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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879170

ABSTRACT

Atractylodis Rhizoma(AR) is a traditional Chinese medicinal material for food and medicine, with the functions of eli-minating dampness, strengthening the spleen, expelling wind evil and dispersing cold. AR contains a variety of compounds, including sesquiterpenoids, alkynes, triterpenoids, aromatic glycosides, polysaccharides and so on. At present, the researches on AR mainly focus on volatile components, with relatively fewer researches on non-volatile components. Polysaccharide from Atractylodis Rhizoma(ARP) is an important material basis among non-volatile components for the efficacy. Due to its many biological activities such as immunomodulatory activity, anti-tumors, anti-virus and anti-oxidation, ARP has certain research value and potential. The diversity of the polysaccharide structure is the basis for biological functions, but it also increases the difficulty of carbohydrate research. The research on the extraction, separation, purification, structure and activity of ARP is in the preliminary exploration stage, still with many shortcomings. Herein, recent advancements in the extraction, purification, structural characteristics and biological activities of ARP were summarized in this article to provide scientific reference for the in-depth systematic research of ARP and the development of AR resources.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Polysaccharides , Rhizome , Triterpenes
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879149

ABSTRACT

Plants have a memory function for the environmental stress they have suffered. When they are subjected to repeated environmental stress, they can quickly and better activate the response and adaptation mechanism to environmental stress, thus realizing long-term stable reproduction. However, most of the relevant studies are applied to crops and Arabidopsis thaliana rather than medicinal plants about the improvement of plant growth status and the effect on phytoalexin biosynthesis. In this study, yeast extract(YE) was used as an elicitor to simulate biotic stress, and the changes in biomass and the content of some secondary metabolites were measured by giving repeated stresses to Sorbus aucuparia suspension cell(SASC). The results showed that the accumulation levels of biomass and some secondary metabolites in SASC subjected to repeated stress are significantly increased at some time points compared with single stress. A phenomenon that SASC can memorize biotic stress is confirmed in this study and influences phytoalexin accumulation in SASC. Furthermore, the work laid the groundwork for research into the transgenerational stress memory mechanism of medicinal plant.


Subject(s)
Cells, Cultured , Secondary Metabolism , Sorbus , Stress, Physiological
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879110

ABSTRACT

The ecological environment is closely related to the growth and quality of authentic medicinal materials. Ginseng is very strict with its natural environment and grows mostly in the damp valleys of forests, and the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng under different growth environments are very different. This article reviews the effects of different ecological factors(including light, temperature, altitude, moisture, soil factors, etc.)on the appearance and chemical composition(mainly ginsenosides) of ginseng. Through systematic review, it is found that soil physical factors are the most important ecological factors that affect the appea-rance of ginseng, and soil bulk density plays a key role; temperature affects ginsenosides in ginseng medicinal materials The dominant ecological factors for the accumulation of chemical ingredents; strong light, high altitude, high soil moisture, low soil nutrient and strong acid soil can influence the accumulation of secondary metabolites in ginseng. Environmental stress can also stimulate the formation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants. Appropriate low temperature stress, high or low water stress, acid or alkali stress can also promote the accumulation of ginsenosides. This article systematically reviews the ecological factors that affect the appearance and chemical composition of ginseng, and clarifies the dominant ecological factors and limiting factors for the formation of ginseng's appearance and quality, as well as beneficial environmental stress factors, in order to provide a theoretical basis for ginseng ecological planting and ginseng quality improvement.


Subject(s)
Forests , Ginsenosides , Panax , Plants, Medicinal , Soil
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879108

