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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907157

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a UHPLC method for the determination of zolpidem tartrate tablets after radiation, and to investigate the effect of different radiation doses on the content of zolpidem tartrate tablets. Methods Ultra high performance liquid chromatography was used. The content of zolpidem tartrate tablets irradiated by γ-ray was determined. Using C18 column, acetonitrile methanol-0.05 mol/L phosphoric acid solution (the pH value as 5.5 with triethylamine) (18∶26∶56) was used as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.7 ml/min, and the detection wavelength was 254 nm. Results The method validation showed good linearity in the concentration range of 5-80 μg/ml (r=0.999 6); The average recovery was 98.2%, RSD was 1.72%, and the repeatability was 0.87%. The contents of zolpidem tartrate were 105.1%, 106.4%, 102.7% and 105.4% under 0, 8, 25 and 80 kGy radiation. Conclusion UHPLC has accurate results with short analysis cycle in this study. It is suitable for the determination of zolpidem tartrate tablets after radiation. The content of zolpidem tartrate tablets remained basically unchanged after radiation.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 303-312, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922934

ABSTRACT

Cytochrome P450s (CYP450) is a superfamily of phase I metabolic enzymes, which participates in more than 90% of drug oxidation. The induction or inhibition of CYP450s is the main mechanism of drug-drug interaction. In recent years, in vitro metabolism studies conducted through isolated organs, cells, or enzyme systems have developed rapidly, due to their precision and simplicity. Therefore, profiles of the in vitro metabolism studies of traditional Chinese medicines can infer the possible metabolic pathways of drugs, predict the potential drug interactions, and may enhance the rational use of drugs in clinic. This article reviews the in vitro inhibitory effects of traditional Chinese medicine, ingredients, and extracts on the activities of CYP450 enzymes in the liver microsomes, which can provide a reference for further researches on the interaction between Chinese medicine and chemical medicine.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1156-1165, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913803

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Reduced quality of life after cystectomy has made bladder preservation a popular research topic for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Previous research has indicated significant tumor downstaging after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). However, maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) was performed before NAC to define the pathology, impacting the real evaluation of NAC. This research aimed to assess real NAC efficacy without interference from TURBT and apply combined modality therapies guided by NAC efficacy. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with cT2-4aN0M0 MIBC were confirmed by cystoscopic biopsy and imaging. NAC efficacy was assessed by imaging, urine cytology, and cystoscopy with multidisciplinary team discussion. Definite responders (≤ T1) underwent TURBT plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Incomplete responders underwent radical cystectomy or partial cystectomy if feasible. The primary endpoint was the bladder preservation rate. @*Results@#Fifty-nine patients were enrolled, and the median age was 63 years. Patients with cT3-4 accounted for 75%. The median number of NAC cycles was three. Definite responders were 52.5%. The complete response (CR) was 10.2%, and 59.3% of patients received bladder-sparing treatments. With a median follow-up of 44.6 months, the 3-year overall survival (OS) was 72.8%. Three-year OS and relapse-free survival were 88.4% and 60.0% in the bladder-sparing group but only 74.3% and 37.5% in the cystectomy group. The evaluations of preserved bladder function were satisfactory. @*Conclusion@#After stratifying MIBC patients by NAC efficacy, definite responders achieved a satisfactory bladder-sparing rate, prognosis, and bladder function. The CR rate reflected the real NAC efficacy for MIBC. This therapy is worth verifying through multicenter research.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912631

ABSTRACT

Objective:As the amount of scientific reagents/consumables procurement in tertiary medical institutions increases year by year, it is necessary to seek for a more optimized operation mode for the current management needs to improve the procurement service and management of scientific reagents/consumables.Methods:Focused on the bottleneck problem of scientific research reagents/consumables procurement management, combined with the investigation of management mode in the same field and the review of relevant literature, a scientific research reagents/consumables procurement platform suitable for hospital was established, which was operated in the whole hospital for 2 years and continuingly improved.Results:The application of the scientific reagents/consumables procurement platform is expected to save 7%~8% of the scientific reagents/consumables related expenditure, which can make the scientific research procurement work standardized and simple, the procurement management precise and fast, and also provide favorable support for the prevention and control of epidemic diseases in hospitals.Conclusions:This platform is conducive to improving the service and management level of scientific reagents/consumables procurement in our hospital, and has conditions to expand the scope and increase the depth of management and service.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912328

