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1.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 562-568, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991672

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and related indicators of plague in Yulin City, Shaanxi Province, and to evaluate the risk of plague epidemic in the future and formulate scientific and reasonable prevention and control measures.Methods:The plague surveillance data of national (Dingbian County) and provincial (Yuyang District, Jingbian County, Hengshan District, Shenmu City, Fugu County) plague monitoring sites in Yulin City from 2011 to 2021 were collected through the China Disease Prevention and Control Information System Pestis Prevention and Control Management Information System, and the plague epidemic situation among humans and animals, the main host animals and their flea infection were analyzed by descriptive epidemiological methods. The expert consultation method and plague risk assessment tool V1.0 were used to assess the epidemic risk of the plague in Yulin City.Results:There was no human and animal plague epidemic in Yulin City from 2011 to 2021. In national monitoring site, the density of main host animal was 5.79/hm 2, ranging from 3.02/hm 2 to 9.08/hm 2,the dominant species was Mongolian gerbil, accounting for 98.21% (3 402/3 464); the capture rate of wild nocturnal rodents was 1.27% (350/27 600), ranging from 0.21% to 3.83%, the dominant species was Cricetulus barabensis, accounting for 44.86% (157/350); the flea infection rate of the rodent body was 16.91% (768/4 541), with a flea index of 0.40, the dominant flea species was the Nosopsyllus laeviceps kuzenkov, accounting for 66.54% (1 203/1 808). In provincial monitoring site, the density of main host animals was 0.49/hm 2, ranging from 0.31/hm 2 to 0.67/hm 2, the dominant species was Alashan ground squirrel, accounting for 63.61% (194/305); the capture rate of nocturnal rodents in the wild was 1.76% (560/31 795), ranging from 0.89% to 3.93%, the dominant species was Roborovski dwarf hamster, accounting for 26.61% (149/560); the capture rate of domestic rats was 2.37% (397/16 750), ranging from 1.48% to 3.10%, the rodents included Rattus norvegicus (47.36%, 188/397) and house mouse (52.64%, 209/397); the flea infection rate of the rat body was 13.26% (182/1 373), with a flea index of 0.40; the dominant flea species was Ophthalmopsylla jettmari, accounting for 45.23% (251/555). The 5 281 pathogenic culture samples and 2 110 serological test samples were all negative. The Pearson correlation analysis results showed that there was no correlation between rodent density and flea infection rate or flea index at national and provincial monitoring sites ( r = - 0.26, - 0.48, 0.09, 0.12, P > 0.05), while flea infection rate and flea index were positively correlated ( r = 0.67, 0.81, P < 0.05). In 2022, Yulin City, Shaanxi Province was not ruled out the possibility of human plague epidemic, and the risk of plague epidemic among animals was high. Conclusions:From 2011 to 2021, the density of the main host animals at the national and provincial monitoring sites in Yulin City has remained at a low level, and the flea index has increased. There is a risk of plague epidemic in Yulin City, so the monitoring work should be further strengthened, and emergency supplies and capacity reserves should be well prepared.

2.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 363-368, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991637

ABSTRACT

Objective:To construct a follow-up evaluation index system for "Diagnosis of Brucellosis" (WS 269-2019), and provide a reference basis for the next revision and improvement of the standard.Methods:The evaluation index system for "Diagnosis of Brucellosis" (WS 269-2019) was preliminarily established by consulting relevant references and materials. The experts in the field of diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of brucellosis were selected, and two rounds of expert consultation were carried out in the form of questionnaires using the Delphi method. The necessity and availability of evaluation indicators were scored, and suggestions for modifying and adding indicators were put forward. Based on this, a standard follow-up evaluation index system was established. At the same time, a judgment matrix was constructed combined with the Saaty scale, and the analytic hierarchy process was used to calculate the weight of each index in the system.Results:After 2 rounds of expert ( n = 10) consultation, a standard follow-up evaluation index system for "Diagnosis of Brucellosis" (WS 269-2019) was constructed with 3 first-level indexes, 8 second-level indexes and 21 third-level indexes. The positive coefficients of experts in 2 rounds of questionnaires were both 100%; the coefficient of authority of experts was 0.82; the Kendall's coefficients of concordance of first-level, second-level and third-level indexes were 0.722, 0.260, and 0.181, respectively, with P < 0.05. Among the first-level indexes, the weight of standard quality evaluation was the highest (0.364), and the weight of standard implementation status was the lowest (0.278); among the second-level indexes, the combined weight of social benefits was the highest (0.186), and the combined weight of advanced nature was the lowest (0.043); among the third-level indexes, the combined weight of timely diagnosis rate was the highest (0.096), and the combined weight of consistency with technical data was the lowest (0.009). Conclusions:The constructed follow-up evaluation index system for "Diagnosis of Brucellosis" (WS 269-2019) is scientific and reliable, which evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively, reduces the defects of a single evaluation, and provides a basis for subsequent revision and improvement of the standard.

