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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880138

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To retrospective analyze the reason of death in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with CCLG-ALL 2008 protocol, and the experience was summarized in order to reduce the mortality.@*METHODS@#916 children diagnosed as ALL and accepted CCLG-ALL 2008 protocol from April 2008 to April 2015 in our hospital were enrolled, the dead cases in them were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#169 children died, including 111 (65.7%) males and 58 (34.3%) females. Recurrence was the main reason of death. 150 (88.7%) children died due to recurrence, among them, 86 (57.3%) cases gave up directly. The second reason of death was infection. The main clinical sites of infection were concentrated in respiratory system and digestive system. Bacterial infection was most common (Gram-negative was common).@*CONCLUSION@#Enough finance and improving family compliance can decrease the mortality in children with ALL. Early rational use of antibiotics can reduce infection-related mortality in children with ALL.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Child , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880028

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the outcomes of the children suffered from philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph@*METHODS@#21 cases of firstly diagnosed Ph@*RESULTS@#Among 21 patients, 17 were male and 4 were female with a median age of 8 years old (range, 4-12 years), the median follow-up time was 30 moths (range, 10-133 months). All the patients were treated with chemotherapy induced by the high-risk project of CCLG-ALL 2008. Among 14 patients treated with TKI plus chemotherapy, nine patients achieved complete remission. During 3 months after treatment, patients without complete molecular response or with the second complete remission and intensity desire of transplantation were treated with allo-HSCT, among 9 patients with allo-HSCT, six patients achieved long term survival.@*CONCLUSION@#At TKI era, TKI combined with strong chemotherapy can make Ph


Subject(s)
Aged , Child , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Infant , Male , Philadelphia Chromosome , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Retrospective Studies
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879845

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features and prognosis of childhood acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 14 children who were diagnosed with AML-MRC from June 2014 to March 2020, including clinical features, laboratory examination results, and prognosis.@*RESULTS@#Among the 14 children with AML-MRC, there were 9 boys and 5 girls, with a median age of 11 years (range: 1-17 years), a median leukocyte count of 8.3×10@*CONCLUSIONS@#Childhood AML-MRC is often observed in boys, and AML-M5 is the most common type based on FAB classification. Such children tend to have a poor prognosis. HSCT is expected to improve the poor prognosis of children with AML-MRC. However due to the small number of cases, it is necessary to increase the number of cases for further observation.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Infant , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , Male , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1831-1836, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the consistency between FCM and PCR on the detecting of MRD in TCF3-PBX1@*METHODS@#55 cases of paediatric TCF3-PBX1@*RESULTS@#Among the 55 children with TCF3-PBX1@*CONCLUSION@#The detection result of MRD in TCF3-PBX1 detect by FCM and PCR shows better consistency. MRD positivity detected by FCM at the end of induction therapy (day 33) predicts a high risk of relapse in TCF3-PBX1 ALL patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Bone Marrow , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Neoplasm, Residual , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Recurrence
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879771

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the pharmacokinetic characteristics, clinical effect, and safety of pegylated recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (PEG-rhG-CSF) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).@*METHODS@#A prospective study was performed on children with ALL who cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, and 6-mercaptopurine were used for consolidation therapy. PEG-rhG-CSF (PEG-rhG-CSF group) or rhG-CSF (rhG-CSF group) was injected after chemotherapy. The plasma concentration of PEG-rhG-CSF was measured, and clinical outcome and safety were observed for both groups.@*RESULTS@#A total of 17 children with ALL were enrolled, with 9 children in the PEG-rhG-CSF group and 8 children in the rhG-CSF group. In the PEG-rhG-CSF group, the peak concentration of PEG-rhG-CSF was 348.2 ng/mL (range 114.7-552.0 ng/mL), the time to peak was 48 hours (range 12-72 hours), and the half life was 14.1 hours (range 11.1-18.1 hours). The plasma concentration curve of PEG-rhG-CSF was consistent with the mechanism of neutrophil-mediated clearance. Compared with the rhG-CSF group, the PEG-rhG-CSF group had a significantly shorter median time to absolute neutrophil count (ANC) recovery (P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The pharmacokinetic characteristics of PEG-rhG-CSF in children with ALL receiving consolidation chemotherapy are consistent with the mechanism of neutrophil-mediated clearance, with a short half life and fast recovery of ANC, and there are no significant differences in safety between PEG-rhG-CSF and rhG-CSF.


