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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883166

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the etiology and clinical characteristics of hospitalized severe community-acquired pneumonia(SCAP) in Changchun, and provide scientific basis for its etiology diagnosis and targeted treatment.Methods:The study subjects included 618 children with clinical diagnosis of SCAP who were hospitalized from January 2016 to December 2019.We collected pharyngeal swabs and alveolar lavage fluid from children.Virus isolation, bacterial culture, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, PCR/RT-PCR, colloidal gold method and Optochin test were used to detect the antigen, nucleic acid and protein profiles in the specimen.Results:There were more boys than girls in hospitalized children with SCAP.The peak age of onset was 7 to 12 months.Most cases occurred in winter and spring.The highest detection rate of SCAP virus was 56.15%(347/618); 73.49%(255/347) were positive for one virus, among which the top five were respiratory syncytial virus (27.8%), influenza A virus (23.9%), influenza B virus (16.1%), rhinovirus (12.2%) and metapneumovirus (10.2%). Two viruses were positive for 19.88%(69/347); three viruses were positive for 4.32%(15/347); four viruses were positive for 2.31%(8/347). Atypical microbial infections were 29.77%(184/618), of which Mycoplasma pneumoniae accounted for 95.65%(176/184). Bacterial infections were 17.31%(107/618), mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae(39.25%, 42/107) and Staphylococcus aureus(24.30%, 26/107). The mixed infection of multiple pathogens was 7.61%(47/618), among which the mixed infection rates of Mycoplasma pneumonia with Streptococcus pneumoniae, virus were 40.43% and 34.04%, respectively.High fever, faster breathing, and perioral cyanosis were risk factors for SCAP, with OR and 95% CI of 7.71 and 4.56-13.04, 2.43 and 2.02-2.93, 3.53 and 2.56-4.86, respectively.Viral co-infection occurred in 36.96%(34/92) of complications such as heart failure, toxic encephalopathy, and myocardial damage; Mycoplasma pneumoniae and other pathogens co-infected 35.29% of children with pleural effusion. Conclusion:The pathogens of SCAP in Changchun are mainly viruses notably, respiratory syncytial virus is the dominant pathogen, followed by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.The bacterial pathogen is mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae.High fever, faster breathing, and cyanosis around the mouth are risk factors for severe pneumonia.Multi-pathogen mixed infection is prone to serious complications.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-752329

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the clinical features and pathogenic spectrum of encephalitis and menin﹣gitis syndrome in children. Methods A total of 667 cases of children with encephalitis or meningitis diagnosed and documented at Changchun Children′s Hospital from May 2012 to July 2015 were enrolled. A variety of samples in diffe﹣rent types were collected and presented,including 335 cerebrospinal fluid specimens,530 blood samples,and 332 stool samples. All the samples were collected from the patients within 72 hours on admission. Moreover,these samples are analyzed and tested,including PCR for enterovirus(EV),herpesvirus(HSV),mycobacterium tuberculosis( TB)and My﹣coplasma pneumoniae(MP)nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid samples;fecal specimens were tested for EV,enterovirus 71(EV71),coxsackievirus A6(CA6),coxsackievirus A16(CVA16),coxsackievirus A10( CVA10)nucleic acids;degenerate primers to amplify Echovirus 30(Echo30). Clinical data of children were collected. Results The peak in﹣cidence of encephalitis and meningitis syndrome was from June to August,age distribution was from 0 to 15 years old, the proportion of children aged from 0-6 accounted for 81. 41﹪;the highest proportion was among 0-1 years old in﹣fants,occupying 32. 38﹪;408 males and 259 females;the main symptoms were fever(586 cases),apathy(337 ca﹣ses),vomiting(307 cases)and headache(203 cases). And clinical signs included drowsiness(103 cases),neck stiff﹣ness(71 cases),meningeal irritation(12 cases),and pathological reflex( 313 cases),etc. The clinical diagnosis included 272 cases of viral encephalitis,332 cases of severe hand,foot and mouth disease complicated by encephalitis, 30 cases of bacterial meningitis,and 33 other cases;the etiological detection included:the positive rates of EV,EBV and Echo30 in cerebrospinal fluid specimens were 59. 72﹪,3. 16﹪ and 70. 00﹪,respectively. And EV71,CVA16,CVA6, EV71+CA16 and EV71+CVA16+CVA6 nucleic acids were detected in fecal samples,in which the highest detection rate was EV71(98. 96﹪). Conclusions In Changchun Children′s Hospital,the children with encephalitis and menin﹣gitis are mainly viral encephalitis. The main symptoms were fever,apathetic,drowsiness,vomiting and headache. Signs included,neck stiffness,meningeal irritation,and pathological reflexes,etc. The main pathogen of the disease is EV71.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805268