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the results of surgical valvuloplasty and balloon dilation in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) at our center.Methods:We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of children diagnosed with AS, underwent aortic repair or balloon dilation from January 2008 to December 2019. Seeking to analyze the early and long-term valvular function, evaluate mortality and freedom from reoperation by Kaplan- Meier method and figure out the risk factors by logistic regression. Results:There were 116 patients having received surgical valvuloplasty (SAV) and 64 having received balloon dilation (BD). There were no significant differences between two groups respect to median age, weight, preoperative peek gradient, aortic insufficient degree, left ventricular ejection fraction left ventricular end-diastolic dimension Z-score and aortic anulus diameter Z-score ( P>0.05). SAV achieved better gradient reduction and freedom from reoperation than did BD. The mean follow-up time was (5.2±3.1) years in SAV and (4.5±2.1) years in BD. Survival at 10 year was comparable between 2 groups ( P=0.51). Freedom from reoperation at 10 years was 59.6% in SAV and 49.7% in BD respectively ( P=0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that BD contributed to subsequent reoperation ( P=0.05). Conclusion:SAV and BD both significantly relieved aortic stenosis and obtained good survival benefit. SAV yielded better gradient reduction and lower reoperation risk. BD might increase the hazard of reoperation.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912279

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarize the surgical outcomes of interrupted aortic arch with ventricular septal defect (IAA/VSD) in neonates and infants.Methods:This was a retrospective review of clinical data of 123 neonates and infants who received surgery for IAA/VSD from Jan 2009 to Jan 2019. Median age at repair was 48 days. Forty-four patients (36%) were neonates. One-hundred-and-twenty-two patients (99%) underwent standard aortic arch reconstruction with VSD closure, and one neonate (1%) underwent staged Yasui operation. Risk factors for early mortality was analyzed by decision tree model.Results:Early mortality after surgery was 13%. Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass longer than 135 min, surgery received during neonatal period and before 2016 was identified as higher risk group for mortality. Median follow-up time was 3.5 years (range, 1-10 years). Freedom from aortic arch obstruction at 6 months, 1 year, 5 years after surgery was 75%, 72% and 72% respectively. Freedom from left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction at 6 months, 1 year, 5 years after surgery was 91%, 83% and 73% respectively. A total of 17 patients received 21 reoperations. The patient who received Yasui operation experienced no residual obstruction during the follow-up.Conclusion:Early outcomes after surgery for IAA/VSD in neonates and infants are satisfactory. However, patients with standard aortic arch reconstruction have a higher risk for aortic and LVOT obstruction, and require multiple reoperations.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912157

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the feasibility of magnetic anchor technique for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the treatment of early esophageal cancer.Methods:A self-designed magnetic anchoring device (including an anchor magnet and a target magnet) was used to perform ESD on the hypothesized esophageal lesion mucosa of six isolated esophagus of Beagle dogs. The feasibility and convenience of the operation was evaluated.Results:ESD of 6 isolated esophagus of dogs was successfully completed. Through adjusting the position of anchor magnet, the pulling direction and force of the target magnet on the mucosa could be flexibly controlled, the mucosal peeling surface was fully exposed, and tissue tension was provided to ensure the smooth removal of the diseased mucosa. The entire operation was smooth, and the target magnet was conveniently retained. No target magnet slippage or mucosal laceration occurred during the operation.Conclusion:The magnetic anchor technique is safe and feasible for the ESD, effectively pulling the diseased mucosa in treatment of early esophageal cancer, which can greatly improve the endoscopic operation experience.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911466

ABSTRACT

Autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) are a group of disorders characterized by dysfunction of innate immunity which caused by gene mutations leading to coded proteins changes, finally causing uncontrolled systemic inflammation. AIDs are a group of rare rheumatic and inflammatory diseases. Here, Chinese Rheumatology Association summarized manifestations of the main AIDs, and to standardize the methods for diagnosis of AIDs.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911457

ABSTRACT

Rheumatic diseases are a kind of chronic inflammatory diseases mainly involving joints and surrounding tissues. Most patients with rheumatic diseases need long-term treatment, which is difficult to be avoided during pregnancy. Treatment efficacy, as well as maternal and fetal safety should be taken into account in the medical decision. Based on the domestic and foreign guidelines, consensus, diagnosis and treatment experience, Chinese Rheumatology Association developed the standardization of medication use in patients with rheumatic diseases preparing and during pregnancy, aiming on the application and precautions of commonly used medicines for rheumatic diseases in preparing pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911449