Subject(s)
Child , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Humans , Neutropenia , Polyethylene Glycols , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Recombinant Proteins
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the significance of CD20 combined with white blood cell (WBC) count at diagnosis in the prognosis assessment in children with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 821 B-ALL children who were treated with CCLG-ALL2008 regimen from April 2008 to April 2015. Their survival status was followed up.@*RESULTS@#Among the 821 children, 547 (66.6%) were negative, while 274 (33.4%) were positive for CD20 expression. Among 694 children with WBC50×10/L (higher WBC count), the 5-year EFS rates was 64.3%±7.7% and 53.7%±5.5% for CD20 positive and negative patients respectively (P=0.135); the 5-year OS rate was 81.4%±6.4% and 58.6%±5.6% for CD20 positive and negative patients respectively (P=0.022); CD20 positive expression was an independent protective factor for OS (HR=0.367, P=0.016).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In children with B-ALL who are treated with CCLG-ALL2008 regimen, those with CD20 positive expression in lower WBC count at diagnosis have a poor prognosis; however, those with CD20 positive expression in higher WBC count at diagnosis have a better long-time survival.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD20 , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Child , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Diagnosis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
7.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1075-1080, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827158

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the long-term efficacy of CCLG-ALL2008 protocol used for treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).@*METHODS@#Nine hundred and forty children with newly diagnosed ALL from January 2008 to April 2015 were treated with CCLG-ALL2008 protocol. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards model was used for analyses of prognostic factors.@*RESULTS@#Among the 940 newly diagnosed ALL patients, 570 patients were male, and 370 patients were female, the median age of onset was 5 years old (from 1 to 15 years old). The complete reaction rate (CR) was 96.7%. Survival analysis of 916 ALL patients with CR estimated by follow up [ (median follow up period 64 months (from 3 to 123 months) ] showed that, the expected 10 year OS rate was (78.6±1.5)% and the EFS rate was (66.0±1.8)%. The long-term OS rate of standard risk, intermediate risk and high risk patients was (93.0±1.5)%, (77.6±2.7)%, and (59.3±3.7)%, respectively, and the long-term EFS rate in standard risk, intermediate risk and high risk patients was (84.2±2.2)%. (67.8±2.9)%, and (42.1±3.9)% respectively. 10 year OS rate in B-ALL patients (79.8±1.6)% was significantly higher than that in T-ALL patients (53.5±6.3)% (P<0.01). Among of all the patients, patients 201 (21.9%) relapsed, the median relapse time was 19 months (from 2 months to 81 months). The 10 year EFS rate was (81.7±3.7)% in the patients with MRD rate <0.01% after induction therapy, which was significantly higher than that in the patients with MRD rate>0.01% (48.4±9.8)%.@*CONCLUSION@#The therapeutic efficacy of the CCLG-ALL2008 protocol is closed to the level of supior study group in the world. Risk stratification can improve the outcome for childhood ALL. Immunophenotyping shows the outcome of B-ALL is better than that of T-ALL. MRD negative patients after induction therapy shows better prognosis compared with that of MRD positive patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Drug Therapy , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781460

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical efficacy and side effects of reduced-dose of cyclophosphamide combined cyclosporine A for severe aplastic anemia(SAA) children.@*METHODS@#Ten pediatric patients with SAA from January 2008 to May 2012 were enrolled. All the patients were treated with reduced dose of cyclophosphamide combined cyclosporine A. The dose of cyclophosphamide was 30 mg/(kg·d)×4 d, the dose of cyclosporine A gradually increased >15 mg/L accroding to the blood concentration.@*RESULTS@#The median follow-up time of the 10 pediatric patients was 100 months (6-126 months). Among 10 children with SAA, 4 cases achieved complete response(CR), 3 cases obtained partial response (PR) and the overall response rate was 70%, the remaining 3 cases showed no response (NR). One refractory patient treated by cyclophosphamide was progressed to paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria(PNH) at 25 months and was dead at 42 months after therapy.@*CONCLUSION@#The results show that reduced-dose cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg·d for 4 consecutive days) combinated with CsA (initial dose 4 mg/kg·d, and drugvallery concentration >150 ng/ml) can make 7 of 10 children with severe aplastic anemia achieve complete response or partial response, and this regimen may be the second line regimen selected for some SAA children.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775109