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen fertilizers play an important role in the regulation of plant stress resistance. Impacts of nitrogen fertilizers on abiotic stress resistance and biotic stress resistance of Chinese materia medica(CMM) were summarized in this study. Adequate nitrogen application improves the abiotic stress resistance and weed resistance of CMM, however adverse effect appears when excess nitrogen is used. Generally, pest resistance decreases along with nitrogen deposition, while effects of nitrogen application on disease resistance vary with different diseases. Mechanisms underlying the impact of nitrogen fertilizers on plant stress resistance were also elucidated in this study from three aspects including physical defense mechanisms, biochemistry mechanisms and molecular defense mechanisms. Nitrogen availability modulates physical barrier of CMM like plant growth, formation of lignin and wax cuticle, and density of stomata. Growth of CMM promoted by nitrogen fertilizer may cause some decrease in pest resistance of CMM due to an increase in hiding places for pest along with plant growth. High ambient humidity caused by excessive plant growth facilitates the growth and development of CMM pathogen. Nitrogen application can also interfere with the accumulation of lignin in CMM which makes CMM more vulnerable to pest and pathogen attack. Stomatal closing delays due to nitrogen application is also a causal factor of increasing pathogen infection after nitrogen deposition. Biochemical defenses of plants are mainly achieved through nutrient elements, secondary metabolites, defense-related enzymes and proteins. Nutritional level of CMM and various antioxidant enzymes and resistance-related protein activities are elevated along with nitrogen deposition. These antioxidant enzymes can reduce the damage of reactive oxygen species content produced by plant in response to adversity and therefore enhance stress resistance of CMM. Researches showed that nitrogen application could also cause an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. Nitrogen-mediated molecular defense mechanisms includes multiple plant hormones and nitric oxide signals. Plant hormones related to plant defense like salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and abscisic acid can be modulated by nitrogen application. Negative effect of nitrogen deposition was found on salicylic acid accumulation and the expression of related plant disease resistance genes. However, jasmonic acid level can be elevated by nitrogen. Nitric oxide signals constitute an important part of nitrogen mediated defense mechanisms. Nitric oxide signaling is related to many aspects of plant immunity. The roles of nitrogen fertilizers in CMM stress resistance are complex and may vary with different CMM varieties and environments. Further studies are urgently needed to provide a comprehensive understanding of how to improve stress resistance of CMM by using fertilizers.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , China , Materia Medica , Nitrogen , Plant Growth Regulators
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879107

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen is one of the most frequently used fertilizers in growth of Chinese medicinal plants(CMP). As in many other ecosystems, CMP ecosystem is also composed of plant-herbivore-natural enemy(tritrophic) interactions. Nitrogen fertilizer influences the growth and reproduction of CMP, and it is also able to heavily shape the ecosystem functions of CMP ecosystem through bottom-up forces. Understanding the specific effects of nitrogen fertilizer towards each trophic level will be beneficial to improve the resistance of CMP to herbivore and enhance the control efficiency of nature enemies to herbivore, and eventually, maximize the yield and quality of CMP. Most papers published on nitrogen use in plants focused mainly on the impact of nitrogen fertilization on CMP yield and quality. Influences of nitrogen application on CMP ecosystem get little attention at present. Therefore, this review summed up the potential effects of nitrogen fertilization on CMP ecosystem from perspectives of soil and tritrophic interactions. First of all, nitrogen fertilizer might decrease soil microbial biomass and altered the community structures of soil bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Negative effects of nitrogen fertilizer were found on biodiversity of soil bacteria and protozoa. Different fungi species respond differently to nitrogen fertili-zers. Nitrogen deposition can also decrease the soil pH. Decreases in soil microbial diversity and soil acidification can cause negative effects on CMP growth. In addition, nitrogen fertilizer could regulate the pest resistance of CMP including constitutive and inducible resistance. Both positive and negative effects of nitrogen application were found on pest resistance of CMP. Moreover, the development and predation of natural enemies were influenced by nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen influences natural enemies in many ways including plant volatiles, plant nutrient and structure and the supplementary food quality. Nectar and honeydew of plants and preys serve as important food source for natural enemies especially in early season when preys are still not available. Finally, the interactions between herbivores and their natural enemies were also shaped by nitrogen fertilizer in many aspects like increasing the nutritional content of prey and changing control efficiency of natural enemies. Some herbivores have evolved a strategy to sequester secondary metabolites which they absorbed from plant during their feeding. Studies showed that sequestration efficiency of secondary metabolites in prey could also be regulated by nitrogen. Parasitic, emergence, reproduction rate and longevity of parasites were found positively correlated with nitrogen deposition. Hopefully this study will shed light on practicable and economical application of nitrogen in cultivation of CMP.