ABSTRACT

Beh?et′s syndrome (BS) is classified among variable vessel vasculitis with unknown etiology and extensively heterogeneous clinical features. It is easily missed or misdiagnosed due to the lack of a specific laboratory diagnosis index. Based on the evidence and guidelines from China and other countries, the Chinese Rheumatology Association developed the standardization of diagnosis and treatment of BS. The purposes are: (1) To standardize the detection and interpretation of key indicators for BS; (2) To standardize rational management for BS patients with topical and systemic organ involvement to reduce complications and improve outcomes.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911440

ABSTRACT

Lupus nephritis (LN) refers to renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus and is characterized by hematuria, proteinuria, edema, hypertension and renal insufficiency. The complete remission rate of proliferative LN remains low using the current induction protocols and LN tends to flare. Scientific and standardized diagnosis and therapy are crucial for the treatment of LN. Therefore, based on the current international and domestic experiences and guidelines, the Chinese Rheumatology Association developed the recommendations of diagnosis and therapy for LN, with the purpose of enhancing efficacy, reducing flare, halting renal progression and improving outcome of LN.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911436

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors for osteonecrosis (ON) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Methods:This is a case-control study. A total of 118 patients diagnosed with SLE complicated with ON (study group) were retrospectively analyzed between 2014 and 2019. Gender, age, and course matched 118 SLE patients without ON were selected as controls. Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, medical history, and treatments were recorded and analyzed.Results:Among 118 patients, the male to female ratio was 20 to 98 with a median age of 27 years and course of disease 1-168 months. Compared with the control group, the study group presented a longer cumulative duration of glucocorticoid therapy [36.5 (0-168) months vs. 19.0(0-168) months on average, P<0.05], a higher incidence of osteoporosis (29.7% vs. 4.2%, P<0.001), a higher frequency of immune-suppressive therapy (83.9% vs. 64.4%, P=0.035), more organs involveed [median 2 (0-5) vs. 1 (0-4)], and a higher SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) (14.22±7.40 vs. 11.63±6.11, P<0.05) in univariate logistic regression. The control group had a higher rate of positive Coombs test (39.8% vs. 7.6%, P<0.05). No statistical difference on methylprednisolone (MP) pulse therapy ( P>0.05) was observed. Multivariate logistic regression suggested that SLEDAI ( OR= 1.070, 95% CI 1.026-1.116, P<0.005), osteoporosis ( OR=10.668, 95% CI 3.911-29.103, P<0.001) and a positive Coombs test( OR=0.492, 95% CI 0.266-0.910, P<0.05) were related to the development of ON in SLE patients. Conclusion:A higher disease activity and the presence of osteoporosis are associated with an increased risk of ON in patients with SLE, and positive Coombs test seems a protective factor of ON.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911432

ABSTRACT

Primary biliary cholangitis is a chronic autoimmune cholestatic disease with a progressive course. This disease is not rare in China, but standardized diagnosis and treatment for primary biliary cholangitis are insufficient. Based on the evidence and guidelines from China and other countries, Rheumatology Branch of Chinese Medical Association developed the recommendations of diagnosis and treatment for primary biliary cholangitis in China. The aim is to help clinicians recognize clinical characters, therapeutic selection and prognosis judgement of primary biliary cholangitis, which will contribute to make diagnosis in time, to select treatment properly and to manage follow-up scientifically.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910044