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the association of platelet level at diagnosis with prognosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).@*METHODS@#A total of 892 children with ALL who underwent chemotherapy with the CCLG-ALL 2008 regimen were enrolled. According to the platelet count at diagnosis, these children were divided into normal platelet count group (platelet count ≥100×109/L; n=263) and thrombocytopenia group (platelet count 0.05). The normal platelet count group still had a significantly higher 10-year EFS rate than the thrombocytopenia group after the children with MLL gene rearrangement were excluded (P0.05). The <20×10/L subgroup had significantly lower 10-year EFS and OS rates than the normal platelet count group, the (50- <100)×10/L subgroup, and the (20- <50)×10/L subgroup (P<0.05). After the children with MLL gene rearrangement were excluded, the <20×10/L subgroup still had significantly lower 10-year EFS and OS rates than the normal platelet count group, the (50-<100)×10/L subgroup, and the (20- <50)×10/L subgroup (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#ALL children with MLL gene rearrangement often have the clinical manifestation of thrombocytopenia. Platelet level at diagnosis is associated with the prognosis of ALL children. The children with normal platelet count have a low recurrence rate and good prognosis, and those with a platelet count of <20×10/L have the worst prognosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Prognosis , Recurrence
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775087

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the long-term clinical effect of the CCLG-ALL2008 regimen in the treatment of children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with different molecular biological features.@*METHODS@#A total of 940 children who were newly diagnosed with ALL were enrolled in this study. The children were treated with the CCLG-ALL2008 regimen. A retrospective analysis was performed for the long-term outcome of ALL children with different molecular biological features.@*RESULTS@#Among the 940 children with ALL, there were 570 boys and 370 girls, with a median age of onset of 5 years (range 1-15 years) and a median follow-up time of 65 months (range 3-123 months). The complete response (CR) rate was 96.7%, the predicted 10-year overall survival (OS) rate was 76.5%±1.5%, and the event-free survival (EFS) rate was 62.6%±3.0%. After CR was achieved after treatment, the overall recurrence rate was 21.9%. The children with positive ETV6-RUNX1 had the lowest recurrence rate and were prone to late recurrence, and those with positive MLL rearrangement had the highest recurrence rate and were prone to early recurrence. The children with positive ETV6-RUNX1 had a significantly higher predicted 10-year OS rate than those with positive TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL, or MLL rearrangement and those without molecular biological features (P<0.05). The children with positive ETV6-RUNX1 had a significantly higher predicted 10-year EFS rate than those with positive BCR-ABL or MLL rearrangement (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Molecular biological features may affect the long-term prognosis of children with ALL, and positive MLL rearrangement and BCR-ABL fusion gene are indicators of poor prognosis. Children with positive ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene have the highest long-term survival rate.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl , Humans , Infant , Male , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Drug Therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the complications and clinical outcome of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing mitoxantrone-cytarabine-etoposide (MAE) induction therapy.@*METHODS@#A total of 170 children with AML were given MAE induction therapy, and the complications and remission rate were analyzed after treatment.@*RESULTS@#The male/female ratio was 1.33:1 and the mean age was 7.4 years (range 1-15 years). Leukocyte count at diagnosis was 29.52×10/L [range (0.77-351)×10/L]. Of all children, 2 had M0-AML, 24 had M2-AML, 2 had M4-AML, 48 had M5-AML, 3 had M6-AML, 7 had M7-AML, 69 had AML with t(8;21)(q22;q22), and 15 had AML with inv(16)(p13.1q22) or t(16;16)(p13.1;q22). The most common complication was infection (158/170, 92.9%). Among these 158 patients, 22 (13.9%) had agranulocytosis with pyrexia (with no definite focus of infection), and 136 (86.1%) had definite focus of infection (including bloodstream infection). Other complications included non-infectious diarrhea, bleeding, and drug-induced hepatitis. Treatment-related mortality was observed in 10 children, among whom 8 had severe infection, 1 had multiple organ failure, and 1 had respiratory failure. Remission rate was evaluated for 156 children and the results showed a complete remission rate of 85.3%, a partial remission rate of 4.5%, and a non-remission rate of 10.3%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Induction therapy with the MAE regimen helps to achieve a good remission rate in children with AML after one course of treatment. Infection is the main complication and a major cause of treatment-related mortality.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytarabine , Drug Administration Schedule , Etoposide , Female , Humans , Infant , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Drug Therapy , Male , Mitoxantrone , Remission Induction
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351407