Subject(s)
China , Ecosystem , Fertilizers , Nitrogen , Plants, Medicinal , Soil
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879106

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen fertilizer has been the long-lasting crucial component in cultivation of Chinese materia medica(CMM) and crops for its profound effects on enhancing the productivity. In consideration of its role in better production, intensive and excessive application of N fertilizer is often found in CMM cultivation. Therefore, firstly, this review summarized various concentrations of N application with regards to different CMM and districts from the literatures published in the last two decades. The recommended concentration of nitrogen application of forty seven CMM species were covered in this review. We found that the optimum rates of nitrogen fertili-zer for different medicinal plants species were varied in the range between 0-1 035.55 kg·hm~(-2). Most of the optimum rates of nitrogen fertilizer for CMM in published researches fell between 100-199 kg·hm~(-2). The optimum rate of nitrogen fertilizer is not only related to amount of nitrogen required for different medicinal plants but also to soil fertilities of different fields. In addition, we outlined the diffe-rent effects of proper and excessive nitrogen deposition on yield of CMM. Proper nitrogen deposition benefits the yield of CMM, howe-ver, excessive nitrogen use accounts for a decrease in CMM yield. We elucidated that nutritional content, water use efficiencies, and photosynthesis capacity were major influencing factors. Researches showed that proper nitrogen fertilizer could promote the water use efficiencies of plants and boost photosynthesis. Consequently, the yield of CMM can be enhanced after nitrogen deposition. However, negative effects of nitrogen fertilizer were also found on plant including producing toxic substances to the soil and causing severe pest damages. Lastly we analyzed the impact of N fertilizer application on secondary metabolites which accounts for a large part of active pharmaceutical ingredients of CMM. It usually caused an increase in nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content and a decrease in non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites content respectively. The potential underlying mechanisms are the different synthetic pathways of these metabolites and the plant nutritional status. Synthesis of non-nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites like phenols can be inhibited after nitrogen application because of the competition of the same precursor substances between metabolites synthesis and plant growth. To sum up, impacts and mechanisms of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality enhancement of CMM were discussed in this review. Negative effects of excessive nitrogen application on CMM should be paid special attention in CMM cultivation and prescription fertilization based on the field soil quality is strongly recommended. Overall, this review aims to provides insights on improving the proper application of N fertilizer in the cultivation of CMM.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Fertilizers , Materia Medica , Nitrogen/analysis , Soil
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828421

ABSTRACT

Chinese medicine polysaccharide is an important active biological macromolecule, which has a broad application prospect. However, there are still many deficiencies in the quality evaluation and control of polysaccharides. Based on the existing problems in the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine polysaccharides, current review analyzes the methods of extraction, separation and purification, characteristic identification, content determination and structure analysis of Chinese medicine polysaccharides, and draws the following conclusions: ①Based on the clinical application of Chinese medicine, decoction is recommended as the extraction method in the basic study of effective substances of Chinese medicine polysaccharides; ②On the basis of impurity removal, HPGPC can achieve the separation, purification and content determination of Chinese medicine polysaccharides at the same time, supplemented by MS or NMR can achieve the quantitative and qualitative analysis of Chinese medicine polysaccharides; ③Based on the characteristic identification, select the suitable pure polysaccharide, dextran or monosaccharide reference; ④HPSEC-MALLS-RID is specific, accurate, and beneficial to the study of structure-activity mechanism of polysaccharides. The review suggested that the comprehensive evaluation and control of the quality of Chinese medicine polysaccharides should be based on extraction, separation and purification, on the premise of characteristic identification, on the basis of content determination, supplemented by structural analysis, which is to provide useful reference for the quality research of Chinese medicine polysaccharides.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Monosaccharides , Polysaccharides , Quality Control
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827993

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzed life form, habitats and environmental stresses of medicinal plants and algal fungi collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015). ①It was found that only 0.94% of the medicinal plants mainly cultivated in field. The most common habitats of medicinal plants are divided into two types: those whose natural habitats are forest margins/undergrowth(about 42.53%) and those whose natural habitats are roadside, hillside, wasteland/sand(about 43.78%). The former mainly faces environmental stresses such as weak light, pests and diseases; the latter often faces the main environmental stresses of drought, strong light, ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, low temperature(day and night or annual temperature difference is large), nutrient deficiency, pests and so on. ②Based on analyzing the strategies of medicinal plants to adapt to environmental stresses, it is pointed out that the synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites are the most important strategies of medicinal plants to protect against environmental stresses. In the process of long-term adaptation to specific stress, the accumulation of relevant genetic variation and epigenetic inheritance has become an important condition for the formation of quality of medicinal plants. ③It is proposed that "simulative habitat cultivation" has obvious advantages in balancing growth and secondary metabolism and guaranting the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ecosystem , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Ultraviolet Rays
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827992