3.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 345-350, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991634

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of recombinant lipoproteins of Brucella outer membrane protein 16, 19 (L16 and L19) on the expression of immune regulatory factors in human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1 cells). Methods:THP-1 cells activated with phorbol ester (PMA) were used as an in vitro experimental cell model, and a group design was used to co-culture L16, L19 and THP-1 cells (L16 stimulated group, L19 stimulated group), respectively. THP-1 cells activated with PMA were used as the control group. When co-cultured for 4 hours, immunofluorescence staining (IFS) and Western blotting were used to detect whether L16 and L19 entered the cells, respectively; when co-cultured for 12, 24 hours, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression levels of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and trans activator protein of major histocompatibility complex class Ⅱ (CⅡTA); Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression levels of T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) and γ interferon receptor 1 (IFNGR1). Results:When co-cultured for 4 hours, L16 and L19 were observed entering THP-1 cells in the L16 stimulated group and L19 stimulated group, respectively. When co-cultured for 12 hours, the expression level of IRF-1 mRNA in the L16 stimulated group (0.16 ± 0.15) was significantly lower than that in the control group (1.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.05). When co-cultured for 24 hours, the expression level of CⅡTA mRNA in the L16 stimulated group (0.17 ± 0.10) was significantly lower than that in the control group (1.00 ± 0.00, P < 0.05). When co-cultured for 12 and 24 hours, there were no statistically significant differences in the expression levels of IRF-1 and CⅡTA mRNA between the L19 stimulated group and the control group ( P > 0.05). Western blotting results showed that there were statistically significant differences in the expression levels of INFGR1 and Tim-3 protein among the control group, L16 stimulated group, and L19 stimulated group after co-cultured for 12 and 24 hours ( F = 50.92, 6.80, 148.73, 156.57, P < 0.05). Among them, when co-cultured for 12 hours, the expression level of INFGR1 protein in the L16 and L19 stimulated groups were significantly lower than that in the control group, and the L19 stimulated group was higher than the L16 stimulated group ( P < 0.05), and the expression level of Tim-3 protein in the L19 stimulation group was higher than that in the control group ( P < 0.05). When co-cultured for 24 hours, the expression level of INFGR1 protein in the L16 and L19 stimulated groups were lower than that in the control group, and the L19 stimulated group was higher than that in the L16 stimulated group ( P < 0.05); and the expression level of Tim-3 protein in the L16 stimulated group was higher than that in the control group and L19 stimulated group ( P < 0.05). Conclusions:Brucella L16 can downregulate the expression levels of IRF-1 and CⅡTA mRNA in THP-1 cells. Both L16 and L19 can downregulate IFNGR1 and upregulate Tim-3 protein expression levels.

4.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 236-242, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005750

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To investigate our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after liver transplantation in surgical ICU. 【Methods】 We retrospectively analyzed the general data, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and treatment strategies of five patients with aGVHD after liver transplantation in The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from January 2000 to December 2019. 【Results】 The incidence rate of aGVHD was 5/850 (5.88 ‰), and all the five patients were male and aged 40-64 years (mean age 56 years). Diabetes, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), and high concentration of immune agents were the main risk factors associated with the development of aGVHD. The average time from surgery until clinical symptom of aGVHD was 15 to 32 days. In our patients with aGVHD, the most common symptom was fever (5/5), followed by skin rash (5/5), pancytopenia (5/5), diarrhea (3/5), and secondary pulmonary infection (3/5). However, liver functions were not remarkable affected. Diagnostic criteria for aGVHD in our center include acute onset, risk factors, typical clinical manifestation, and histopathology after exclusion of differential diseases. Our treatment strategies include high-dose methylprednisolone, stopping/reducing current immunosuppressive protocol, and antilymphocytic agents as second-line treatment. Empirical antibiotics and antifungal agents play a vital part in infections after transplantation. Hematopoietic cytokine was administered to treat pancytopenia. Patients also received supportive therapy, such as isolation and nutritional support, with the goal of benefiting the entire condition. Despite intensive treatment, two of five patients (40%) with aGVHD died due to sepsis and multiorgan failure. One case (20%) died of intracranial hemorrhage and one case (20%) died of tuberculosis. Only one case (20%) stayed alive after 1-year follow-up without complications. 【Conclusion】 The diagnosis of aGVHD relies on clinical suspicion and is confirmed by skin pathology. The patients with aGVHD had early onset (38.5 ℃), large rash range (>50%), complication of sepsis, and poor response to hematopoietic cytokine therapy indicate poor prognosis. Intensive treatment should be started immediately after aGVHD diagnosis. In conclusion, we strongly suggest an early identification, diagnosis, and vigorous treatment strategy, which is the key to improving the prognosis of aGVHD.

5.
Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing ; (36): 1648-1656, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990386

ABSTRACT

Objective:To retrieve the relevant guidelines and expert consensus on self-management of patients with high-risk foot diabetes, and analyze the content of high-quality guidelines and expert consensus recommendations, so as to provide a reference for the construction of a guidance program for self-management of patients with high-risk foot diabetes.Methods:Computer-retrieved clinical practice guidelines and expert consensus for self-management of patients with high-risk foot for diabetes from databases, guideline networks, and related professional websites. The search period was from January 1, 2012 to June 5, 2022. The quality of the included literature was evaluated and the evidence was extracted and integrated by 2 researchers. Experts were invited to evaluate the summarized evidence.Results:According to the quality of literature, a total of 12 guidelines (10 at level A and 2 at level B) and 3 expert consensus (expert discussion and decision) were included, and 8 themes were defined as regular follow-up, self-assessment, foot and decompression management, exercise management, nutrition management, indicator management, psychological management, and health education, a total of 28 recommendations. Among them, there were 23 A-level recommendations and 5 B-level recommendations.Conclusions:The quality of the guidelines and expert consensus included in this study is high,the recommended level of the summarized evidence is high. This study provides the reference and basis for the clinical staff to construct and guide the clinical practice of self-management of high-risk diabetic foot patients.

