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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873345

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of modified Erchentang on the expression of CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 8-CXC chemotaxis factor receptor (CXCR) 1/2 genes in the lung tissue of rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), in order to explore the anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism of Erchentang on COPD. Method:Forty SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, Jizhi syrup group and modified Erchentang group. COPD models in rats were prepared by cigarette smoke and dripping lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the trachea. After modeling, normal and model groups were intragastrically given normal saline solution, Jizhi syrup group was given Jizhi syrup(10 g·kg-1),and modified Erchentang group was given intragastrically corresponding herbal drugs (10 g·kg-1) for 14 days. The levels of chemokines CXCL1, CXCL8 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The mRNA expressions of CXCL8, CXCR1 and CXCR2 were detected by quantitative real time PCR (Real-time PCR). Western blot was used to detect the levels of CXCL8, CXCR1 and CXCR2 protein, the pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining,and immunohistochemistry (IHC) method was used to detect the expressions of CXCL8, CXCR1 and CXCR2 protein in the lung tissue of all the groups. Result:The levels of chemokines CXCL1, CXCL8 in rats BALF were increased significantly (P<0.01), the expressions of CXCL8,CXCR1 and CXCR2 mRNA and protein were increased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01) in model group compared with normal group. Compared with model group, the expressions of CXCL8, CXCR1 and CXCR2 mRNA and protein were decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the levels of chemokines CXCL1, CXCL8 in rats BALF were decreased significantly (P<0.01) in modified Erchentang. Conclusion:Modified Erchentang has an anti-inflammatory effect on COPD. The mechanism may be related to inhibiting the expressions of CXCL8, CXCR1, CXCR2 mRNA and protein, and reducing the release of chemokines CXCL1, CXCL8.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873140

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as a common respiratory disease characterized by progressive development, not only has the incidence increased year by year, but also has a high disability and mortality rate, which brings serious economic burden to patients. Immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Studies have shown that COPD is closely related to the disorder of autoimmune function, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interferes with the disease process of COPD by mediating immune response. This paper mainly contains four kinds of research contents of TCM intervention on COPD immune response, namely T lymphocyte subsets count, immunoglobulin count, Th17/Treg dynamic balance, Th1/Th2 dynamic balance and related signaling pathways. In order to provide new reference and ideas for experimental research, a brief review is made at the end of this paper.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872819

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of modified Erchentang on levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-9 (IL-9), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of all rats, as well as expressions of interleukin-4 (IL-4) receptor (IL-4R1) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) receptor (IL-13RA1) in bronchioles tissue of rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Method:Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, namely normal group, model group, and low, middle and high-dose modified Erchentang groups (5, 10, 20 g·kg-1), with 10 rats in each group. COPD in rat was prepared by using cigarette smoke combined with dripping lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in trachea. After the modeling, normal and model groups were given normal saline solution through intragastric (ig) administration, while other groups were given corresponding herbal drugs (5, 10, 20 g·kg-1) intragastrically (ig) for 14 days. The levels of IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-9, IL-4 and IL-13 in plasma and BALF were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) method was used to detect the expressions of IL-4R1 and IL-13RA1 in bronchioles tissue of all of the groups. Result:Compared with the normal group, the levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ were decreased significantly (P<0.01), but the levels of IL-9, IL-4 and IL-13 in plasma and BALF were significantly increased (P<0.01), and the expressions of IL-4R1 and IL-13RA1 in bronchioles tissue were increased significantly (P<0.01) in model group. Compared with the model group, the levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ were increased significantly, while the levels of IL-9, IL-4 and IL-13 in plasma and BALF were decreased significantly (P<0.01), and the expressions of IL-4R1 and IL-13RA1 in bronchioles tissue were decreased significantly (P<0.01) in modified Erchentang groups (10, 20 g·kg-1). Conclusion:Modified Erchentang has effects in resisting inflammatory and protecting tissue structure of bronchioles. Its mechanism may be correlated with increasing the levels of IL-12, IFN-γ and reducing the levels of IL-9, IL-4 and IL-13 in plasma and BALF, and inhibiting the expressions of IL-4R1 and IL-13RA1 in bronchioles tissue.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801764