ABSTRACT

The ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica(CMM) has become the most dynamic and promising new field in the global ecological agriculture. The development of ecological planting of CMM has become the national strategy of Chinese traditional medicine agriculture. It has been highly valued and has flourished throughout the country, and has formed some more mature ecological planting models of CMM. Based on the system level, this paper sorts out the common ecological cultivation patterns of CMM, and obtains five basic patterns: landscape pattern at the ecological landscape level, circulation pattern at the ecosystem level, stereo model at the bio-community level, biodiversity patterns at the level of biological populations and well-established models at the level of biological individuals. On this basis, eight common ecological planting techniques of CMM were obtained, includingwild tending techniques, fine agricultural farming techniques, directional cultivation techniques, soil improvement techniques, soil testing and fertilization techniques, mycorrhizal cultivation techniques, green control technology for pests and diseases and facility cultivation techniques.This paper aims to provide theoretical basis for scientific research and popularization and application of CMM ecological planting.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ecosystem , Humans , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827991

ABSTRACT

As an environment-friendly agriculture, ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica(CMM) is being implemented in all parts of the country. Due to the stronger dependence on natural environmental conditions, ecological agriculture of CMM shows obvious regional differences in production practice. More mature CMM ecological planting patterns representative of each region were collected. It was found that common types of patterns in various regions of the country mainly included intercropping,intercropping,rotation planting mode, undergrowth planting mode, wild tending planting mode and landscape ecological planting mode. Based on the Construction Plan of National Dao-di Herbs Production Base(2018-2025) and Chinese Medicine Division, this paper systematically sorts out the pattern of ecological planting of CMM in the 8-avenue medicinal materials production areas according to the varieties and regions. The specific pattern of ecological planting of CMM included the ginseng undergrowth planting pattern in northeastern China, the bionics wild ecological planting of the Forsythia suspensa in northern China, the Fritillaria thunbergii-rice rotation in eastern China, the imitation wild planting pattern under the Polygonatum cyrtonema in central China, the planting pattern of the Fructus amomi under forest in southern China, the Ligusticum chuanxiong-rice rotation pattern in the Southwest, wild tending of Glycyrrhiza uralensis in the Northwest, and rhubarb imitation wild planting pattern in Qinghai-Tibet area. Finally, it is expected to provide reference for the screening and popularization of ecological planting patterns of other CMMs in various distribution areas.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ligusticum , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Tibet
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827990

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of comprehensive health industry, the demand for Chinese medicinal materials is increasing. There is also a growing demand for land for the cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials.Based on the analysis of the demand characteristics of planting habitats for Chinese medicinal herbs, this paper finds that compared with the cultivated environment, the wild environment is more conducive to the improvement of the quality and stress resistance of medicinal plants. The eco-planting for Chinese medicinal materials is the only way to achieve high quality, efficient and sustainable production of traditional Chinese medicine. Therefore, according to the habitat distribution characteristics of wild medicinal plants, combined with the current situation of land resource utilization in China and the increasing demand for land for Chinese herbal medicine cultivation, the land use strategy of Chinese herbal medicine ecological agriculture was proposed. ① To vigorously develop underwood planting and change the existing field cultivation mode. ② To make full use of mountainous areas and barren slopes to carry out wild planta tending or planting imitates wild condition. ③ According to the development law and biological characteristics of medicinal plants, the land resources should be developed and used rationally according to local conditions.This can not only meet the requirements of the specific growth environment of Chinese medicinal materials, realize the sustainable development of the Chinese medicinal materials industry, but also increase the economic income of people in mountainous areas, provide scientific and effective solutions for the land use of Chinese medicinal materials, and also have important significance for the protection of wild Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827989