6.
Sichuan Mental Health ; (6): 175-180, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986767

ABSTRACT

This article presents a review on the effect of family environmental factors on adolescent depression patients, in which the domestic and foreign literature on the family environment of adolescent depression patients are thoroughly reviewed with the emphasis of the relevant concepts, assessment tools, impact effects and potential mechanisms, and the research progress, existing limitations and directions for future research are summarized. Additionally, the awareness of the negative family environment associated with depression derives specific reference values for the early identification and prevention of adolescent depression.

7.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 841-844, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991532

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of public health emergencies caused by human brucellosis in Shaanxi Province in 2020, and to provide scientific basis for prevention and control of human brucellosis in Shaanxi Province.Methods:Descriptive epidemiological analysis of public health emergencies caused by human brucellosis in Shaanxi Province in 2020 was carried out, and the handling of the epidemic was studied.Results:A total of 13 public health emergencies caused by human brucellosis were reported in Shaanxi Province in 2020, 3 in northern Shaanxi, 10 in Guanzhong area, involving 65 confirmed cases of human brucellosis. Gender distribution: 47 males and 18 females; occupational distribution: 35 farmers, 13 breeders, 8 students, 6 scattered children, 2 workers, and 1 child in kindergarten; age distribution: the age of onset was mainly 50 to 69 years old (30 cases); time distribution: 13 public health emergencies occurred in April to August, with the peak in May; route of infection: 11 cases were infected by occupational exposure, 1 case was infected by drinking raw goat milk, and 1 case was infected by contacting the dogs infected by sick sheep. And 13 public health emergencies were handled in a timely and effective manner, including incident reporting, epidemiological investigation, high-risk population screening, pathogen cultivation, animal epidemic disposal, disinfection, publicity and education, etc.Conclusion:The brucellosis epidemic is active in the old epidemic areas in northern Shaanxi and the new epidemic areas in Guanzhong area, Shaanxi Province, and targeted prevention and control measures should be formulated according to the epidemiological characteristics of the epidemic to ensure accurate prevention and control of human brucellosis.

8.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology ; (12): 549-555, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958224

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the plasma levels of soluble immune checkpoint molecules in patients with primary liver cancer and their prognostic significance.Methods:The levels of sCD28, sCD80, sCD137, sCD27, sGITR, sTIM3, sCTLA4, sHVEM, IDO, sLAG3, sBTLA, sPD1, sPDL1 and sPDL2 in plasma samples of 58 patients with primary liver cancer and 30 healthy controls were detected by liquid chip technology and compared between different groups. The relationship between the plasma levels of soluble immune checkpoint molecules and tumor recurrence was analyzed.Results:The levels of sCD28 and sCD80 were higher in patients in Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage 0/A and B than in healthy controls and patients in BCLC-C stage ( P<0.05). However, the levels of sCD27 and sHVEM in BCLC-C patients were significantly lower than those in BCLC-0/A and BCLC-B patients, and even lower than healthy control group. The levels of sCD137, IDO and sPD1 in BCLC-0/A and BCLC-B patients were higher than those in healthy controls. The levels of sPDL1 and sPDL2 in different BCLC stages were all higher than those in healthy controls, and maintained at high level in the three stages, but there was no significant difference between different stages. After 24 months of interventional treatment, the preoperative sCD28 level was lower in patients with recurrent tumor recurrence than in patients without recurrence ( t=2.843, P=0.007). The optimal cut-off value of sCD28 based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for predicting tumor recurrence was 101.42 pg/ml and the area under the ROC curve was 0.771 (95%CI: 0.611-0.931) with a sensitivity of 0.889 and a specificity of 0.666. The cumulative recurrence rate in patients with high sCD28 level (≥101.41 pg/ml) was 57.9% at 24 months after surgery, which was lower than the rate (95.5%) in patients with low sCD28 level (<101.41 pg/ml). The difference in the cumulative recurrence rate between the two groups was statistically significant (χ 2=15.777, P=0.000). Conclusions:The expression patterns of soluble immune checkpoint molecules varied in patients at different stages of primary liver cancer, suggesting that there were differences in their immune status and sCD28 could be used as a prognostic marker for postoperative recurrence of liver cancer.