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of clonal evolution after immunosuppressive therapy (IST) in children with severe/very severe aplastic anemia (SAA/VSAA).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of 231 children with newly-diagnosed SAA/VSAA who received IST were retrospectively studied. The incidence and risk factors of clonal evolution after IST were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The 5-year overall survival rate of the 231 patients was 82.7%. Except for 18 cases of early deaths, 213 patients were evaluated for IST efficacy. Among the 231 patients, cytogenetic abnormalities for at least two chromosome metaphase were detectable in 14 (7.4%) patients, and PNH clones were detectable in either peripheral red blood cells or neutrophils for 95 patients. Among the 213 patients evaluated for IST efficacy, 15 patients experienced clonal evolution after IST. Five patients had PNH and trisomy 8 which were defined as favorable progressions, and ten patients experienced monosomy 7 and MDS/AML as unfavorable progressions. The 5-year accumulative incidence of favorable and unfavorable progression were (2.2±2.2)% and (4.8±3.3)%, respectively. Until the last follow-up, 100% (5/5) of patients with favorable progressions and 50% (5/10) of patients with unfavorable progressions survived. WBC>3.5×10/L, CD3T cell percentage>80%, dosage of antithymocyte globulin >3.0 mg/(kg·d) and no response to IST were related to unfavorable progressions by univariate analysis. Cox multivariate analysis revealed that an increased CD3T cell percentage (>80%) and no response to IST were independent risk factors for unfavorable progressions.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The children with SAA/VSAA who have an increased CD3T cell percentage at diagnosis or have no response to IST are in high risks of unfavorable progressions.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anemia, Aplastic , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Chromosome Aberrations , Clonal Evolution , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Infant , Male , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279901

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the application of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in the detection of copy number variations (CNVs) in pediatric ETV6/RUNX1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), to compare this method with conventional karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and to evaluate the value of MLPA.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of 95 children with ETV6/RUNX1-positive ALL who were treated from January 2006 to November 2012 were analyzed retrospectively, including clinical features, results of karyotype analysis, and results of FISH. CNVs were detected with MLPA.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>CNVs were detected in 73 (77%), and the median number of CNVs was 1 (range 0-6). The CNVs of EBF1, CDKN2A/2B, PAX5, ETV6, RB1, and BTG1 were detected in more than 10% of all the patients. The changes in the chromosome segments carrying the genes with CNVs detected by MLPA were not detected by conventional karyotype analysis. The coincidence rate between the CNVs in ETV6 gene detected by FISH and those detected by MLPA was 66%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>MLPA is an efficient and convenient method to detect CNVs in children with ETV6/RUNX1-positive ALL.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit , DNA Copy Number Variations , Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Infant , Male , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Genetics
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261243

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To identify the incidence of PAX5 deletion in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) without reproducible chromosomal abnormalities and to investigate the association between PAX5 abnormalities and prognosis of ALL.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to determine the copy numbers of PAX5 gene in children newly diagnosed with B-ALL without reproducible chromosomal abnormalities between April 2008 and April 2013 and controls (children with non-hematologic diseases or tumors). The patients were classifiied into deletion group and non-deletion group based on the presence of PAX5 deletion.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Eighteen (21%) out of 86 children with B-ALL had PAX5 deletion. The deletion group had a significantly higher total white blood cell count at diagnosis than the non-deletion group (P=0.001). The Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the deletion group had a significantly lower disease-free survival (DFS) rate than the non-deletion group (0.69±0.12 vs 0.90±0.04; P=0.017), but there was no significant difference in the overall survival rate between the two groups (P=0.128). The Cox analysis showed that PAX5 deletion was a risk factor for DFS (P=0.03).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>PAX5 deletion is an independent risk factor for DFS in B-ALL children without reproducible chromosomal abnormalities.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Adolescent , Cell Lineage , Child , Child, Preschool , Chromosome Aberrations , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Gene Deletion , Humans , Infant , Male , PAX5 Transcription Factor , Genetics , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Genetics , Mortality
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261155

