. opimus for plague was also different in seasons, with the positive rate higher in autumn than in spring. These findings showed that the animal plague could be continuously prevalent from spring to autumn in the natural foci of plague in the Junggar Basin.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Both geographical and temporal fluctuations of animal plague existed in the natural foci of Junggar Basin which was also named as geographical heterogeneity. Consequently, animal plague could be divided into two areas-the clay plains desert in the western and the Gurbantonggut desert in the eastern-center Junggar Basin.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Gerbillinae , Plague , Epidemiology , Time , Yersinia pestis
8.
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 12 (3): 221-230
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138277

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to develop a derivative of chitosan as pharmaceutical excipient used in sustained-release matrix tablets of poorly soluble drugs. A water-soluble quaternary ammonium carboxymethylchitosan was synthesized by a two-step reaction with carboxymethylchitosan [CMCTS], decylalkyl dimethyl ammonium and epichlorohydrin. The elemental analysis showed that the target product with 10.27% of the maximum grafting degree was obtained. To assess the preliminary safety of this biopolymer, cell toxicity assay was employed. In order to further investigate quaternary ammonium carboxymethylchitosan application as pharmaceutical excipient, aspirin was chosen as model drug. The effect of quaternary ammonium CMCTS on aspirin release rate from sustained-release matrix tablets was examined by in-vitrodissolution experiments. The results showed that this biopolymer had a great potential in increasing the dissolution of poorly soluble drug. With the addition of CMCTS-CEDA, the final cumulative release rate of drug rose up to 90%. After 12 h, at the grade of 10, 20 and 50 cps, the drug release rate increased from 58.1 to 90.7%, from 64.1 to 93.9%, from 69.3 to 96.1%, respectively. At the same time, aspirin release rate from sustained-release model was found to be related to the amount of quaternary ammonium CMCTS employed. With the increase of CMCTS-CEDA content, the accumulated release rate increased from 69.1% to 86.7%. The mechanism of aspirin release from sustained-release matrix tablets was also preliminary studied to be Fick diffusion. These data demonstrated that the chitosan derivative has positive effect on drug release from sustained-release matrix tablets


Subject(s)
Aspirin/chemistry , Drug Compounding , Delayed-Action Preparations/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Tablets , Solubility , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Biopolymers , Epichlorohydrin
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-472749

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of electroacupuncture and waist-building exercise in treating lumbar disk herniation. Methods: A multi-center, randomized controlled trial was adopted. Three hundred cases of lumbar disk herniations were divided into two groups, an observation group in which 149 cases were treated by electroacupuncture and waist-building exercise, and a control group in which 151 cases were treated by electroacupuncture alone. The clinical efficacy and long-term relapse rate were observed and compared between the two groups. Results: Among 149 cases in the observation group, 80 cases were cured, 57 cases improved, 12 cases failed and 4 cases relapsed; the cure rate was 53.7%, the total effective rate was 91.9% and the relapse rate was 5.0%. Among 151 cases in the control group, 74 cases were cured, 51 cases improved, 26 cases failed and 12 cases relapsed; the cure rate was 49.0%, the total effective rate was 82.8% and the relapse rate was 16.2%. There were significant differences in the cure rate and the total effective rate between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combined electroacupuncture and waist-building exercise had better effects than electroacupuncture in treating lumbar disk herniation.

10.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 108-110, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-391259

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the growth and biological features of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) from psoriatic patients. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 5 patients with active psoriasis vulgaris and 5 normal human controls, and BMSC were obtained and purified using plastic adherence method followed by primary culture and passage in vitro. The cell morphology, density and growth were observed with microscopy. Cell growth pattern was evaluated by MTT assay. Flow cytometry was applied to identify surface antigens, including CD29, CD34, CD45 and CD106, on these cells. Results No significant difference was observed in the morphology of primary or descendant BMSC between the patients and controls.The primary BMSC from psoriatic patients tended to adhere to the plastic wall later, confluence and grow more slowly compared with those from the controls. The BMSCs from both psoriatic patients anti healthy donors were positive for CD29, but negative for CD34 or CD45. On the 4th day of culture, the BMSC from psoriatic patients exhibited a decrease in proliferation, with the absorbence at 470 nm (A470) being 0.081±0.0066 and 0.095±0.0130, respectively for BMSC from the patients and controls (t=2.358, P<0.05). Conclusion There is a decrease in the proliferation of BMSC from psoriatic patients which show a morphological similarity to those from healthy controls.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-449368

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the preventive and therapeutic effects and the possible mechanisms of Dilingdan Decoction (DLDD), a compound Chinese herbal medicine, on rats with renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). METHODS: Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group, untreated group, enalapril-treated group and DLDD-treated group. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), urine protein quantization in 24 hours and pathological changes of the obstructed kidney were observed. The expressions of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN) were detected by immunohistochemical method and colored-multimedia pathological image analysis system. RESULTS: Massive inflammatory infiltrates and collagen expression in renal interstitial in the untreated group were observed on the 7th day. Compared with the sham-operated group, percentages of area of TGF-beta1, alpha-SMA, FN and LN expressions in the untreated group were markedly increased (P<0.05), while the percentage of area of interstitial fibrosis was decreased in the DLDD-treated group as compared with the untreated group (P<0.05). On the 14th day, the percentages of area of TGF-beta1, alpha-SMA, FN and LN expressions were declined in two treated groups as compared with the untreated group (P<0.05), but had no statistical difference in biochemical indicators, including BUN, SCr and 24-hour urinary protein. On the 21st day, the level of SCr and the percentage of area of TGF-beta1 expression in the DLDD-treated group were lower than those of the enalapril-treated group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: DLDD can reduce the excretion of urinary protein and the degree of interstitial fibrosis, and significantly inhibit the expressions of TGF-beta1, alpha-SMA, FN and LN. DLDD is superior to enalapril in protecting renal function after long-time application in rats.

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