9.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 1806-1812, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941541

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the laboratory and clinical features of anemia in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed for the patients who were hospitalized in Beijing YouAn Hospital, Capital Medical University, from December 2020 to May 2021 and were found to have anemia based on reticulocyte hemoglobin (Hb) content (Ret-He) and whole blood cell analysis, and 106 patients with the discharge diagnosis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis who had no history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding or blood transfusion were screened out as subjects. Clinical features and related influencing factors were retrospectively analyzed based on the severity of anemia, the cytomorphological classification of anemia, and Ret-He. The independent samples t -test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups; a one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups, and the SNK- q test and the least significant difference t -test were used for further comparison between two groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data with skewed distribution between two groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison between multiple groups. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. A Spearman correlation analysis was performed to investigate the correlation of different classification criteria for anemia with laboratory markers and clinical features. Results Among the 106 patients, there were 103 male patients (97.2%), with a mean age of 55.07±10.18 years and a mean Hb level of 87.16±18.55 g/L; there were 49 patients (46.2%) with mild anemia, 49 (46.2%) with moderate anemia, and 8(7.5%) with severe anemia; mean Ret-He was 33.65(13.3-46.4) pg, and there were 33 patients (31.1%) with ≤29 pg and 73 patients (68.9%) with Ret-He > 29 pg; among these patients, 46(43.4%) had macrocytic anemia, 34(32.1%) had normocytic anemia, 2(1.9%) had simple microcytic anemia, and 24 (22.6%) had microcytic hypochromic anemia; among these patients, 87(82.1%) had ascites and/or intra-abdominal infection, 82(77.4%) had splenomegaly and/or hypersplenism, 65(61.3%) had esophageal and gastric varices, and 31(29.2%) had hepatic encephalopathy. Compared with the control group (moderate/severe anemia), the mild anemia group had significantly higher Ret-He, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular-hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum iron (SI), and transferrin saturation (TS) (all P 29 pg (83.7% vs 56.1%, P =0.002) or normocytic anemia (44.9% vs 21.1%, P =0.009), a significantly lower unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) ( P 29 pg group, the Ret-He ≤29 pg group had significantly lower Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC, SI, TS, and proportion of patients with mild anemia or ascites and/or intra-abdominal infection (all P < 0.05), a significantly higher UIBC ( P < 0.05), and a significantly higher proportion of patients with microcytic hypochromic anemia or esophageal and gastric varices ( P < 0.05). Hb, Ret-He, MCV, MCH, MCHC, UIBC, SI, and TS were correlated with the severity of anemia, the cytomorphological classification of anemia, and iron deficiency (all P < 0.05), and esophageal and gastric varices and ascites and/or abdominal infection were correlated with the cytomorphological classification of anemia and iron deficiency (all P < 0.05). Conclusion The degree of anemia is mostly mild and moderate in the decompensated stage of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, and macrocytic anemia and normocytic anemia are more common. The incidence rate of iron deficiency increases with the severity of anemia, and esophageal and gastric varices and ascites and/or intra-abdominal infection are correlated with the cytomorphological classification of anemia and iron deficiency; therefore, it is necessary to enhance the monitoring of iron deficiency anemia in such patients in clinical practice.

10.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 419-424, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920457

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To study the nephrotoxicity of the extracts from different parts o f Miao medicine Wikstroemia indica in healthy rats ,and to provide reference for the study of its toxicity mechanism and clinical drug use. METHODS Using 70% ethanol as solvent ,total ethanol extract of W. indica was extracted with diacolation method. After dispersing the above extract with water,the fractions of corresponding fractions were obtained with petroleum ether ,ethyl acetate and n-butanol,and the rest was the extract of water fraction. SD rats were randomly divided into total ethanol extract group ,petroleum ether fraction group ,ethyl acetate fraction group ,n-butanol fraction group ,water fraction group and blank group ,with 12 rats in each group (half male and half female ). The rats in the administration groups were given the corresponding dose of drug solution intragastrically (total ethanol extract 317.520 mg/kg,petroleum ether fraction 7.875 mg/kg,ethyl acetate fraction 78.435 mg/kg,n-butanol fraction 53.865 mg/kg and water fraction 76.545 mg/kg),once a day ,for conse- cutive 2 weeks,and then stopped taking drug for 2 weeks; rats in the blank group were given equal volume of 1.0% . sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution intragastrically. Duringthe experiment ,the general conditions of rats were observed. The samples of urine (on the 14th and 28th day ),serum and bilateral renal tissues (on the 15th and 29th day )were taken respectively,the renal index was calculated ,the levels of @qq.com renal function indexes in serum and urine were detected ,and the pathomorphological changes of renal tissues were observed. RESULTS During administration ,compared with blank group ,the rats in the total ethanol extract group and ethyl acetate fraction group showed poisoning behavior and activity characteristics such as mental depression ,decreased activity and diet ,thin stool and decreased body mass. The mental state of the rats in the petroleum ether fraction group ,n-butanol fraction group and water fraction group were slightly worse than that in blank group,and slightly decreased activity and diet as well as thin stool ,and slowly increased body mass were found ;however,there was no significant difference in anal temperature in each group. After 2 weeks of administration ,the renal index in total ethanol extract group ,the serum levels of N-acetylglucosaminidase(NAG),urea nitrogen (BUN)and creatinine (Cr)in total ethanol extract group and ethyl acetate fraction group ,serum level of NAG in n-butanol fraction group and serum level of Cr in water fraction group ,as while as NAG levels in urine of rats in total ethanol extract group and petroleum ether fraction group ,NAG and urinary protein levels in urine of rats in ethyl acetate fraction group were increased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In the pathomorphological observation ,renal tubules showed different degrees of unclear structure ,cell swelling and a few cell necrosis in the total ethanol extract group ,petroleum ether fraction group and ethyl acetate fraction group ,accompanying by glomerular pyknosis,renal tubular sclerosis and inflammatory cell infiltration ,compared with blank group. After drug withdrawal ,the mental state of rats in the administration groups were significantly improved ,the amount of activity and diet increased ,and the stool tended to be normal. Two weeks after drug withdrawal and recovery ,the levels of above indexes in serum and urine of rats in administration groups returned to be close to that in blank group (P>0.05);the glomerular structure of rats in each administration group gradually recovered clearly ,and cell swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration were rare in total ethanol extract group , petroleum ether fraction group and ethyl acetate fraction group. CONCLUSIONS The total ethanol extract ,petroleum ether fraction and ethyl acetate fraction of Miao medicine W. indica have certain nephrotoxicity and reversibility. The toxic component may