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To study the application of measles specific IgM and IgG antibody detection in classification of primary vaccination failure (PVF) and secondary vaccination failure (SVF).@*Methods@#Measles surveillance information system was used to collect measles confirmed cases in Tianjin, 2013-2015, and their blood specimens were collected, totally 284 cases were enrolled. Measles IgM and IgG were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the relative avidity index (RAI) was used to express the result of measles avidity. Measles IgM, IgG and IgM/IgG was analyzed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) as evaluation indicators. In addition, compared with a measles outbreak (26 cases) of a middle school in Tianjin in 2016, for making further verification on the diagnostic value of vaccination failure with IgM, IgG and IgM/IgG.@*Results@#The age of cases ranged was 0-58 years old, the interval median (P25, P75) of serum collection after rash onset was 2 (1, 4) days. The positive rate of measles IgM and IgG in acute phase specimens were 76.06% (216 cases) and 88.38% (251 cases). According to the ROC curve analysis, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of IgM, IgG and IgM/IgG were 0.753, 0.891 and 0.952, indicating that IgM/IgG was the best index to distinguish PVF and SVF. The best cut off value for IgM/IgG was 0.06, the sensibility and specificity were 88.75% and 86.63%. When IgM/IgG >1, 96.30% cases were low-avidity (RAI <40%), only 1 case was equivocal response (RAI: 40%-60%). 97.14% cases were high-avidity (RAI >60%) when IgM/IgG <0.01, only 3 cases were equivocal response (RAI 40%-60%). The threshold of IgM/IgG was used to verify the measles outbreak of a middle school in Tianjin, 2016. In the acute phase specimens, 100% (26 cases) of IgM/IgG were <0.06, 84.62% (22 cases) of IgM/IgG were <0.01.@*Conclusion@#The detection of measles IgM and IgG with ELISA, and IgM/IgG is a valuable diagnostic tool to distinguish PVF and SVF.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804952

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To clarify the genotype of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in Jilin province in 2017, and to discriminate between vaccine strain and wild-type strain.@*Methods@#Vesicle fluid and throat swab samples were collected from 10 individuals with suspected VZV in Jilin province from January to March of 2017. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to detect viral nucleic acid. Specific regions of ORF22, ORF38 and ORF62 of VZV were amplified by PCR. Viral genotype was determined by five SNPs of ORF 22 and vaccine strain or wild-type strain was distinguished by four SNPs of ORF 38 and ORF 62. The results were analyzed with MEGA5 and BioEdit software, using the VZV reference strain sequences from GenBank.@*Results@#VZV-positive strains were detected in 10 samples, all belonged to Clade 2. There was a synonymous mutation (C→T) in position 38 048 of JL17-7 strain. The nucleotide homology of ORF22 showed that all 10 samples were on the same branch with the Clade 2 referenced strains. Compared with Clade 2 referenced strains, the homology of nucleotide and amino acid for all 10 samples were 99.5%-100% and 99.3%-100%, respectively. The four specific SNPs of ORF38 and ORF62 in 10 samples were A-T-T-T, which were consistent with wild-type strain.@*Conclusions@#This study reveals that the VZV strains circulating in Jilin province in 2017 were all wild-type strains belonging to Clade 2.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-804606