ABSTRACT

The cluster brand is the embodiment of the core competitiveness of an industry. Developing and cultivating cluster brand of ecological agriculture of Dao-di herbs not only helps to optimize the value chain of the Chinese medicinal materials(CMMs) industry cluster, realize the value-added of the CMMs industry cluster, but also enhance the visibility and influence of the industrial cluster, enhance the core competitiveness of the industrial cluster. This has important practical significance for promoting the "orderly" "safe" and "effective" development of the Dao-di herbs. Based on the industry development status of CMMs, this article introduces several concepts related to cluster brands and their relationships, and focuses on the cultivation models and strategies of cluster brand in the CMMs industry. Based on the current status of the development of the CMMs industry, this article introduces several concepts related to cluster brands and their interrelationships. It discusses the cultivation models and strategies of cluster brands in the CMMs industry, industry associations, Chinese medicine companies and individual growers as the support, insists on the ecological cultivation of authentic medicinal materials and the cultivation of cluster brands. Finally, it points out the direction for the high-quality development of the ecological agriculture of CMMs.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Industrial Development , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 680-689, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Several patients experience persistent otorrhea after a flawless surgical procedure because of insufficient epithelial healing. Several efforts, such as autologous tissue allograft and xenograft, have been made to halt otorrhea. However, a stable technology to induce temporal epithelial repair is yet to be established. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether implantation of seeding adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) aggregates on extracellular matrix (ECM; herein, ADMSC aggregate-ECM) into damaged skin wound promotes skin regeneration.@*METHODS@#ADMSC aggregate-ECM was prepared using a previously described procedure that isolated ADMSCs from rabbits and applied to the auricle and auditory meatus wound beds of New Zealand white rabbits. Wound healing was assessed by general observation and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Secretion of growth factor of the tissue was evaluated by western blotting. Two other groups, namely, ECM and control, were used. Comparisons of three groups were conducted by one-way analysis of variance analysis.@*RESULTS@#ADMSCs adhered tightly to the ECM and quickly formed cell sheets. At 2 weeks, general observation and H&E staining indicated that the wound healing rates in the ADMSC aggregate-ECM (69.02 ± 6.36%) and ECM (59.32 ± 4.10%) groups were higher than that in the control group (43.74 ± 12.15%; P = 0.005, P < 0.001, respectively) in ear auricle excisional wounds. At 7 weeks, The scar elevation index was evidently reduced in the ADMSC aggregate-ECM (2.08 ± 0.87) and ECM (2.31 ± 0.33) groups compared with the control group (4.06 ± 0.45; P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). In addition, the scar elevation index of the ADMSC aggregate-ECM group reached the lowest rate 4 weeks in advance. In auditory meatus excisional wounds, the ADMSC aggregate-ECM group had the largest range of normal skin-like structure at 4 weeks. The ADMSC aggregate-ECM and ECM groups secreted increased amounts of growth factors that contributed to skin regeneration at weeks 1 and 2, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ADMSC aggregate-ECM and ECM are effective repair materials for wound healing, especially ADMSC aggregate-ECM. This approach will provide a meaningful experimental basis for mastoid epithelium repair in subsequent clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Cell Biology , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Physiology , Cell Proliferation , Physiology , Cells, Cultured , Ear Auricle , Cell Biology , Extracellular Matrix , Chemistry , Flow Cytometry , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Osteogenesis , Physiology , Rabbits , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330165

ABSTRACT

In this study, by using the method of literature research, 35 prescriptions related to asthma therapy has been screened out from Hui medicine through collecting the ancient and modern literature. A comparison of fragrant medicine between the name in Arab and Chinese herbal medicine is done. The countif function in Microsoft Excel 2007 is used to get the prescriptions of the drug on the frequency statistics, summarizing the common drugs of Hui medicine for asthma are Pinellia, almond, white sugar, walnut. According to the commonly used drugs, the pathogeny and treatment principle about Hui medicine for asthma is preliminarily inferred combining literature research and the related Hui medical theory. In this study, those prescriptions have been classified into 21 cases which are effective and can be used in medical therapy according to the relevant literatures with the development of the Hui people in their long process of formation of the unique diet culture, 14 useful and convenient Halal diet therapies are made up according to the indications, therapies, party name and composition. Halal diet and "medicine and food" herbs are preliminarily analyzed and summarized, which can be convenient for the people to reduce pains through the diet and improve health awareness.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Drug Therapy , Ethnology , China , Cough , Drug Therapy , Ethnology , Diet , Ethnology , Drug Prescriptions , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305331

ABSTRACT

By using the method of philology, 65 Hui prescriptions for treating cough were been collected to compare Arabic and Chinese names of pennisetum, anemarrhenae, honey, pease, white mustard, perilla and towel gourd stem. The Countif function in Microsoft Excel 2007 was used to count frequency of drugs in the prescriptions and summarize eight common Hui medicine for treating cough, namely sugar, honey, almond, fritillaria, liquorice, orange peel, white mulberry root-bark and lily. According to the commonly used drugs, philological studies and theories of Hui medicines, pathology and therapy of Hui medicines for treating cough were preliminarily inferred. In this study, 35 practical prescriptions and 30 simple and convenient Halal dietary prescriptions were summarized from collected prescriptions according to relevant literatures. On the basis of the long-lasting unique dietary therapy culture developed for Hui people, the simple and practical dietary prescriptions were defined according indications, therapy, prescription name and composition, and eight types of drug-admixed foods were summarized to relieve pains and improve health awareness and quality of life. Meanwhile, this study could also enrich and perfect the prescriptions, provide new ideas for improving health of patients, and lay a certain realistic foundation for further study of Hui medicines.