11.
Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 233-238, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931528

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the changes of brucellosis prevention and control knowledge awareness among breeders in Chunhua County, Xianyang City, Shaanxi Province before and after the publicity intervention.Methods:A multi-stage cluster sampling method was adopted to select 10 townships with more reported cases of human brucellosis in Chunhua County from January 2019 to June 2020, and each township was given priority to select the administrative village with the largest number of reported cases for investigation. At least 20 breeders aged 20 years old and over in each administrative village were selected, and if the number was insufficient, supplementary surveys would be conducted in other administrative villages with the larger number of breeders in the township. Questionnaire survey was conducted on all subjects, including general demographic characteristics, brucellosis prevention and control knowledge and related protective behaviors. After the baseline investigation, 6 months of brucellosis prevention and control knowledge publicity was carried out in the administrative villages included in the investigation, and the awareness rate of brucellosis prevention and control knowledge before and after the publicity intervention was compared to evaluate the effect of publicity intervention.Results:After the publicity intervention, a total of 240 breeders were investigated, and 176 people were aware of brucellosis prevention and control knowledge, with an overall awareness rate of 73.33% (176/240), which was significantly higher than that before the publicity intervention (57.50%, 115/200), and the difference was statistically significant (χ 2 = 12.21, P = 0.005). After the publicity intervention, the awareness rates of breeders on "can cattle and sheep transmit diseases to humans" and "do you know that cattle and sheep can only be purchased after passing the quarantine inspection" were relatively high, they were 95.83% (230/240) and 95.00% (228/240), respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (χ 2 = 50.04, 112.64, P < 0.001) compared with that before the publicity intervention [71.50% (143/200) and 51.00% (102/200)]. The awareness rate of breeders on "how brucellosis is transmitted from livestock to humans" was the lowest, it was 53.33% (128/240), which was not significantly different (χ 2 = 0.82, P = 0.370) from that before the publicity intervention (49.00%, 98/200). Conclusions:After the publicity intervention, the overall awareness rate of brucellosis prevention and control knowledge of breeders in Chunhua County has improved, but the awareness rate of some individual issues is still low. It is suggested to strengthen the pertinence of publicity and education.

12.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Ophthalmology ; (12): 316-325, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931074

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the role of integrin-linked kinase (ILK)-small interfering RNA (siRNA)-adeno-associated virus (AAV) in scar formation after glaucoma filtering surgery in rat eyes.Methods:Forty-eight Sprague Dawley rats of SPF grade, aged 8 to 9 weeks old, were selected and divided into blank control group, ILK-siRNA-AAV group, NC-siRNA-AAV group and mitomycin C (MMC) group by random number table method, with 12 rats in each group.Left eyes of the rats were taken as experimental eyes, and no intervention was administered to fellow eyes.The bulbar conjunctival filtering bleb after glaucoma filtration surgery in rats was established by anterior chamber drainage tube implantation.One day after operation, phosphate buffer solution, ILK-siRNA-AAV, and NC-siRNA-AAV were injected into the filtering bleb of blank control group, ILK-siRNA-AAV group and NC-siRNA-AAV group, 5 μl each group, respectively.Cotton tablets containing 0.4 mg/ml MMC were placed under conjunctival flap for 5 minutes during operation in MMC group.Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with a handheld tonometer before surgery and at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days after surgery.Formation of filtering blebs in rats was observed with a surgical microscope at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days after operation, and the bleb survival time was calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.The mRNA and protein expression levels of ILK in conjunctival and subconjunctival tissues at the surgical sites were detected by reverse transcription PCR and Western blot, respectively, on the 28th day after operation.Silencing of ILK gene was identified.Effect of ILK gene silencing on the morphology of drainage pathway was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining.Effect of ILK gene silencing on collagen fiber deposition in the bulbar conjunctiva at filtration area was examined by Masson staining, and the percentage of positive area of collagen fiber staining in the total tissue visual field was calculated.The use and care of the animals complied with the ARVO Statement.This research protocol was approved by an Ethics Committee of Xi'an Jiaotong University (No.2013-772). Results:There were statistically significant differences in IOP at different time points between before and after surgery among four groups ( Fgroup=76.84, P<0.001; Ftime=114.49, P<0.001). The IOP of ILK-siRNA-AAV group on the 1st, 7th, 14th and 28th day after operation and the IOP of MMC group on the 2nd, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th day after operation were lower than those of blank control group, and the differences were statistically significant (all at P<0.05). The IOP of ILK-siRNA-AAV group was lower on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after operation than those of NC-siRNA-AAV group, with statistically significant differences (all at P<0.05). The bleb survival time of blank control group, NC-siRNA-AAV group, ILK-siRNA-AAV group and MMC group was (3.50±1.51), (5.00±3.41), (31.50±3.15) and (31.33±2.46) days, respectively, with a significant difference among them ( F=395.83, P<0.05). The bleb survival time of ILK-siRNA-AAV group and MMC group was higher than that of blank control group and NC-siRNA-AAV group, and the differences were statistically significant (all at P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences in the relative expression levels of ILK mRNA and protein among four groups ( F=222.32, 752.69; both at P<0.05), and the relative expression levels of ILK mRNA and protein were significantly lower in ILK-siRNA-AAV group than blank control group and NC-siRNA-AAV group, and the differences were statistically significant (all at P<0.05). Proliferative fibrous connective tissue and a large number of cells at surgical sites were found in blank control group and NC-siRNA-AAV group, and the fibroblasts were of a high density and grew in clumps.In ILK-siRNA-AAV group, the bulbar conjunctiva was thin, and the arrangement of fibrous connective tissue was loose, and a few proliferative fibroblasts were found.In MMC group, the conjunctival fibrous layer was loose and thin, forming cavities, and scarce cells were found.There was statistically significant difference in the percentage of collagen fiber positive staining area among four groups ( F=741.66, P<0.05). The positive staining percentage of ILK-siRNA-AAV group and MMC group was significantly lower than that of blank control group, among which there was lower positive staining percentage in ILK-siRNA-AAV group than NC-siRNA-AAV group, and the differences were statistically significant (all at P<0.05). Conclusions:Silencing of ILK can inhibit the scar formation after glaucoma filtering surgery and maintain low IOP in rats.