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the pathogenic composition of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (Ningxia) from 2016 to 2017, and analyze the genetic characteristics of the main pathogens enterovirus (EV)-A71 and coxsackievirus (CV)-A16.@*Methods@#Analysis of the result of nucleic acid testing of HFMD in Ningxia from 2016 to 2017 to determine the pathogenic composition of HFMD. The complete VP1 coding region was amplified by RT-PCR and the gene sequence was determined for the enterovirus strains sent to the National HFMD Network Monitoring Laboratory in Ningxia from 2016 to 2017. BLAST analysis confirmed the serotype of the strain, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed respectively by selecting EV-A71 and CV-A16 isolates.@*Results@#The leading pathogens of HFMD in Ningxia of 2016 and 2017 were other EV (397, 43.72%) and EV-A71 (918, 56.18%) respectively, and the dominant pathogens in different months may differ. The pathogenic composition causing HFMD in the past two years has changed from CV-A16 and other EV to EV-A71 and other EV. The isolated EV-A71 strains were C4a evolutionary branch and the isolated CV-A16 strains were B1b evolutionary branch.@*Conclusions@#Compared to 2016, in 2017 EV-A71, CV-A16 and other EV changed dynamically. Dynamic monitoring of EV-A71 in Ningxia is of great significance to guide the strategy of using EV-A71 vaccine, concentrating medical resources to strengthen the treatment and reduce the mortality rate of severe HFMD cases.

6.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 585-588, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-745429

ABSTRACT

This study shows the case of a patient with peroneus brevis tendon rupture in ankle fracture.The patient complained of swelling,pain and activity limitation in her right ankle caused by sprain.She was diagnosed with ankle fracture,supination-adduction (Lauge-Hansen typing) by medical history,physical examination and imaging.The peroneus brevis tendon was noted complete ruptured when suturing the incision after ORIF,which was then repaired by"8" shaped suture.Based on literature review,the injury mechanism of the case may be because of overload inversion force toward to lateral inferior from the fracture of fibula on the peroneus brevis tendon.Additional attention should be paid to patients who suffered from an supination-adduction ankle fracture for whether peroneus brevis tendon tears before and during surgery.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800537

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The genetic characteristics of the human adenovirus type 53 (HAdV-53) strains isolated from Taiyuan city of Shanxi Province were studied to obtain the baseline data of their molecular characteristics.@*Methods@#Conjunctival swabs (n=79) were collected from epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) patients in Shanxi eye Hospital in 2016, and five HAdV-53 strains were obtained after virus isolation and identification based on the three major capsid genes sequences including Penton base, Hexon and Fiber gene. And the corresponding sequences of global epidemic HAdV-53 strains and the strains with the same genetic origin as HAdV-53 were also downloaded from GenBank database, and then the three gene database were established, respectively. With the database, phylogenetic tree was constructed, and the genetic and molecular evolutionary characteristics were analyzed with bioinformatics software.@*Results@#Five HAdV-53 strains in Shanxi Province in 2016 showed high consistency with the HAdV-53 strains prevalent in other countries in 1996-2014 (>99.8%). All HAdV-53 strains were in the same evolutionary branch with their recombinant source genotypes (HAdV-37 and HAdV-8) in Penton base and Fiber gene, respectively, and maintained a high degree of consistency in gene sequences. In Hexon gene, HAdV-53 strains were more closed to its recombinant source genotype HAdV-22, the nucleotide and amino acid sequences between two types were highly homologous, while HAdV-53 and HAdV-22 belonged to different evolutionary branches, and the evolution rate of HAdV-53 based on Hexon gene was 3.51×10-5 substitution/site/year.@*Conclusion@#HAdV-53 has become an important new ocular infectious pathogen of Taiyuan. HAdV-53 strain are relatively conservative and stable based on Penton base, Hexon, and Fiber gene.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-800108