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effect of modified Erchentang on expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor (MyD88) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) genes in the lung tissue homogenate of rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Method: Forty SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, modified Erchentang group and EVP4593 (NF-κB inhibitor) group. Rat COPD models were prepared through cigarette smoke and tracheal dripping with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After the modeling, normal and model groups were intragastrically given normal saline solution, EVP4593 group was given EVP4593(1 mg · kg-1) through subcutaneous injection, and modified Erchentang group was given corresponding herbal drugs intragastrically (10 g · kg-1) for 14 days. The levels of high mobility group box 1(HMGB1), chemokines CXCL-2, CXCL-3 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in rats serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in rats serum. The expressions of Toll-like receptors 4(TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor (MyD88) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA were detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (Real-time PCR) method. Western blot were used to detect the levels of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB p65 and p-NF-κB p65 protein. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) method was used to detect the localization and expressions of TLR4, MyD88 and p-NF-κB p65 protein in the lung tissue. Result: The mRNA and protein expressions of TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB p65 were increased significantly (PPκB p65 mRNA and protein were decreased significantly (PConclusion: Modified Erchentang may inhibit the inflammatory response of COPD effectively. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of the expressions of the signal molecule genes involved in the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway and the reduction of the release of HMGB1, CXCL-2, CXCL-3 and MCP-1.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801762

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the effects of Erchen on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor R2 (VEGFR2), interleukin (IL)-4 and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Method: The 50 SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, 10 rats in each group, which were normal group, model group, Erchentang low, medium and high dose group (10, 20, 40 g · kg-1 · d-1). COPD rat model was established by smoking combined with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intratracheal drip. After successful modeling, the treatment group was given intragastric administration, and the normal group and the model group were given intragastric distilled water of equal volume. The pathological changes of pulmonary vessels in rats were observed by light microscopy, and the thickness of pulmonary vascular wall was measured. The concentration of IL-4 in rat serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung homogenate was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was used to detect the expression of ET-1 and immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of VEGF,VEGFR2 and ET-1 in lung tissue. Result: Compared with normal group, the concentration of IL-4 in serum, BALF and lung homogenate of model group rats decreased significantly (PPPPPPConclusion: Modified Erchentang can alleviate the process of pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary vascular remodeling in COPD rats, and slow down the progress of COPD and its complications by increasing the content of IL-4, inhibiting the expression of VEGF, VEGFR2, ET-1.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801761

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the effect of modified Erchentang on the expression of interleukin-19 (IL-19), interleukin-20 (IL-20)and their receptor IL-20R1, IL-20R2 in bronchioles of rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and to explore the molecular mechanism of modified Erchentang on anti-inflammatory of COPD. Method: The model of rat with COPD was established by cigarette smoke combined with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The experimental rats were randomly divided into 6 groups:normal group, model group, modified Erchentang high, medium and low dose group, and Jizhitangjiang group. Normal group and model group fed with normal saline 4 mL · d-1, modified Erchentang high, middle, low dosage group(20,10,5 g · kg-1 · d-1).The dosage of Jizhitangjiang group was 12 g · kg-1 · d-1, all groups were given intragastric administration for 14 days, twice a day. To observe the general situation of rats.To evaluate the pulmonary function of rats. To detect the contents of IL-10, IL-19 and IL-20 in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).To observe the pathological changes of bronchiole tissue by light microscopy.To detect the expression of IL-20R1 and IL-20R2 in bronchiole tissue by immunohistochemistry. Result: Compared with normal group, peak expiratory flow(PEF), forced expiratory volume in one second(FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC in model group were significantly increased (PPP1 and in bronchioles tissue significantly increased (P1, FVC, FEV1/FVC of Jizhitangjiang group, modified Erchentang high, medium and low dosage group were significantly increased(PPP1 and IL-20R2 in bronchioles tissue was significantly decreased (PConclusion: Modified Erchentang can improve the lung function and protect the tissue structure of bronchioles in COPD rats, which may be related to the inhibition of the expression of IL-19, IL-20 and their receptor IL-20R1, IL-20R2 in bronchioles of rats with modified Erchentang.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801760