Subject(s)
China , Ethnology , Cough , Drug Therapy , Ethnology , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246214

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) in combination with bicyclol for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in seniors.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>96 senior patients with CHB were randomly divided into two groups, the treatment group and the control group. On the basis of routine liver protective treatment, patients in the treatment group received ADV (10 mg/d) and bicyclol tablets (25 mg, tid.) orally, and those in the control group were orally administrated ADV tablets (10 mg/d) only. The treatment course for both groups was 24 weeks. Serum ALT, AST, and alterations of virological parameters were observed before and after the treatment.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Before and at the end of the 24 weeks treatment, ALT level for the treatment group was (208.44 +/- 94.22) and (34.47 +/- 12.79) U/L, and those for the control group was (205.73 +/- 96.48) and (44.20 +/- 21.96) U/L, respectively (difference between groups P < 0.01). At the end of the 24 weeks treatment, ALT normalization rates for the treatment group and the control group were 76.6% and 54.5%, respectively, and AST normalization rates for them were 76.6% and 54.5%, respectively (both differences between groups P < 0.05); HBV DNA loads for the treatment group and the control group were decreased by (3.1 +/- 1.40) lgIU/ml and (2.98 +/- 1.17) lgIU/ ml, respectively (difference between groups P > 0.05). The incidence rates of adverse events between two groups were not statistically significant.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>It suggested that the treatment of ADV in combination with bicyclol for senior patients with CHB is effective and safe.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenine , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents , Biphenyl Compounds , DNA, Viral , Blood , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Drug Therapy , Virology , Humans , Liver , Male , Middle Aged , Organophosphonates
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1983-1988, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-352525

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus have been a common cause of infection among liver transplant (LT) recipients in recent decades. The understanding of local epidemiology and its evolving trends with regard to pathogenic spectra and antibiotic susceptibility is beneficial to prophylactic and empiric treatment for LT recipients. This study aimed to investigate etiology, timing, antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors for multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-positive coccal bacteremia after LT.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A cohort analysis of prospectively recorded data was performed to investigate etiologies, timing, antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors for MDR Gram-positive coccal bacteremia in 475 LT recipients.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In 475 LT recipients in the first six months after LT, there were a total of 98 episodes of bacteremia caused by Gram-positive cocci in 82 (17%) patients. Seventy-five (77%) bacteremic episodes occurred in the first post-LT month. The most frequent Gram-positive cocci were methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS, 46 isolates), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, 13) and enterococcus (34, E. faecium 30, E. faecalis 4). In all Gram-positive bacteremic isolates, 59 of 98 (60%) were MDR. Gram-positive coccal bacteremia and MDR Gram-positive coccal bacteremia predominantly occurred in patients with acute severe exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B and with fulminant/subfulminant hepatitis. Four independent risk factors for development of bacteremia caused by MDR Gram-positive coccus were: LT candidates with encephalopathy grades II - IV (P = 0.013, OR: 16.253, 95%CI: 1.822 - 144.995), pre-LT use of empirical antibiotics (P = 0.018, OR: 1.029, 95%CI: 1.002 - 1.057), post-LT urinary tract infections (P < 0.001, OR: 20.340, 95%CI: 4.135 - 100.048) and abdominal infection (P = 0.004, OR: 2.820, 95%CI: 1.122 - 10.114). The main infectious manifestations were coinfections due to gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Methicillin-resistant CoNS and enterococci are predominant pathogens among LT recipients with Gram-positive coccal bacteremia. Occurrences of Gram-positive coccal bacteremia may be associated with the severity of illness in the perioperative stage.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Bacteremia , Microbiology , Coagulase , Metabolism , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterococcus , Physiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Microbiology , Humans , Liver Diseases , Microbiology , Liver Transplantation , Risk Factors , Staphylococcal Infections , Microbiology , Staphylococcus , Physiology
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-248765