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore mechanical stability of Proximal Humeral Internal Locking Plate System (PHILOS) in the treatment of Vancouver B1 femoral periprosthetic fractures by three-dimensional finite element analysis.Methods:A three-dimensional finite element model of the femur was established by digital medical software (Mimics 21.0, 3-matic12.0, Geomagic12.0 and Hypermesh 2017.0) using the CT data of a femur from a volunteer (male, 34 years old, 173 cm in height and 65 kg in weight). After the femoral trochanter was cut in the femoral models, a femoral stem was implanted. PHILOS fixation (PHILOS group) and Cable-Ready GTR fixation (Cable group) were applied respectively. Loads of 700 N, 1,400 N and 2,100 N were applied to the 2 groups of finite element models. Distributions of Von Mises stress and deformation were investigated in the finite element models of 2 internal fixations; the mechanical stability was compared between the 2 groups of models.Results:The maximum deformation occurred on the femoral ball head in the 2 groups of models. At the load of 2,100 N, the maximum deformation was 3.77 mm in the PHILOS group, larger than 3.58 mm in the Cable group, and the maximum stress peak value in the PHILOS group was 491.54 MPa, about 49.2% lower than that in the Cable group (733.61 MPa). The peak stress in the PHILOS group was mainly distributed on the 4th and 5th fixation ends at the bone plate while the peak stress in the Cable group was mainly distributed on the second titanium cable under the fracture line.Conclusions:Under various loads, both PHILOS fixation and Cable-Ready GTR fixation can provide sufficient mechanical stability. As the peak stress of PHILOS fixation is much lower than that of Cable-Ready GTR fixation, PHILOS can be used as an effective fixation method for Vancouver B1 femoral periprosthetic fractures.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907849

ABSTRACT

Objective To identify related factors for hypoglycemic episodes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM)through continuous glucose monitoring(CGM). Methods The included 147 patients with T2DM were those who had undergone CGM for 5 days in our ward of Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism,Huashan Hospital from Dec 2018 to Oct 2019. The general information, laboratory parameters and CGM parameters of the patients were collected. According to whether there wasan episode of hypoglycemia during the monitoring period,the patients were divided into non-hypoglycemia group and hypoglycemic group. A single hypoglycemia episode was defined as a sensor monitoring blood glucose of less than 3.9 mmol/L and lasting for more than 15 minutes.CGM parameters included the mean blood glucose(MBG),standard deviation(SD),coefficient of variation(CV),the differences between maximum and minimum blood glucose (BG) levels (ΔBG),mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE)and the percentage of time in range(%TIR)of BG at <3.9 mmol/L,3.9-7.8 mmol/L,>7.8 mmol/L,3.9-10.0 mmol/L,and >10.0 mmol/L. Results Logistic regression analysis showed that lower estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR)levels,increased use of insulin and its analogs and lower MBG levels were associated with hypoglycemic episodes. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the MBG level and the %TIR of BG>7.8 mmol/L and BG>10.0 mmol/L were negatively associated while glycemic variability(GV)levels(SD,CV,ΔBG,MAGE)and % TIR of BG at 3.9-7.8 mmol/L were positively associated with hypoglycemic episodes. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the duration of hypoglycemic episodes was positively correlated with the use of sulfonylureas and CV levels. Conclusion Lower eGFR levels,increased treatment with insulin and its analogs and lower MBG levels were related factors for hypoglycemic episodes in patients with T2DM.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907627

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the clinical effect of Bufei-Huayu-Tongluo decoction combined with western medicine on chronic pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods:A total of 120 patients with chronic PE, who met the inclusion criteria in our hospital from January 2016 to May 2019, were randomly divided into two groups, 60 cases in each group. The control group was given conventional western medicine treatment, and the study group was given Bufei-Huayu-Tongluo Decoction on the basis of the control group. Both groups were treated for 4 weeks. The forced expiratory volume in one second (FVE1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured by pulmonary function analyzer; the fibrinogen (FIB) and prothrombin time (PT) were detected by coagulation analyzer; and D-dimer was detected by immunoturbidimetry; high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB-1), troponin (cTnI) were detected by ELISA, adverse reactions were recorded and clinical efficacy was evaluated. Results:The total effective rate of the study group was 93.3% (56/60) and that of the control group was 78.3% (47/60). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant ( χ2=5.551, P=0.018). After treatment, FVE1 (1.74 ± 0.26 L vs. 1.55 ± 0.29 L, t=3.779), FVC (66.73% ± 7.54% vs. 58.69% ± 6.32%, t=6.330) in the study group were significantly higher than those in the control group ( P<0.01); serum FIB level (2.85 ± 0.30 g/L vs. 2.36 ± 0.31 g/L, t=8.798), PT (15.31 ± 0.73 s vs. 11.27 ± 0.52 s, t=34.915) were significantly higher than those in the control group ( P<0.01); serum D-dimer (0.66 ± 0.23 mg/L vs. 1.18 ± 0.32 mg/L, t=9.447), HMGB-1 (3.59 ± 0.75 μg/L vs. 6.14 ± 1.28 μg/L, t=13.280) and cTnI (0.62 ± 0.26 μg/L vs. 1.02 ± 0.26 μg/L, t=8.896) were significantly lower than those in the control group ( P<0.01). During the treatment, the incidence of adverse reactions in the control group was 13.3% (8/60) and that in the study group was 15.0% (9/60). There was no significant difference between the two groups ( χ2=0.069, P=0.793). Conclusion:Bufei-Huayu-Tongluo Decoction combined with conventional western medicine therapy can improve lung function and coagulation function of patients with chronic PE.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907334