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of modified Erchentang on the signal pathway of β2 adrenergicreceptor(β2AR)/arrestin beta 2(β-arrestin2) in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the expression of interleukin-17(IL-17) in serum, lung homogenate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Method: Seventy SD rats were randomly divided into seven groups:normal group, model group, modified Erchentang with high, medium and low doses (40, 20, 10 g · kg-1 · d-1), Xiaokechuan group (5 g · kg-1 · d-1), modified Erchentang group (5 g · kg-1 · d-1), 10 rats in each group. The rat model of COPD was established by smoking and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intratracheal drip. After successful modeling, the treatment group was given intragastric administration, while the normal group and the model group were given the same amount of saline. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the levels of IL-17 in serum, lung homogenate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (Real-time PCR) was used to detect the expression of β2AR gene. Western blot was used to detect the expression of β2AR protein in lung tissue. The expression of β2AR and β-arrestin2 in lung tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. Result: Compared with the normal group, the expression of β2AR protein in lung tissue of model group was significantly decreased(Pβ2AR protein in lung tissue was significantly increased(PPβ2AR in model group was significantly lower(Pβ2AR in high, medium and low dose group, Xiaokechuan group and modified Erchentang group was significantly higher(PPPPConclusion: Modified Erchentang may increase the expression of β2AR and β-arrestin2 and decrease the content of IL-17 in order to resist inflammation and improve pulmonary function in COPD rats.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801759

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of modified Erchentang on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) protein and gene expressions in lung tissue of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rat model, and the expressions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in serum, lung homogenate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Method: Seventy SD rats were randomly divided into seven groups:normal group, model group, high, medium and low-dose modified Erchentang groups (40, 20, 10 g · kg-1 · d-1), Xiaokechuan group (5 g · kg-1 · d-1), and Erchentang group (5 g · kg-1 · d-1). The rat COPD model was established through smoking and intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After successful modeling, the treatment group was given drug by gavage, while the normal group and the model group were given the same amount of saline. The concentrations of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in serum, lung homogenate and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) of rats were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (Real-time PCR) was used to detect the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot were used to detect the expression of PPARγ in lung tissue. Result: Compared with the normal group, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in serum, lung homogenate and BALF of the model group rats increased significantly (PPγ mRNA in lung tissue of rats in model group were significantly decreased (Pγ protein was significantly inhibited(Pα in serum, lung homogenate and BALF of each treatment group decreased to varying degrees(Pα in the middle-dose Erchentang group were particularly significant. The PPARγ mRNA and protein expressions in lung tissue of rats in each treatment group were increased to varying degrees (PConclusion: Modified Erchentang may improve pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary function in COPD rats by increasing the expression of PPARγ and the content of IL-10 and decreasing the contents of IL-6 and TNF-α.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801758

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the effect of modified Erchentang on GATA-binding protein-3(GATA3) and T-box expressed in T cells(T-bet) in lung tissue of rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Method: Seventy SD rats were randomly divided into seven groups, namely normal group, model group, low, medium and high-dose modified Erchentang group(5,10,20 g ·kg-1), Xiaokechuan group(5 g ·kg-1) and Erchentang group(5 g ·kg-1), with 10 in each group. The rat model of COPD was established by smoking combined with intratracheal dripping of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After successful modeling, the treatment group was given intragastric administration, and the normal group and the model group were given intragastric administration of equal volume of saline. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the concentrations of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) in rat serum. The expressions of GATA3 and T-bet were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). The expressions of GATA3 and T-bet in lung tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Result: Compared with the control group, the serum levels of IL-10 in the model group was significantly decreased, while the IL-12 level was significantly increased (PPPPConclusion: Modified Erchentang may reduce the inflammation of lung tissue and improve lung function in COPD rats by reducing IL-12, increasing the content of IL-10, inhibiting the protein and gene expressions of T-bet, and stimulating the protein and gene expressions of GATA3.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801757