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the clinical features and pathogenic spectrum of encephalitis and meningitis syndrome in children.@*Methods@#A total of 667 cases of children with encephalitis or meningitis diagnosed and documented at Changchun Children′s Hospital from May 2012 to July 2015 were enrolled.A variety of samples in diffe-rent types were collected and presented, including 335 cerebrospinal fluid specimens, 530 blood samples, and 332 stool samples.All the samples were collected from the patients within 72 hours on admission.Moreover, these samples are analyzed and tested, including PCR for enterovirus(EV), herpesvirus(HSV), mycobacterium tuberculosis(TB) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae(MP) nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid samples; fecal specimens were tested for EV, enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A6 (CA6), coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) nucleic acids; degenerate primers to amplify Echovirus 30 (Echo30). Clinical data of children were collected.@*Results@#The peak incidence of encephalitis and meningitis syndrome was from June to August, age distribution was from 0 to 15 years old, the proportion of children aged from 0-6 accounted for 81.41%; the highest proportion was among 0-1 years old infants, occupying 32.38%; 408 males and 259 females; the main symptoms were fever(586 cases), apathy(337 cases), vomiting (307 cases) and headache(203 cases). And clinical signs included drowsiness (103 cases), neck stiffness (71 cases), meningeal irritation (12 cases), and pathological reflex (313 cases), etc.The clinical diagnosis included 272 cases of viral encephalitis, 332 cases of severe hand, foot and mouth disease complicated by encephalitis, 30 cases of bacterial meningitis, and 33 other cases; the etiological detection included: the positive rates of EV, EBV and Echo30 in cerebrospinal fluid specimens were 59.72%, 3.16% and 70.00%, respectively.And EV71, CVA16, CVA6, EV71+ CA16 and EV71+ CVA16+ CVA6 nucleic acids were detected in fecal samples, in which the highest detection rate was EV71(98.96%).@*Conclusions@#In Changchun Children′s Hospital, the children with encephalitis and meningitis are mainly viral encephalitis.The main symptoms were fever, apathetic, drowsiness, vomiting and headache.Signs included, neck stiffness, meningeal irritation, and pathological reflexes, etc.The main pathogen of the disease is EV71.

9.
Chinese Journal of Orthopaedics ; (12): 585-588, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798057

ABSTRACT

This study shows the case of a patient with peroneus brevis tendon rupture in ankle fracture. The patient com-plained of swelling, pain and activity limitation in her right ankle caused by sprain. She was diagnosed with ankle fracture, supina-tion-adduction (Lauge-Hansen typing) by medical history, physical examination and imaging. The peroneus brevis tendon was not-ed complete ruptured when suturing the incision after ORIF, which was then repaired by "8" shaped suture. Based on literature re-view, the injury mechanism of the case may be because of overload inversion force toward to lateral inferior from the fracture of fib-ula on the peroneus brevis tendon. Additional attention should be paid to patients who suffered from an supination-adduction ankle fracture for whether peroneus brevis tendon tears before and during surgery.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806455

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the genetic characterization of glycoprotein M(gM.),glycoprotein L(gL) of varicella zoster virus.@*Methods@#According to the program of "Ministry of Science and Technology of China" , Based on the 12 suspected VZV patients monitored in Beijing (1 case), Shanghai (5 cases), Jilin (2 cases), Qinghai (1 case), Guangdong (2 case) and Sichuan (case) in 2007-2015. A total of 12 Vesicle fluid and throat swab samples were collected. Positive samples were identified by Agarose gel electrophoresis and two glycoprotein genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nucleotide sequences were determined and analyzed by PCR amplification of VZV positive specimens V-OKA-BK of the domestic varicella attenuated live vaccine and the Varilrix-1 of the imported attenuated live vaccine. Nucleotide sequences of VZV positive specimens, vaccine strains (V-OKA-BK, varilrix-1) and GenBank foreign wild strains (41 strains), parent strains (P-oka), vaccine strains (V-oka, Varilrix, Varivax) were compared using BioEdit and MEGA 5.0.@*Results@#12 specimens were VZV positive. Compared with the vaccine strains and the parent strains, the GM gene of 1 positive specimen had radical mutation at 86686 sites, which resulted in amino acid mutation, 5 positive specimens had base mutation at 87844 sites, and 30 strains of foreign wild strains had the same variation at 87 844 sites. 1 positive specimens of gL gene in 101245 sites had base mutation, and led to amino acid mutation, 6 positive specimens at 101624, 101625, 101626 sites had base of loss and the foreign wild strains in these 3 sites had the same variation. Compared with the vaccine strains, the nucleotide and amino acid homology of gM of 12 VZV positive specimens were 99.2%-100% and 98.2%-100%, respectively, and gL of those were 99.3%-100% and 98.6%-100%, respectively. Compared with 41 strains of foreign wild strains, homology of gM's nucleotides and amino acid were 99.3%-100% and 98.5%-100%, respectively; 99.1%-100% and 98.6%-100% for gL. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that 7 VZV positive samples were on the same branch with 4 vaccine strains and p-oka strain. Based on gL, 12 VZV positive samples were on the same branch as the vaccine strains and p-oka strain.@*Conclusion@#This study demonstrates that the genes of gM, gL are highly conserved and remain stable immunogen, which may be involved in the attenuation of VZV and need to be further researched.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806033

