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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763129

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is one of the most frequent type of B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders and chronic inflammation takes part in the development of CLL. However, there has been no valid immune biomarker to predict the prognosis of untreated CLL patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we analyzed the clinical correlations and prognostic value of albumin-to-fibrinogen ratio (AFR) detected at diagnosis in 191 CLL patients. RESULTS: The cut-off value of AFR was 9.7 calculated by X-tile. Patients who were more than 65 years old were often accompanied by low level of AFR (p < 0.001). Survival analysis showed that patients with low level of AFR had shorter overall survival (OS) than patients with high level of AFR (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis illustrated that AFR had a negative impact on OS (p=0.003) and was independent of parameters involved in CLL international prognostic index and other prognostic markers such as CD38 and ZAP-70. CONCLUSION: These data provide a comprehensive view of AFR and shows that AFR at diagnosis is an adverse prognostic factor in untreated CLL patients.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , Diagnosis , Fibrinogen , Humans , Inflammation , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Lymphoproliferative Disorders , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Serum Albumin
2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 202-209, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779864

ABSTRACT

It is generally assumed that study of in vitro dissolution can reveal the in vivo behavior and bioavailability of a drug. The dissolution test indisputably plays a vital role in the research and development of pharmaceutical preparations as well as routine quality control of approved drugs. In order to develop an ideal dissolution method, the physicochemical properties of drug and the characteristics of its dosage form should be considered, and a proper dissolution condition be established to simulate the in vivo dissolution behavior of drugs. The new dissolution method should have the required characteristics of accuracy and durability, but also could distinguish pharmaceutic preparations with different quality. In recent years, there have been more and more reports on the establishment and verification of dissolution methods for oral solid dosage forms. However, there is very few review articles on the topic. According to the latest guidelines by domestic and foreign drug organizations, this review paper is prepared to summarize the most important skills and progress in the development of dissolution methods for oral solid preparations. The aim is to provide a reference for the development and validation of new dissolution methods.

3.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 279-283, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-700818

ABSTRACT

Objective At present,there are a wide range of clinical submucosal injection agents. However,no consensus has been reached on what kind of submucosal injections to use. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility,effectiveness and safety of isopentane as a submucosal injection agent and further provide an evidence for clinical application. Methods Fresh in vitro porcine stomach(In vitro time < 6 h)was used to be submucosal injected with isotonic saline(control group)and isopentane(isopentane group)in 37℃ water bath. We evaluated the injection volume and uplift effect of both submucosal injection agents when the uplift height was 1.5 cm;A 2 cm diameter of mucous uplift was made by isotonic saline or isopentane and then dissected by electrical knife. The opera-tion time was evaluated;20 μL of isotonic saline or isopentane was submucosal injected in living rat stomach. The mucosal uplift height was measured. 1 hour after injection,uplift site(2 mm diameter)was completely dissected by sterile scalpel,bleeding volume was measured within 10 minutes,and the pathological examination of the uplift site was carried out. Results The same height of mucous uplift(1.5 cm)can be achieved by less isopentane[(0.14± 0.07)mL]compared with isotonic saline[(13.65± 4.60)mL],the difference is statistically significant(P<0.01). Isopentane had better uplifting persistency in 5,10,15,20,30,45,60 min(P<0.01).The initial mean uplift area in control group was[(18.10±6.22)cm2],and mean uplift area after 60 min was[(24.24±7.19) cm2],the difference is statistically significant(P=0.03). While isopentane group had a relatively stable uplift area,the mean uplift area was comparable between control group and isopentane group at 0 and 60 min[(22.93± 8.16)cm2vs(21.70± 7.86)cm2,P=0.71]. Similarly,average dissection time was shorter in isopentane group[(3.22±0.53)min]compared with control group[(9.60± 1.98)min](P<0.01). The mucosal thickness variation before and after injection was much more significant in isopentane group than that in control group[(1.34±0.30)mm vs(0.28±0.16)mm,P=0.000]. Conclusion Isopentane submucosal injection can main-tain the effective mucosal uplift height,which is in favor of subsequent endoscopic mucosal resection and has no damage to the tissue. Isopentane is expected to be a new submucosal injection agent.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-692326