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate clinical features of the patients with hepatitis B superinfected with acute hepatitis E (AHE).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 625 consecutive patients enrolled from Dec 2002 to Dec 2006 were studied retrospectively. All of the patients were subclassified into acute hepatitis E group (AHE=437 cases) and Superinfected Group (S=188 cases), and S group was further divided into the group of chronic hepatitis B superinfected with acute hepatitis E (CHB+AHE, 130 cases) and the group of liver cirrhosis and hepatitis B superinfected with acute hepatitis E (LCB+AHE, 58 cases). In 32 of the 188 superinfected patients the effects of HEV on HBV were observed by comparing the levels of HBV DNA in acute vs. convalescence stages.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the patients with AHE, the superinfected patients had a higher level of total bilirubin (TBil), an elevated frequency of fulminate hepatitis, mortality and a longer period of the mean hospital stay for the cured patients but significantly lower levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum albumin and prothrombin activity (PA). Furthermore, the group of LCB+AHE had a higher level of TBil and higher incidences of complications such as ascites, peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy and disturbance in glycometabolism than the group of CHB+AHE. The follow-up for the superinfected patients showed that 20 of 32 patients (62.5 percent) had decreased copies of HBV DNA during the recovery phase compared with the acute phase, and the mean decrease of HBV DNA was 2.1 log10. The HBV DNA was in a persistently undetectable level in 6 of 32 (18.8 percent) superinfected patients. However, 4 of 32 patients (12.5 percent) showed an unchanged levels of HBV DNA and 2 cases (6.2 percent) had a slightly increased HBV DNA levels.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Superinfection with AHE in patients with chronic hepatitis B leads to a more severe hepatic damage and the replication of HBV DNA can be transiently inhibited.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , DNA, Viral , Blood , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Virology , Hepatitis E , Virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Virus Replication
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-263276

ABSTRACT

Recent studies revealed that apoptotic cells are actively involved in immunosuppression and anti-inflammation. After being phagocytosed by macrophages, apoptotic cells can actively regulate cytokines secretion from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, in which the secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) is increased while the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa), interleukin-1beta (IL-1b) and leukin-8 (IL-8) are suppressed. In this paper, we first present evidence that phagocytosed apoptotic cells regulate cytokine secretion of LPS-stimulated macrophages, but also inhibit the activation of T lymphocytes stimulated by ConA. These data suggest that apoptotic cells can alter the biological behavior of macrophages which gain immunosuppressive property.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, CD , Metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte , Metabolism , Apoptosis , Allergy and Immunology , Chemokine CXCL2 , Chemokines , Genetics , Concanavalin A , Pharmacology , Cytokines , Female , Humans , Immune Tolerance , In Vitro Techniques , Jurkat Cells , Lectins, C-Type , Lipopolysaccharides , Pharmacology , Lymphocyte Activation , Macrophages , Allergy and Immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Phagocytosis , Receptors, Interleukin-2 , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Allergy and Immunology , T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Genetics
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-281821

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>To investigate the effect of Oxymatrine (OM) on serum cholinesterase (ChE) during the treatment of viral hepatitis and the relationship between the change of ChE and the change of albumin (ALB), prothrombin activity (PTA) and other liver function tests.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 98 patients with viral hepatitis were divided into four groups. Group A consisted of 31 patients and were treated with OM intravenous infusion; Group B consisted of 30 patients, treated with OM orally; Group C consisted of 7 patients and were treated with OM intramuscular injection while Group D consisted of 30 patients, and were not treated with OM. ChE, ALB, PTA, liver function, renal function, soluble complement receptor-1 (sCR1) and erythrocyte innate immune adhesion function (EIIAF) were regularly determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>ChE in Group A,B,C was dropped obviously during the treatment (P less than 0.001, less than 0.001, 0.023=. But there were no change in ALB, PTA, sCR1, EIIAF (P greater than 0.05), and remarkable improvement of ALT, AST, TBiL was seen during the treatment in Groups A, B, C. After the treatment with OM, the level of ChE recovered soon.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Serum level of ChE significantly declined during the treatment of viral hepatitis with OM, but no change was found in ALB, PTA, sCR1, EIIAF while liver function tests showed better results. So the drop of ChE does not mean deprivation of patient's liver disease.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alkaloids , Therapeutic Uses , Antiviral Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Cholinesterases , Blood , Female , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Drug Therapy , Humans , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Quinolizines
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