ABSTRACT

Erchentang originated from Taiping Huimin Heji Ju Fang written in the Northern Song Dynasty, is recognized as the ancestor prescription of expectorant in past dynasties. The prescription is rigorous and well-matched, which can regulate Qi and expectorate phlegm. It has a definite curative effect on phlegm-drinking syndrome and related diseases. In recent years, the research on the mechanism of action has expanded and deepened. According to the collected data, in recent years, the research on Erchentang is mostly related to the treatment of respiratory diseases. Even other diseases of the system are often treated from the lung through the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, which provides a new way of thinking for the treatment of diseases. Most of the studies on Erchentang are flavored or combined prescriptions of Erchentang. Based on this, through the collection of research data, it is found that the reasons for this characteristic are related to the medication rules of doctors in past dynasties. Pharmacological research has become a hot topic, often involving multiple signal transduction pathways, to explore the multi-target therapeutic effect of Erchentang. Pharmacological research is also focused on the treatment of respiratory diseases, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the research content is particularly detailed. This paper will briefly summarize the research progress of Erchentang from the aspects of literature research, clinical research and pharmacological research. The latest literature research is helpful to understand the meaning of Erchentang, and many researchers have clarified the mechanism of Erchentang in vivo through the latest detection technology.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801756

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory disease with a high morbidity, disability and mortality. At the same time, COPD is always accompanied by pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, chronic pulmonary heart disease, right heart failure and other common serious complications. All of these cause serious financial burden for the family of patients. Airway remodeling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of COPD. It is the progressive development of airflow restriction that induces the main symptoms of COPD, such as cough, asthma and depression. Therefore, it is of great research value to explore the intervention of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in the development of COPD by alleviating airway remodeling. Studies have shown that multiple signaling pathways can induce progressive airway remodeling, and the therapeutic effect of TCM has been frequently confirmed by experimental studies. TCM often has a therapeutic effect on COPD through multi-target and multi-channel mediation. This paper mainly includes five signaling pathways that traditional Chinese medicine can intervene COPD airway remodeling, namely matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs), transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1/Smads, RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/b-fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. This paper briefly reviews the research progress of these five signaling pathways, and discusses other signaling pathways that may be involved, in order to provide reference and ideas for future experimental research.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801722

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of modified Erchentang on CXC chemokine ligand receptors (CXCR1/2)and their ligands CXCL8,macrophage inflammatory protein -2(MIP-2) in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(AECOPD)at acute exacerbation stage,and assess the effect and mechanism of modified Erchentang on anti-inflammatory in patients of AECOPD. Method:This study was a multicenter, randomized single blind, controlled trial. The authors selected 200 cases in conformity to the standards of AECOPD. The AECOPD patients were randomly divided into modified Erchentang group and control group. In addition to the western medicine, modified Erchentang was also given to the modified Erchentang group, and Jizhitangjiang was given to the control group for 14 days. Each group was observed for the alleviation of the symptoms. Euzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the levels of CXCL8 and MIP-2 in the patients' plasma of all groups before and after treatment. Western blot were used to detect the levels of CXCR1, CXCR2 and CXCL8 protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) method was used to detect the expressions of CXCL8, CXCR1 and CXCR2 protein in PBMCs. Result:The level of CXCL8 in plasma, and the expressions of CXCR1, CXCR2 and CXCL8 mRNA and protein in the modified Erchentang group were decreased significantly than those in the control group(PPConclusion:Modified Erchentang has an anti-inflammatory effect on AECOPD. Its mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of the expressions of CXCL8, CXCR1 and CXCR2, the reduction of synthesis and release of CXCL8 and MIP-2, the inhibition of the chemotaxis and activity of inflammatory cells, and the prevention of inflammation progress.

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