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the association between clinical outcome and gene mutations in children with Fanconi anemia (FA).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of six children with the same severity of FA and receiving the same treatment. At first, single cell gel electrophoresis and chromosome breakage induced by mitomycin C were performed for diagnosis. Then the gene detection kit for congenital bone marrow failure diseases or complementation test was used for genotyping of FA. Finally the association between the clinical outcome at 3, 6, 9, or 12 months after treatment and gene mutation was analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of all the six FA children, five had FANCA type disease, and one had FANCM type disease; four children carried two or more FA gene mutations. Among the children with the same severity of FA, those with more FA mutations had a younger age of onset and poorer response to medication, and tended to progress to a severe type.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Children carrying more than two FA mutations have a poor clinical outcome, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be performed as soon as possible.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Fanconi Anemia , Genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Mutation , Retrospective Studies
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-284827

ABSTRACT

On account of the dense cuticles of the fresh stem and the light, hard and pliable texture of the dried stem, Dendrobii Caulis is difficult to dry or pulverize. So, it is very important to the ancient doctors that Dendrobii Caulis should be properly treated and applied to keep or evoke its medicinal effects. The current textual research results about the preliminary processing, processing and usage methods of Dendrobii Caulis showed that: (1) In history the clinical use of fresh or processed Dendrobii Caulis as teas and tinctures were very common. (2) Its roots and rhizomes would be removed before using. (3) Some ancillary approaches were applied to shorten drying times, such as rinsing with boiling mulberry-ash soup, washing or soaking with liquor, mixing with rice pulp and then basking, etc. (4) According to the ancients knowledge, the sufficient pulverization, by means of slicing, rasping, hitting or pestling techniques, was necessary for Dendrobii Caulis to take its effects. (5) The heat processing methods for Dendrobii Caulis included stir-baking, stir-frying, steaming, decocting and stewing techniques, usually with liquor as an auxiliary material. Among above mentioned, steaming by pretreating with liquor was most commonly used, and this scheme was colorfully drawn in Bu Yi Lei Gong Pao Zhi Bian Lan (Ming Dynasty, 1591 CE) ; moreover, decocting in advance or long-time simmering so as to prepare paste products were recommended in the Qing Dynasty. (6) Some different processing programs involving stir-baking with grit, air-tightly baking with ondol (Kangs), fumigating with sulfur, which appeared in modern times and brought attractive outward appearance of the drug, went against ancients original intentions of ensuring drug efficacy.


Subject(s)
Dendrobium , History, Ancient , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , History , Technology, Pharmaceutical , History
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346155

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the clinical features of children with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with the CCLG-ALL2008 protocol.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The data of 591 children who were newly diagnosed with ALL and were treated with the CCLG-ALL 2008 protocol between April 2008 and June 2013 were collected, and the clinical features of 80 children with relapsed ALL were retrospectively analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After treatment with the CCLG-ALL2008 protocol, the recurrence rate in the standard-risk, intermediate-risk and the high-risk groups were 7.0%, 10.7% and 28.7% respectively (P<0.05). The recurrence rate in patients with TEL/AML1-positive ALL was 8.0%, and the 5-year overall survival (OS) of the relapsed patients was 37.04%. The recurrence rates in patients with MLL-positive and BCR/ABL-positive ALL were 35.0% and 24.2% respectively, and none of the relapsed patients had long-term survival. The recurrence mainly occurred at the very early stage (53%), and none of patients with recurrence at the very early stage had long-term survival. The recurrence occurred at early stage and late stage accounted for 34% and 14% respectively, and the 5-year OS rates of patients with recurrence at early stage and late stage were 11.44% and 60.00% respectively. The sites of recurrence were mainly bone marrow alone (83%), and the 5-year OS of patients with recurrence at bone marrow alone was 9.23%. The recurrence in bone marrow and outside bone marrow accounted for 11%, and the 5-year OS of patients with recurrence in both bone marrow and outside bone marrow was 25.00%. The recurrence only outside bone marrow accounted for 6%, and the 5-year OS of patients with recurrence only outside bone marrow was 100%. The recurrence rate in patients with T-cell ALL was 9.5%, and none of the relapsed patients had long-term survival. The recurrence rate in patients with B-cell ALL was 14.3%, and the 5-year OS of the relapsed patients was 15.52%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>After treatment with the CCLG-ALL2008 protocol, a relatively high recurrence rate is observed in children with high-risk ALL. Positive MLL and positive BCR/ABL are high-risk factors for recurrence. The recurrence rate is not significantly correlated with immunophenotype. A very low survival rate is seen in children whose recurrence have the following features: at early stage, only in bone marrow, T-cell ALL, and abnormal BCR/ABL and MLL.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289481