ABSTRACT

The environmental organic pollutant of di-2-ethylhexy phthalate ( DEHP ) was analyzed by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry ( EESI-MS ). Effect of some important experimental conditions were investigated systematically, including the electrospray voltage, temperature of ion-transport tube, sample injection rate and extractant composition. Under the optimal conditions, a method for rapid detection of DEHP in water sample was established. DEHP levels in different samples with complex matrixes were measured, including landfill leachate, urban sewage and lake water. The results showed that DEHP in water samples could be ionized by EESI source and obtained the molecule ion (m/ z 391. 28) at the positive detection mode, and then CID experiment were performed to obtain the secondary fragment ions m/ z 279. 26, 167. 12 and 149. 11. The intensity of characteristic peak m/ z 149. 11 possessed a good linearity with the concentration of DEHP in the range of 5-1000 μg / L with the correlation coefficient of R2 = 0. 9991, and the detection limit (LOD) of 0. 21 μg / L. The recoveries of DEHP at three spiked levels (8, 80, 400 μg / L) were 96. 2% - 111. 2% , with RSDs of 5. 6% - 11. 8% . With the developed EESI-MS method, the concentrations of DEHP in landfill leachate, urban sewage and Yan lake water were 556. 5, 275. 3 and 37. 8 μg / L, respectively. The EESI-MS method possessed many advantages such as no requirement of sample pretreatment, fast analysis speed ( about 3 min per sample), simple operation and high sensitivity, thus providing a new mass spectrometric method for rapid detection of phthalate esters.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-692263

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese Medicine massage is a kind of physiotherapy which affects on specific parts of the body surface by means of training to regulate the function of the body to achieve the therapeutic effect. In this work,under positive detection model, the chemical fingerprint of exhaled breath from volunteers before and after receiving Traditional Chinese Medicine massage within m/z 50-1000 were detected by extractive electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (EESI-MS). And through high resolution mass spectrometry analysis, the metabolites such as epinephrine (m/z 184. 0889), 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (m/z 167.0615) and L-tryptophan (m/z 205. 0933) were successfully identified. Besides, chemical fingerprints of volunteers before and after receiving Traditional Chinese Medicine massage under different health condition were clearly differentiated via partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA). The results showed that Traditional Chinese Medicine massage could significantly change the metabolic process of volunteers. Moreover, it further indicated that the established method could provide a real time fashion to follow metabolic changes caused by Traditional Chinese Medicine massage.

6.
International Eye Science ; (12): 1397-1401, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-637906

ABSTRACT

Abstract?AIM: To evaluate the visual acuity, visual function, q uality of lfi e, and cost/effectiveness of cataract surgery in patients with low soc ioeconomics tatus ( LSES ) who received government subsidies for free cataract surgery.?METHODS: Retrospectively, 334 eyes of 334 patient s were reviewed. Visual function and quality of l ife questionnaires we re available in 83 patie nts. The cost/effectiveness of cataract surgery was analyzed in 225 patients with LSES and 12 0 patients who rec eived standard cataract surgery. Mutl iple linear regression anal ysis and logistic regression analysis were used to assess the factors affecting the postoperative visual acuity.?RESULTS: At 1wk postoperatively, uncorrected visual acuity ( UCVA ) was improved significantly compared to these preoperait vely (P<0.50 ), 235 eyes (70.4%) had UCVA of 20/40 or better, and 16 eyes (4.8%) had UC VA wor se than 20/400. Multiple linear regresis on ana lysis revealed that other ocular diseases and cataract classification wer e factors contributing to po stop erative UC VA. Logistic regression analysis showed that low preoperative visual ac uti y and other ocular diseases were risk factors of postopera tive low vision, and the odds ratio (95%confidence int erval) values were 6.5 (2.8-14.8) and 1.3 (1.0-1.6), respe ctively.Visual fun ction and quality of life were significantly improved after the surgery. Th e cost/effetc iveness of c ataract su rgery in patients with LSES was lower than that in standard cataract patients.?CONCLUSION: Visual acuity and visual function were significantly better after the surgery in catara ct patients wti h LSES, and the operation cost was low.Quality of life in these patients was significantly improved.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346885