ABSTRACT

Recanalization therapy is the standard treatment for acute ischemic stroke. However, sometimes blood flow reperfusion not only fails to restore brain function, but also leads to further necrosis and apoptosis of neurons, thereby aggravating brain tissue damage and brain dysfunction of the patients, that is, reperfusion injury. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is a simple, safe, convenient and easy method to protect brain tissue, improve cerebral blood flow and alleviate ischemia-reperfusion injury by giving multiple transient ischemic treatments to remote organs (usually limbs). This article reviews the application of RIC in the field of acute ischemic stroke in recent years.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906295

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the protective effect of essential oil from Alpiniae Zerumbet Fructus (EOAZF) against high glucose (HG)-induced injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) <italic>in vitro</italic>, so as to provide experimental evidence for the treatment of diabetes-induced cardiovascular diseases with EOAZF. Method:The cells were divided into the normal group, model group (25 mmol·L<sup>-1</sup> glucose), positive control group (100 mg·L<sup>-1</sup> vitamin C), and the low- (0.25 μg·L<sup>-1</sup>), medium- (1 μg·L<sup>-1</sup>), and high-dose (4 μg·L<sup>-1</sup>) EOAZF groups. The HUVECs were damaged by HG. The secretion amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in HUVECs of different groups were measured to assess the protective effect of EOAZF against HG-induced injury. The effects of EOAZF on the apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of HUVECs damaged by HG were detected by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (Annexin V-FITC/PI) staining and dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. The protein and mRNA expression levels of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) and thioredoxin 1 (Trx-1) were determined by Western blot and Real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR), followed by the measurement of total intracellular Trx-1 activity with insulin disulfide reduction method. Result:The comparison with the control group revealed that the proliferation of HUVECs in the model group was significantly inhibited and their shape was damaged. Compared with the model group, EOAZF protected HUVECs against HG-induced injury in a concentration-dependent manner. The secretion amounts of MDA and ET-1 (<italic>P</italic><0.05) in the model group were increased in contrast to those in the control group, while the NO level was decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, EOAZF at all the three concentrations, especially at 4 μg·L<sup>-1</sup>, obviously reduced the secretion of MDA and ET-1 (<italic>P</italic><0.05), but elevated NO after HG induction (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The cell apoptosis assay and ROS detection results demonstrated that the apoptosis and ROS level in the model group were higher than those in the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, EOAZF at 4 μg·L<sup>-1 </sup>significantly lowered the ROS level and apoptosis (<italic>P</italic><0.05) of HUVECs damaged by HG. The Western blot assay and Trx-1 activity detection uncovered that the protein and mRNA expression levels of TXNIP in the model group were significantly up-regulated as compared with those in the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.05), whereas the Trx-1 activity was decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, EOAZF at 4 μg·L<sup>-1 </sup>significantly down-regulated the mRNA and protein (<italic>P</italic><0.05) expression levels of TXNIP and enhanced the total Trx-1 activity (<italic>P</italic><0.05) in HUVECs, thus suppressing the oxidative stress. Conclusion:EOAZF exerts the protective effects against HG-induced injury in HUVECs by improving the endothelial function and reducing intracellular ROS and apoptosis. Its efficacy in anti-oxidative stress may be related to the down-regulation of mRNA and protein expression levels of TXNIP and the enhancement of Trx-1 activity.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906266