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To better understand the evolution and epidemiology of human adenovirus-55 (HAdV-55) and provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of the epidemic of HAdV-55 in China.@*Methods@#HAdV-55 isolates from 5 provinces in China included Beijing, Hebei, Shandong, Hunan and Yunnan were collected during 2011-2014. The hexon, fiber and penton base gene were sequenced, and compared with other strains of HAdV-55 sequences downloaded from GenBank for homology and evolution analysis.@*Results@#During the past decade, HAdV-55 was found in 15 provinces throughout China. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis showed that the HAdV-55 virus is highly conservative in evolution due to aggregation in a branch in the evolutionary tree. However, bayesian phylogenetic tree shows a certain time evolution trend. The evolution rate of hexon and fiber gene of HAdV-55 are 5.228×10-5 and 1.238×10-4 substitutions/site/year respectively, and the latest coevolutionary ancestor tMRCA of hexon gene can be traced back to 1963.@*Conclusions@#HAdV-55 has been widely spread and continued circulating in China. Establishing effective monitoring system and conducting vaccine related research is very important for its control and prevention.

12.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 3-22, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772726

ABSTRACT

For the past several decades, the infectious disease profile in China has been shifting with rapid developments in social and economic aspects, environment, quality of food, water, housing, and public health infrastructure. Notably, 5 notifiable infectious diseases have been almost eradicated, and the incidence of 18 additional notifiable infectious diseases has been significantly reduced. Unexpectedly, the incidence of over 10 notifiable infectious diseases, including HIV, brucellosis, syphilis, and dengue fever, has been increasing. Nevertheless, frequent infectious disease outbreaks/events have been reported almost every year, and imported infectious diseases have increased since 2015. New pathogens and over 100 new genotypes or serotypes of known pathogens have been identified. Some infectious diseases seem to be exacerbated by various factors, including rapid urbanization, large numbers of migrant workers, changes in climate, ecology, and policies, such as returning farmland to forests. This review summarizes the current experiences and lessons from China in managing emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, especially the effects of ecology, climate, and behavior, which should have merits in helping other countries to control and prevent infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Behavior , China , Epidemiology , Climate , Communicable Diseases , Classification , Epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Ecology , Forecasting , Humans , Incidence
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-712132

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the importance of conditional control on the results of binary Logistic regression analysis.Methods 664 male patients diagnosed with CHD and 400 healthy controls who visited the Department of Cardiology at People's Hospital of Yuxi City in Yunnan province from October 2010 to March 2013were enrolled consecutively in this case-control study, and 14 physiological and biochemical indexes[including:age,UA,TC,TG,HDL-C,LDL-C,APOA1,APOB100,Lp(a),HCY, TBIL,DBIL,IBIL,γ-GT]were collected.The correlations and differences in mathematical model results between physiological,biochemical indexes and CHD were compared by binary Logistic regression analysis under different statistical analysis strategies and then the model was analyzed by the ROC curve.Results (1)With no conditional control,all of the 14 physiological and biochemical indexes were directly inputted in the binary Logistic regression analysis,and after 11 steps regression analysis,11 indexes[age,UA,TG, HDL-C,LDL-C,APOA1,APOB100, Lp(a), HCY, DBIL, γ-GT]were retained.Because of the self-correcting ability of the binary Logistic regression analysis, relatively satisfactory results can be obtained. However,someof the resultsarehard to explain.(2)According to the application conditions of Logistic regression analysis,after performing the normality test, difference analysis and correlation analysis of these indexes, using condition analysis and control, considering the distribution characteristics of the indexes, excluding internal confounding factors among variables,9 more independent indexes[age,UA,TC,lnTG, lnLp(a),lnHCY,HDL-C,LDL-C and TBIL]were selected for Logistic regression analysis.After 7 steps regression analysis,7 indexes[age, UA, HDL-C, lnTG, lnLp(a), lnHCY and lnTBIL]were finally selected,and the area under the curve is 0.927.Conclusion When the binary Logistic regression analysis was used to confirm risk factors and establish risk assessment models for complex diseases, it is better to adopt strict conditional control to improve the reliability and validity of the analysis.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808159