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate and collect medicinal resources and methods of prevention and treatment of diseases in Baima Tibetan of Pingwu Sichuan in order to rescue and protect the ethenological medicine.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Through visiting, field survey in four ethnic townships of Baima Tibetan in Pingwu Sichuan as well as referring literatures to collect information and data analysis of them the investigation was carried out.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The investigation area showed rich medical resources. Rheumatism, stomach disease, pharyngitis and trauma are local common diseases which caused by local climate, diet and life style and so on. The Baima Tibetan are good at using local herb singly and simply to treat disease, using cold water medicine and powder snuffing are their own characters.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>It is an extremely urgent issue to rescue Baima Tibetan medicine which is disappearing by the influence of the Han nationality culture.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Ethnology , Drug Therapy , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , Methods , Rural Health , Ethnology , Tibet
8.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 386-390, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269150

ABSTRACT

Objective To estimate the prevalence of cataract and its surgical coverage rate together with the burden related to bilateral cataract-blindness,among adults aged 40 or above in Gongshan county of Yunnan province and to evaluate the current cataract status and the efficacy of local cataract prevention program.Methods Cluster sampling was used.The protocol consisted of personal interview,pilot study,visual acuity checking,measuring the intraocular pressure; slit lamp microscopy and the fundus of the eye examination etc.Cataract was graded clinically using the Lens Opacity Classification System (LOCS) ]Ⅲ.Bilateral cataract-blindness burden,bilateral cataractblindness burden and cataract surgical coverage rate were calculated respectively,using two different criteria.Odds ratios (OR) were compared among different groups regarding age,gender,education,ethnic group and altitude of living area.Results Among the 1236 eligible residents,1116 (90.3%)were enrolled in the present study.The prevalence of cataract was 23.8% among adults aged 40 or order.When the bilateral best refractive vision <3/60 was defined as the blindness criterion,the bilateral cataract-blindness burden showed as 1.3%,and cataract blindness surgical coverage rate was 50.0%.When the bilateral presenting vision < 6/60 was defined as the blindness criterion,the bilateral cataract-blindness burden was 25.0%,and cataract blindness surgical coverage rate was 12.9%.The cataract surgical coverage rates were much lower and the bilateral cataract-blindness burden much higher in women,illiterates,living in high altitude areas and those who were aged 70 or above.Conclusion Cataract blindness was a serious public health problem in aged individuals and illiteracy in the residents of the studied areas.Poor prevention programs on cataract called for urgent action to be taken.

9.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 210-213, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290601

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore characteristics of the myelin-like bodies in the hepatocytes of patients with Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS) complicated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>11 cases of DJS complicated with CHB and 5 cases DJS without CHB were studied clinicopathologically. The hepatocyte ultrastructure was observed with transmission electron microscope and taken photos. The data were compared and analyzed using Fisher's Exact Test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Deposition of myelin-like bodies can be observed in the hepatocytes of DJS patients with CHB but can not in DJS patients without CHB. The morphology of pigment varys. The electron density and volume of pigment in DJS patients with CHB can be classified into five types: brights (2/11,18.2%), reticulation (1/11, 9.1%), punctiform (6/11, 54.5%), abnormity (1/11, 9.1%) and primary type (1/11, 9.1%). The myelin-like bodies in the hepatocytes of patients with DJS are high density and round with membrance (we named it as primary type) (5/5, 100%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The myelin-like bodies in the hepatocytes of DJS patients with CHB possess special pleomorphism and may have important diagnostic value.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Pathology , Hepatocytes , Chemistry , Pathology , Humans , Jaundice, Chronic Idiopathic , Pathology , Male , Myelin Sheath , Young Adult
10.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 160-165, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341262