13.
Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing ; (36): 1011-1016, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930735

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the motivation of the formation of the breastfeeding mission and education behavior of nurses in NICU, analyze the deep reasons, and construct the motivation and path theoretical model of the formation of the breastfeeding mission and education behavior of nurses in NICU.Methods:Through semi-structured interviews, the qualitative research method of grounded theory was used to study 20 nurses in the Second Affiliated Hospital, University of South China from July to September 2020, to construct the motivation and path theoretical model of the formation of the breastfeeding mission and education behavior of nurses in NICU.Results:The research identified five main categories: attitude factor, ability factor, behavior factor, internalization and externalization. Under the influence of three dimensions of attitude level, ability level and behavior level and their cross-layer interaction effects, the NICU nurses were driven to form stable breastfeeding mission and education behaviors through internalization and externalization.Conclusions:Based on the evolutionary context of "multi-dimensional factors and their interaction drivers-internalization-externalization", the relationship between attitude factors, ability factors, behavioral factors, internalization, and externalization are clarified. It provides a theoretical reference basis for managers in managing the breastfeeding propaganda and education of nurses in the NICU, and enriches the theoretical framework of breastfeeding behavior in the NICU.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 2592-2608, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929393

ABSTRACT

Self-assembling carrier-free nanodrugs are attractive agents because they accumulate at tumor by an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect without introduction of inactive substances, and some nanodrugs can alter the immune environment. We synthesized a peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) molecular inhibitor, ZD-E-1M. It could self-assembled into nanodrug ZD-E-1. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, we observed its cellular colocalization, PAD4 activity and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation. The populations of immune cells and expression of immune-related proteins were determined by single-cell mass cytometry. ZD-E-1 formed nanoflowers in an acidic environment, whereas it formed nanospheres at pH 7.4. Accumulation of ZD-E-1 at tumor was pH-responsive because of its pH-dependent differences in the size and shape. It could enter the nucleus and bind to PAD4 to prolong the intracellular retention time. In mice, ZD-E-1 inhibited tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting PAD4 activity and NETs formation. Besides, ZD-E-1 could regulate the ratio of immune cells in LLC tumor-bearing mice. Immunosuppressive proteins like LAG3 were suppressed, while IFN-γ and TNF-α as stimulators of tumor immune response were upregulated. Overall, ZD-E-1 is a self-assembling carrier-free nanodrug that responds to pH, inhibits PAD4 activity, blocks neutrophil extracellular traps formation, and improves the tumor immune microenvironment.