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the differences among three methods of nucleic acid extraction and three kinds of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR instrument.@*Methods@#Twenty-five respiratory virus nucleic acid and 25 enterovirus nucleic acid positive samples were with selected at random and nucleic acids were extracted by using three methods (method A, B, and C). The results among different methods were analyzed by randomized block design. 25 respiratory viral nucleic acid positive specimens and enterovirus nucleic acid positive samples were detected by using three kinds of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR instrument (instrument A, B, and C). The results among different instruments were analyzed by randomized block design.@*Results@#There was a significant difference among three methods of nucleic acid extraction in results(χ2=42.9162, P<0.001), in which method A and C had not significant difference(Z=0.837, P=0.3816>0.05), while method A vs. B, B vs. C were significantly different(Z=7.025, P<0.001; Z=7.9, P<0.001). There was also a significant difference among three kinds of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR instrument in results(χ2=23.773, P<0.001), in which instrument B and C had no significant difference(Z=0.75, P=0.4533>0.05), while instrument A vs. B, A vs. C were significantly different(Z=5.70, P<0.001; Z=6.45, P<0.001).@*Conclusions@#There is difference among different methods and instruments in the test results under the same condition, which call for options in practical work according to need.

15.
Chongqing Medicine ; (36): 2396-2398, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-620306

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the relationship between postoperative survival quality with social support and coping style of the main caregivers in the elderly patients with laryngeal carcinoma surgery.Methods A total of 60 inpatients with laryngeal carcinoma surgery and their main caregivers were investigated by the Medical University of Washington Quality of Life Scale (UW-QOL),Coping Styles Questionnaire(CSQ) and Social Support Rating Scale(SSRS).And the obtained data were statistically analyzed by adopting the statistical methods such as Pearsons correlation analysis.Results The postoperative survival quality of the elderly patients with laryngeal carcinoma surgery was generally lower.The social support was in the medium level.The main caregivers adopted more coping style of solving problem and seeking help.The patients' survival quality showed significantly positive correlation with the social support(P<0.05),significantly positive correlation with the main caregivers' solving problems and seeking help coping style(P<0.05),and significantly negative correlation with the main caregivers' self-accusation and withdraw and keep off coping style(P<0.05).Conclusion Increasing the social support level and the main caregivers taking a positive the coping style to face the disease have an important significance for improving the quality of life in elderly patients with laryngeal carcinoma.

16.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 145-149, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296205

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the genetic characteristics of coxsackievirus A4 (CV-A4) based on the entire VP1 coding region. Samples were isolated from patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Shaanxi, China from 2006 to 2010. We wished to ascertain the predominant genotype and the relationship between CV-A4 infection and AFP. Sixty-eight non-polio enteroviruses were inoculated onto RD cells (to increase the virus titer) and molecular typing was undertaken. The entire VP1 coding region was amplified. Percentage of CV-A4 was 10.3% (7/68). Analyses of genetic identify and creation of phylogenetic trees revealed that CV-A4 could be classified into A, B and C genotypes. Seven CV-A4 strains from Shaanxi and other CV-A4 strains from China formed an independent evolution lineage located in group 4 and belonged to the C2 sub-genotype. These data suggested that CV-A4 strains of sub-genotype C2 were the predominant genotypes in China. These strains co-evolved and co-circulated with those from other provinces in China, so continued monitoring of CV-A4 (by clinical and genetic surveillance) should be enhanced.