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study gene mutations and clinical features in children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of 14 children who were diagnosed with JMML and were examined for the detection of common gene mutations were retrospectively analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Eleven (79%) out of 14 cases were male, and 3 (21%) were female. The median age at diagnosis was 2.0 years (age range: 0.6-6.0 years). Among 14 cases, there were 4 cases (29%) with PTPN11 mutation, 3 cases (21%) with N-RAS mutation, 1 case (7%) with PTPN11 mutation and K-RAS mutation, and 6 cases (43%) without any mutation. All four cases in the PTPN11 mutation group were male, and their median age was 2.5 years; interval from onset to diagnosis was 1.0 month; the white blood cell (WBC) count and absolute monocytes in peripheral blood were significantly higher, while the platelet (PLT) count was lower, as compared with the other three groups; they were followed up, and 3 cases died and 1 case had a progressive disease. In the N-RAS mutation group, there were two male cases and one female case, and their median age was 2.0 years; interval from onset to diagnosis was 13.7 months; after follow-up, 2 cases died and 1 case did not have an obviously progressive disease.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>PTPN11 mutation is the most common mutation in JMML. The cases with PTPN11 mutation often have higher WBC count and absolute monocytes in peripheral blood, a lower PLT count, and a rapid disease progression, and their clinical outcomes are poor. The cases with N-RAS mutation have a slow disease progression. The clinical characteristics of the patients with compound mutations are not sure because of the small number of cases, and further clinical observation is indispensable.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Genes, ras , Humans , Infant , Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Juvenile , Blood , Genetics , Male , Mutation , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 11 , Genetics , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289480

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the methylation rate of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (CDKN2B) in the 9P21 region in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the association of gene methylation with clinical features and outcomes.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of 58 children who were newly diagnosed with AML between January 2010 and December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-eight healthy children were recruited as the control group. Genomic DNA was extracted from bone marrow or peripheral blood of the 58 patients and 38 healthy children. The methylation status of CDKN2A and CDKN2B was analyzed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Gene methylation was not found in healthy children. Methylation probes of 44 patients were detected in 58 patients. The methylation of CDKN2A was detected with 136 bp and 237 bp methylation probes. The methylation of CDKN2B was detected with 130 bp, 210 bp, 220 bp, and 417 bp methylation probes. The methylation rate of CDKN2A was 5%, while the methylation rate of CDKN2B was 76%. The methylation detected by some probes was associated with sex, hemoglobin, and platelet count at the first visit.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The methylation of CDKN2B is a common event in children with AML, while the methylation of CDKN2A is relatively rare.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15 , Genetics , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 , Genetics , DNA Methylation , Female , Humans , Infant , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Genetics , Male
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289478

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the clinical features of patients with refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of 1 420 children (0-14 years old) with an initial diagnosis of non-severe aplastic anemia between January 1990 and June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Bone marrow cell morphology and histopathology were re-evaluated, and the patients were re-classified using the criteria proposed in the 2008 edition of the World Health Organization classification of RCC in hematopoietic and lymphoid tumor tissues. The clinical outcomes were followed up every 3-6 months.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Among all the 1 420 cases, 152 (10.7%) were reassessed as RCC. Patients with RCC had a lower level of hemoglobin and a higher percentage of fetal hemoglobin than those with non-severe aplastic anemia. Of the patients with RCC, 21.5% showed abnormal karyotypes at diagnosis. The median follow-up period for all patients was 36 months (ranging from 1 to 283 months). The rates of complete response, partial response, and no response to cyclosporine and androgen treatment in RCC patients were 19.0%, 26.7%, and 54.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year prospective overall survival rates of RCC patients were 87.9% and 72.4%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year prospective clonal evolution rates were 15.3% and 20.0%, respectively. The 2-year prospective incidence of newly diagnosed karyotype abnormality after the initial diagnosis was 3.6%. The 5- and 10-year prospective leukemia transformation rates were 10.0% and 20.0%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>RCC shows clinical features similar to adult myelodysplastic syndrome. Children with RCC have a poor prognosis, an increased risk of transformation to leukemia, and a low response rate to cyclosporine treatment.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Clonal Evolution , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Pancytopenia , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
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