15.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 475-480, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-955994

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) in evaluating the severity of patients infected with novel coronavirus Delta variant.Methods:A total of 28 patients infected with novel coronavirus Delta variant in designated hospital treated by the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University medical team from December 2021 to January 2022 were enrolled (23 cases of common type, 4 severe and 1 critical cases). The detailed clinical data of patients was collected. Then, Pearson's correlation analysis was used to identify the blood examination indexes which affected the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2). According to the median standard deviation of red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD, 42.5 fL), 28 patients were divided into low RDW-SD group (≤ 42.5 fL, 16 cases) and high RDW-SD group (> 42.5 fL, 12 cases), and the immune related indexes of the two groups were compared. Receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) was drawn to evaluate the predictive value of RDW-SD on the severity of illness of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Results:Correlation analysis showed that RDW-SD was the only index related to PaO 2 and PaCO 2 on the first day of admission, which was negative correlation with PaO 2 ( r = -0.379, P = 0.047) and positive correlation with PaCO 2 ( r = 0.509, P = 0.006). The results of effects of different clinical characteristics on RDW-SD level showed that there was no statistically significant difference in RDW-SD between groups with different clinical characteristics (including male/female, ≥ 65 years old/< 65 years old, having/without hypertension, having/without diabetes, smoking/not smoking, having/without hyperpyrexia, with/without fever for 3 days, with/without respiratory symptoms, with/without digestive symptoms). It was suggested that RDW-SD be relatively stable and not affected by the patient's baseline level. The percentage of B cells in low RDW-SD group was higher than that in high RDW-SD group (23.01±3.01 vs. 15.34±5.34, P < 0.05), immunoglobulin G (IgG) level in low RDW-SD group was lower than that in high RDW-SD group (g/L: 11.43±3.20 vs. 15.42±1.54, P < 0.05). The area under ROC curve (AUC) of RDW-SD in evaluating severe cases was 0.83 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 0.59-1.06], which was close to multilobularinltration, hypo-lymphocytosis, bacterial coinfection, smoking history, hyper-tension and age (MuL BSTA score; AUC = 0.82, 95% CI was 0.51-1.12) and better than British Thoracic Society's modified pneumonia score (CURB-65 score; AUC = 0.70, 95% CI was 0.50-0.91). Conclusion:RDW-SD has significant evaluative effect on the severity of COVID-19 patients with Delta variants.

16.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 281-288, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960405

ABSTRACT

Background Preterm birth-related complications are the leading cause of death in newborns and children under the age of 5 years. Maternal heat exposure has been associated with both sleep status during pregnancy and the increased risk of preterm birth. However, whether sleep status could mediate the association between heat exposure and preterm birth remains unclear. Objective To evaluate the association between maternal heat exposure in early pregnancy and preterm birth, and to further explore potential mediation effect of sleep status on the association between heat exposure and preterm birth. Methods A birth cohort was established in Guangzhou Panyu Maternal Child Health Hospital (Guangzhou Panyu District He Xian Memorial Hospital) from 2017 until now. Pregnant women (with gestational age between 8 and 13 weeks) were included in this study when they presented to the hospital for their first prenatal care visit and signed an informed consent. Then they were followed up until delivery. A total of 3 268 pregnant women were included for the final analysis. Questionnaires were distributed to collect the demographic characteristics, lifestyles, and sleep status of pregnant women. Daily meteorological data during the study period were collected from meteorological monitoring stations in Guangzhou and the average ambient mean temperature of four weeks before the survey was calculated and assigned for each pregnancy. The 75th, 80th, 85th, 90th, and 95th percentiles (P75, P80, P85, P90, and P95) of the average ambient temperature of all pregnant women were used as the thresholds to define heat exposure. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effects of heat exposure in different definitions on preterm birth and sleep status (sleep duration, night sleep timing, and wake up timing). The mediation effects of sleep status on the relationship between heat exposure and preterm birth were also analyzed. Results Among all the included participants, 165 newborns were preterm births with an incidence rate of 5.0%. Heat exposures with thresholds of P90 and P95 increased the risk of preterm birth, with ORs (95%CIs) of 1.66 (1.04-2.57) and 1.90 (1.03-3.33), respectively (P<0.05). Heat exposures with thresholds of P75, P80, P85, P90, and P95 decreased the sleep duration (<9 h vs. ≥9 h, control group: ≥9 h), and the ORs (95%CIs) were 1.51 (1.25-1.83), 1.44 (1.17-1.77), 1.35 (1.08-1.70), 1.43 (1.09-1.87), and 1.45 (1.00-2.13), respectively. Heat exposures with P75 and P80 thresholds resulted in earlier wake up timing (<8: 00 vs. ≥8: 00, control group: <8: 00), with ORs (95%CIs) of 0.77 (0.63-0.93) and 0.76(0.61-0.93), respectively. No significant association was observed between heat exposure and night sleep timing. The mediation analyses showed that under heat exposure with P90 threshold, a statistically significant mediation effect was observed for sleep duration, and the proportion mediated was 6.07% (95%CI: 0.17%-25.00%) (P<0.05). No significant mediation effect was observed for night sleep timing and wake up timing. Conclusion An elevated risk of preterm birth after heat exposure in early pregnancy may be partly mediated through reducing sleep duration.

17.
Journal of Leukemia & Lymphoma ; (12): 759-762, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988942

ABSTRACT

Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) plays an important role in the development of various tumors. Recent studies have shown that MALAT1 is highly expressed in hematological tumors and can participate in development, progression and prognosis of hematological tumors at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels as a competitive endogenous RNA. Therefore, MALAT1 might be a novel marker as a valuable basis for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis evaluation of hematological tumors.