Subject(s)
China , Enterovirus A, Human , Classification , Genetics , Enterovirus Infections , Virology , Genotype , Humans , Paralysis , Virology , Phylogeny , Viral Proteins , Genetics
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-462045

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the protective effect of electroacupuncture pretreatment on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and its influence on high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression in rats. Methods Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, myocardial I/R model group and electroacupuncture pretreatment group by random number table (each n = 20). Myocardial I/R injury model was reproduced by ligating the left ventricular branch coronary artery at about 0.5 cm below the atrial appendage lower margin for 10 minutes to occlude the blood flow, then the ligature was relaxed for 1 hour reperfusion; in electroacupuncture pretreatment group, 7 days before I/R, the electroacupuncture at Neiguan acupoint was applied once daily for 20 minutes till the 7th day when I/R was established. Under light microscope, the pathological changes of myocardial specimen stained by hematoxylin-eosine (HE) method were observed. The myocardial histopathological integral was detected by semi quantitative integral method, and the changes of histological scores in three groups were investigated. The levels of plasma HMGB1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cardiac troponin T (cTnT) were detected by enzyme-labeled immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expressions of HMGB1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), TNF-αmRNA and protein in myocardium were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PT-PCR) and Western Blot. Results Under light microscope, the myocardial tissue in myocardial I/R model group showed partial fracture of myocardial fibers, large patches of myocardial cell necrosis, hazy boundary, cellular condensation, rupture and dissolution or even disappearance, interstitial edema with a lot of inflammatory cell infiltration; the above myocardial tissue injury in electroacupuncture pretreatment group was significantly milder than that in myocardial I/R model group. Compared with sham operation group, in myocardial I/R model group the HMGB1, TNF-α, cTnT contents and histological score were significantly increased [HMGB1 (μg/L):9.64±1.16 vs. 2.15±0.31, TNF-α(μg/L):91±22 vs. 19±5, cTnT (μg/L):1.50±0.35 vs. 0.07±0.03, histological score:2.5±0.3 vs. 0.0±0.0, all P<0.01], HMGB1, MCP-1, TNF-α mRNA and protein expressions were increased obviously (HMGB1 mRNA: 1.42±0.16 vs. 0.02±0.00, MCP-1 mRNA:0.46±0.06 vs. 0.01±0.00, TNF-αmRNA:0.75±0.04 vs. 0.03±0.00;HMGB1 protein:1.08±0.01 vs. 0.20±0.01, MCP-1 protein:0.92±0.03 vs. 0.40±0.01, TNF-αprotein:1.10±0.02 vs. 0.35±0.01, P<0.05 or P<0.01);compared with myocardial I/R model group, in electroacupuncture pretreatment group, HMGB1 (6.58±0.73), TNF-α (63±19), cTnT (1.15±0.31) levels were significantly decreased (all P < 0.01), HMGB1, MCP-1, TNF-αmRNA and protein expressions were markedly reduced (mRNA expression was 0.74±0.12, 0.18±0.02, 0.10±0.03, and protein expression was 0.40±0.01, 0.36±0.02, 0.50±0.02, respectively all P<0.05), and histological score (1.2±1.0) was remarkably lowered (P < 0.01). Conclusion Electroacupuncture pretreatment may reduce the myocardial I/R injury in rats, and the mechanism may be related to the amelioration of inflammatory response mediated by HMGB1 at late stage.

18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 199-204, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-240127