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To assess if the modulating effect of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB on p21(WAF1) was mediated by upregulating transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>TGF-beta(1) mRNA and protein expressions were measured by reverse transcription-PCR and ELISA, the protein expressions of p21(WAF1) and the downstream TGF-beta signalling including TGF-beta type I receptor (ALK-5 in VSMC), Smurf2, pSmad2/3, Smad4, Smad7 were detected by Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>PDGF-BB significantly upregulated the expressions of TGF-beta(1) at mRNA (0.79-fold) and protein (1.98-fold) levels in VSMC, significantly inhibited the expression of p21(WAF1) (-67 +/- 12)%, and enhanced the expressions of ALK-5, pSmad2/3, Smad4, Smurf2 protein by 1.21-fold, 0.95-fold, 0.69-fold and 2.55-fold respectively, inhibited Smad7 expression (-65 +/- 9)%, these alterations were partially restored by anti-TGF-beta(1) neutralizing antibody.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>These findings suggested that PDGF-BB inhibited p21(WAF1) expression in VSMC partially through upregulating TGF-beta(1) expression via PDGF-BB and TGF-beta signalling pathways.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Division , Cells , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 , Metabolism , Male , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Metabolism , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Metabolism
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-674220

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of isoflurane preconditioning on the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)activity of leukocytes in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).Methods Twenty ASAⅡorⅢpatients of both sexes aged 20-60 yrs undergoing cardiac valve replacement under CPB were randomly divided into 2 groups(n=10 each):control group(C)and isoflurane preconditioning group(I).Anesthesia was induced with midazolam 0.08-0.12 mg?kg~(-1),fentanyl 5-10?g?kg~(-1) and vecuronium 0.1 mg?kg~(-1).The patients were mechanically ventilated(FiO_2=100%)after tracheal intubation.Anesthesia was maintained with intermittent i.v.boluses of fentanyl and midazolam in group C or with 2 MAC isoflurane and intermittent i.v.boluses of fentanyl and midazolam in group I before CPB.Systolic BP was kept between 90-120 mm Hg,diastolic BP between 50-80 mm Hg and HR between 60-90 bpm in both groups. Isoflurane was discontinued at the initiation of CPB.Arterial blood samples were taken after tracheal intubation and before inhalation of isoflurane(T_0)at 30 min(T_1),1 h(T_2)and 2 h(T_3)after aortic unclamping for determination of NF-kB activity of leukocytes using electrophoretic mobility shift assay(EMSA).The amount of fentanyl,midazolam,dopamine and sodium nitroprusside(SNP)consumed during operation and the rate of recovery of spontaneous heart beat in both groups were recorded.Results The NF-kB activity was significantly increased after aortic unclamping in C group but there was no significant difference in NF-kB activity before CPB (T_0)and after aortic unclamping(T_(1-3))in I group.The NF-kB activity was significant lower at T_(1-3) in group I than in group C.The total amount of fentanyl consumed was 40-60?g?kg~(-1) in C group and 20-30?g?kg~(-1) in group I. Significantly less amount of dopamine was used in group I than in group C.There was no significant difference in SNP consumption between the 2 groups.The rate of recovery of spontaneous heart beat was significantly higher in group I than in group C(P<0.01).The amount of dopamine consumed was positively correlated with the highest level of NF-kB activity in both group[r=0.962 in group C;r=0.908 in group I(P<0.01)].Conclusion Isoflurane preconditioning can attenuate the NF-kB activity of leulocytes in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement under CPB.

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