18.
Journal of Public Health and Preventive Medicine ; (6): 45-48, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936433

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze and discuss the epidemiological characteristics and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria of infective endocarditis in Nanjing in the past five years, and to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of infective endocarditis. Methods A total of 220 infective endocarditis cases in Nanjing area from 2015 to 2020 were included in the analysis. The distribution characteristics of pathogens were collected and analyzed. Information on drug resistance was also collected, and the potential relationship between pathogen distribution and drug resistance was explored. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 19.0. Results The ratio of male to female patients included in this study was 143:77, and most of them were aged from 41 to 60 years old. There were 195 patients with underlying cardiac diseases (88.64%). A total of 1132 pathogenic bacteria were detected in the blood samples of all 220 patients, among which 1 007 were mainly gram-positive bacteria (88.96%): 725 strains of Streptococcus viridans (725/1 132, 64.05%), 124 strains of Staphylococcus aureus (124/1 132, 10.95%), 96 strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis (96/1 132, 8.48%), and 62 strains (62/1 132, 5.48%) of others (Staphylococcus human, etc.); the main gram-negative bacteria ( a total of 125 strains , 11.04%) were 73 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (73/1 132, 6.45%) and 52 strains of Escherichia coli (52/1 132, 4.59%). Among the strains isolated from subjects of different ages and genders, the distribution difference was consistent with the total trend, and there was no significant difference (all P>0.05). Among gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus was sensitive to antibiotics such as penicillin, oxacillin, and vancomycin. Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis were sensitive to vancomycin and resistant to oxacillin and penicillin. Gram-negative bacteria were less resistant to amikacin and meropenem. All these differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Conclusion For patients with infective endocarditis, antibiotics should be selected reasonably according to the type of pathogenic bacteria and the corresponding drug resistance characteristics.

19.
Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 135-139, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004616

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To explore the influencing factors of perioperative red blood cell transfusion in patients underwent lung transplantation, so as to provide reference for perioperative blood management (PBM) of lung transplantation patients. 【Methods】 The clinical data of 173 lung transplant patients completed in China-Japan Friendship Hospital from March 2017 to June 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to perioperative red blood cell transfusion volume: large blood transfusion group (transfusion red blood cell volume ≥6 U, n=66) and non-large blood transfusion group (red blood cell transfusion volume <6 U, n=107). The basic information, preoperative laboratory test results, and surgical status of the two groups were statistically analyzed.The clinical data of the two groups were analyzed by univariate analysis. The factors of P<0.15 were included in the binary logistic regression analysis, and the independent influencing factors of perioperative massive blood transfusion in patients with lung transplantation were found. 【Results】 Univariate analysis of clinical data of the two groups of patients (large blood transfusion group vs. non-large blood transfusion group) showed that the differences of smoking history ratio [44(66.7%) vs 87(81.3%)], BMI(20.8±4.5 vs 22.5±4.0)(P<0.05), preoperative Hb [124(111, 138.8) vs 138(126, 149)], preoperative Hct [37.9(34.8, 42.5) vs 41.3(37.9, 44.6)], surgery duration(327.9±107.7 vs 238.4±77.0), intraoperative blood loss(1 108.6±1342.0 vs 341.8±270.8) and single lung transplantation [28(42.4%) vs 84(78.5%)] (P<0.01) were statistically significant. Logistic regression analysis showed that intraoperative blood loss (OR=1.001, P<0.05), surgery duration (OR=1.006, P<0.05), preoperative Hb (OR=0.973, P<0.01), lung transplantation type(single or double lung transplantation)( OR=0.247, P<0.05) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (OR=0.187, P<0.01) were independent factors influencing red blood cell transfusion during lung transplantation. 【Conclusion】 Intraoperative blood loss and surgery duration are risk factors for massive blood transfusion during the perioperative period. And the use of ECMO, preoperative Hb, single lung transplantation (compared to double lung transplantation) are protective factors for perioperative massive blood transfusion.

20.
Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 610-612, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004495

ABSTRACT

【Objective】 To study the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin(IVIG) on the detection of blood transfusion compatibility in patients. 【Methods】 56 patients, submitted to our Hospital from March 1, 2017 to December 31, 2020, were enrolled as the research objects. They had negative unexpected antibody screening, major crossmatch incompatibility with the same blood type donors, and had a history of IVIG infusion. ABO and RhD blood groups typing, unexpected antibodies screening, crossmatch, direct antiglobulin test, indirect antiglobulin test, and acid elution test were all conducted by microcolumn gel method. 【Results】 After IVIG infusion, the initially major crossmatch incompatibility with the same blood type donors turned into compatiblity with O-type donors. Among them, 2 patients had transient discrepancy in ABO forward and reverse blood typing due to the IVIG infusion. IgG anti-A were detected in the red blood cell elution of 37 A-type patients; IgG anti-B in 2 B-type patients; 3 cases of IgG anti-A+ anti-B and 14 cases of solo IgG anti-A in 17 AB-type patients. 3 batches of IVIG preparations were detected randomly, IgG anti-A titer was 32-64, and IgG anti-B titer was 8-16. 【Conclusion】 The discrepancy in ABO forward and reverse blood typing and major crossmatch incompatibility with the same blood type donors may occur after non-O type patients received IVIG, which contains IgG types of anti-A and anti-B. In this situation, it is recommended to prepare major crossmatched O-type washed red blood cells to ensure the safety and effectiveness of clinical blood transfusion.

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