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the epidemiology characteristics of norovirus among diarrheal outpatients in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Diarrhea cases were monitored at emergency/outpatient departments at 173 hospitals in 27 provinces of China, with clinical and epidemiological data, and fecal specimens collected and sent to 58 network-laboratories to detect norovirus by RT-PCR method, and to analyze the positive rate of norovirus in various regions, population and time during 2009-2013.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>11.6% of the 34 031 diarrheal cases under surveillance were found with norovirus. Age group of 6-23 month-old children and that of people over 45 years old were found with the highest positive percentage, 13.7% and 12.4% respectively. Positive percentage of norovirus peaks in autumn and winter in a year; it peaks in mid-temperate zones (10.7%) and warm-temperate zones (11.6%) in winter. It peaks in sub-tropical zones in autumn (14.3%). The most prevalent genogroups detected were norovirus G II, accounting for 89.9% of identified strains.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Norovirus affects all ages and was most prevalent in children and the elderly among diarrhea outpatients. Norovirus' positive percentage showed strong seasonal pattern, and peaks at different times of a year in different climate zones of China. Since no effective preventive measures existed, further study on norovirus epidemiology and intervention strategies should be conducted in future.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Caliciviridae Infections , Epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Diarrhea , Epidemiology , Virology , Genotype , Hospitals , Humans , Laboratories , Middle Aged , Norovirus , Outpatients , Prevalence , Seasons
19.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 157-163, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280280

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization redefined the type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in 2010. To study the genetic characteristics and evolution of type 2 VDPV under this new definition, we conducted genome sequencing and analyses of type 2 VDPVs isolated from one patient with acute flaccid paralysis in Shanxi province (China) in 2014. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the full-length of type 2 VDPV is 7439 bases encoding 2207 amino acids with no insertion or deletion of nucleotides compared with Sabin2. One nucleotide substitution identified as a key determinant of the attenuated phenotype of the Sabin 2 strain (A-G reversion at nucleotide nt 481 in the 5-end of the untranslated region) had reverted in the Shanxi type 2 VDPV. The other known key determinant of the attenuated phenotype of the Sabin 2 strain (U-->C reversion at nt2909 in the VP1 coding region that caused a Ile143Thr substitution in VP1) had not reverted in the Shanxi VDPV. The Shanxi type 2 VDPV was S2/S1 recombinant, the crossover site of which mapped to the 3-end of the 3D region (between nt 6247 and nt 6281). A phylogentic tree based on the VP1 coding region showed that evolution of the Shanxi type 2 VDPV was independent of other type 2 VDPVs detected worldwide. We estimated that the strain circulated for approximately = 11 months in the population according to the known evolution rate. The present study confirmed that the Chinese Polio Laboratory Network could discover the VDPV promptly and that it played an important part in maintenance of a polio-free China.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Capsid Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics , China , Humans , Infant , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Poliomyelitis , Virology , Poliovirus , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Poliovirus Vaccines , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Sequence Alignment
20.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 251-257, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280265

ABSTRACT

To identify the cause of an outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) in Jiangxi (China) in 2010, 20 eye conjunctival swabs were first collected from AHC patients. Then, viruses were isola- ted and tested for human enterovirus 70, coxsackievirus A24 variant (CV-A24v) and adenovirus using the polymerase chain reaction. All CV-A24v isolates underwent sequencing of 3C and VP1 coding regions. Then, a phylogenetic tree was constructed for Jiangxi CV-A24v and worldwide CV-A24v based on,3C and VP1 regions, respectively. Ten out of 20 specimens were positive for CV-A24v, implying that the outbreak was caused by CV-A24v. The phylogenetic tree based on the 3C region showed that Jiangxi CV- A24v belonged to cluster 5 in genotype IV (GIV-C5) with strains isolated throughout the world after 2010, and were divided further into A and B lineages. Phylogenetic analyses of the VP1 region showed that all of the worldwide CV-A24v strains isolated after 2000 could be divided into five groups (1-5). Jiangxi CV-A24v was classified into group 5 and also divided further into A and B lineages upon analyses of the 3C region. These data suggested that CV-A24v causing AHC outbreaks in China in 2010 belonged to GIV-C3 and GIV-C5. At least two transmission lineages were circulated in Jiangxi in 2010. The classification of CV-A24v isolated after 2010 worldwide using the phylogenetic tree based on the VP1 region was almost consistent with that based on the 3C region and also had significant chronological clustering.


Subject(s)
China , Epidemiology , Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic , Epidemiology , Virology , Coxsackievirus Infections , Epidemiology , Virology , Disease Outbreaks , Enterovirus C, Human , Classification , Genetics , Genotype , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Viral Proteins , Genetics
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