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the possible mechanism of Kaixinsan in improving cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model rats based on the epichlorohydrin associated protein-1 (Keap-1)/nuclear factor E2 related factor (Nrf2)/manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) signaling pathway. Method:The AD model was established by injecting Amyloid <italic>β</italic><sub>1-42</sub> (A<italic>β</italic><sub>1-42</sub>, 5 μL) into the lateral ventricle. After modeling, the experimental rats were randomly divided into model group, donepezil group, and Kaixinsan low dose, medium dose and high dose groups. Another normal control group was also established. The donepezil group received donepezil tablets (1.8 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>), Kaixinsan low dose, medium dose and high dose groups received corresponding doses of Kaixinsan (10, 20, 40 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>, respectively), and the normal control group and model group were given with equal volume of pure water. Morris water maze was used to test the learning and memory ability of rats. The pathological morphology of hippocampal CA3 area was observed by Nissl staining. The expression levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum were detected by colorimetry, and the protein expression levels of Keap-1, Nrf2 and MnSOD in hippocampus were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western bolt. Result:Compared with the normal control group, the escape latency, total swimming distance and first arrival time of the plateau in the model group increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01), while the times of crossing the plateau and the time in target quadrant decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the rats in donepezil group and Kaixinsan groups showed less latency, lower total swimming distance and first arrival time on the platform (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), while the times of crossing the platform and time in target quadrant increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the normal control group, the expression levels of MPO and iNOS in serum of the model group increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01), while the expression levels of SOD decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with model group, the expression of MPO and iNOS in serum of donepezil group and Kaixinsan groups decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), while the expression of SOD increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). In the normal control group, the neurons in the hippocampal CA3 of the rats were arranged neatly, without obvious Nissl body shrinkage. The neurons in the CA3 of the hippocampus of the model group were not arranged neatly, with obvious neuron loss and pyknosis of Nissl body. The neurons in the CA3 of the hippocampus of the rats in the donepezil group and Kaixinsan groups were arranged neatly, with increased number of neurons and decreased Nissl body shrinkage. Compared with the normal control group, the integrated optical density (<italic>IA</italic>) and protein level of Keap-1 in the hippocampus of the model group decreased(<italic>P</italic><0.01), while the <italic>IA</italic> and protein level of Nrf2 and MnSOD increased (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with model group, <italic>IA</italic> and protein levels of Keap-1 and MnSOD in hippocampus of rats in donepezil group and Kaixinsan groups increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), while <italic>IA</italic> and protein levels of Nrf2 decreased (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:Kaixinsan could alleviate memory impairment in AD rats, and its mechanism may be related to its regulation of Keap-1/Nrf2/MnSOD signaling pathway.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906217

ABSTRACT

Objective:Through comprehensive evaluation and analysis of the quality of Liuwei Dihuang (LWDH) preparations from different manufacturers and combining factors such as production technology, the key factors in the quality control of LWDH preparations are explored to provide a reference for improving the quality control level of LWDH preparations. Method:Morroniside, loganin and paeonol as quality control markers of LWDH products were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the mobile phase was acetonitrile (A) -0.3% phosphoric acid aqueous solution (B) for gradient elution (0-5 min, 5%-8%A; 5-20 min, 8%A; 20-35 min, 8%-20%A; 35-45 min, 20%-60%A; 45-55 min, 60%A), the detection wavelength of paeonol was at 274 nm, and the detection wavelengths of morroniside and loganin were at 240 nm. The quality characteristics of LWDH preparations with different dosage forms (big candied pills, water-honeyed pills, concentrated pills, hard capsules and soft capsules) from different manufacturers were analyzed. Combined these results with their actual production processes, the key-points of quality control in the whole production process were discussed. Result:The contents of three index ingredients in 128 batches of LWDH preparations were all in conformity with the standards of the 2015 edition of <italic>Chinese Pharmacopoeia</italic>, however, the content limit of some dosage forms in the current standard was unreasonable. For example, although the daily dose of crude drugs for big candied pills were almost twice the dose of water- honeyed pills (15.00, 8.57 g, respectively), they got exactly the same daily limits of the contents for both the quality markers. What′s more, these two formulations had the same process, so the differences between the process obviously could not be the reason of these differences. Conclusion:It is recommended that for the products with different dosage forms should have a similar content limits, if there are no obvious distinctions between their production processes. Which may benefit the quality control of the products with multi-dosage forms. The research on the quality standards of proprietary Chinese medicines should deeply study the existing characteristics of the quality standards, and fully respect the laws of the quality attributes of traditional Chinese medicines and the rules of the production process of Chinese patent medicines.

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