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1.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; (6): 67-74, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993722

ABSTRACT

The first global outbreak of monkeypox in non-epidemic regions occurred in May 2022, and the World Health Organization defined it as a public health emergency of international concern in July 2022. Compared with previous outbreaks of monkeypox in Africa, the current one is different in etiology, epidemiology and clinical characteristics. This article reviews the features of the latest outbreak of monkeypox, and the currently available antiviral treatment and vaccines, so as to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of monkeypox.

2.
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; (6): 10-20, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993716

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has being spreading around the world, posing a serious threat to human health and lives. Neutralizing antibodies and small molecule inhibitors for virus replication cycle are the main antiviral treatment for novel coronavirus recommended in China. To further promote the rational use of antiviral therapy in clinical practice, the National Center for Infectious Diseases (Beijing Ditan Hospital Capital Medical University and the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine) invited experts in fields of infectious diseases, respiratory and intensive care to develop an Expert Consensus on Antiviral Therapy of COVID-19 based on the Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline for COVID-19 ( trial version 10) and experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in China. The consensus is concise, practical and highly operable, hopefully it would improve the understanding of antiviral therapy for clinicians and provide suggestions for standardized medication in treatment of COVID-19.

3.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 184-189, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-702610

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the homology, biofilm-forming ability, and risk factors of prevalent A, B, C clones(carrying blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-51 genes mostly) of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) relative to carbapenemsusceptible Acinetobacter baumannii (CSAB). Methods A total of 87 prevalent A, B, C clones of CRAB and CSAB strains were collected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used for homologyanalysis of clone A, B, C strains. Biofilm-forming ability of CRAB and CSAB was measured quantitatively via crystal violet staining. Results Clone A was measured to be homologous type of ST238, while clones B and C were ST238 type. In general, CRAB prevalent clones showed weaker biofilm-forming ability than CSAB strains (0.470±0.301 versus 0.913±0.626, P<0.05). CRAB clones A, B, and C varied in ability of biofilm formation. Clone A had comparative biofilm-forming ability to clone C (P=0.432). Both clone A and C were weaker than clone B in biofilm-forming ability (both P<0.001). Biofilm-forming ability was not associated with blaOXA-23 or blaOXA-51 genes in CRAB strains (both P>0.05). Conclusions Prevalent CRAB clone A, B, C are derived from the same origin. We are the first to report the prevalence of ST238 and the homologous types in a hospital. Biofilm-forming ability is negatively correlated with carbapenem resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii, which suggests that clone prevalence is mainly related to antibiotic resistance acquisition and antibiotic selective pressure. Biofilm-forming ability varies with the prevalent CRAB clone. The wide spread of clone B is of concern.

4.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 561-567, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-753849

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the epidemiological and etiological characteristics of gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infection (IAI). Methods The patients with abdominal infection were identified retrospectively during the period from 2011 to 2015. The clinical and microbiological data were analyzed by WHONET 5.6 and SPSS 20.0. Results A total of 478 cases of IAI [hospital-acquired (HA) 290 cases, community-acquired (CA) 188 cases] were included in this analysis. CA-IAI patients at low risk were associated with significantly better outcome, and lower acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ score and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score than the CA-IAI and HA-IAI patients at high risk. The most common gram-negative bacillus isolated from intra-abdominal infections was E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The prevalence of ESBLs-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates was 75.8% and 35.8%, respectively. The E. coli isolates remained highly susceptible to amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and carbapenems during the 5-year period, while the K. pneumoniae isolates showed poorer susceptibility to ampicillin-sulbactam. Conclusions The prevalence of ESBLs-producing GNB is increasing in the patients with IAI. Such isolates were resistant to commonly used antimicrobial agents, but generally susceptible to carbapenems. It is important to strengthen the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in IAIs, and choose antimicrobial therapy rationally based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility test.

5.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 267-272, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-753832

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) in the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Methods Clinical isolates of S. aureus were collected from the hospital during the period from 2012 to 2015 and were tested for susceptibility to vancomycin using agar dilution method. The results were interpreted according to CLSI 2016 breakpoints. VISA and hVISA strains were screened out by population analysis profile-area under the curve (PAP-AUC). E-test was carried out to determine the MIC of VISA. The clinical data of the patients infected with S. aureus were reviewed retrospectively. Results A total of 105 patients were included in this analysis. And 105 strains of S. aureus were isolated from these patients, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains (58.1%, 61/105). PAP-AUC identified 19 (18.1%) hVISA strains and 10 (9.5%) VISA strains. Overall, 52 of the 105 patients were nosocomial infections and 53 community infections. The prevalence of MRSA was 69.2% (36/52) in nosocomial infections, higher than that in community infections (47.2%, 25/53) (P<0.05). The prevalence of hVISA in community infections (20.8%, 11/53) did not show significant difference from that in nosocomial infections (15.4%, 8/52) (P>0.05). The clinical outcome (P>0.05) and length of hospital stay (P>0.05) did not show significant difference between hVISA and non-hVISA infections, or between VISA and non-VISA infections. Conclusions The prevalence of hVISA is high in this hospital, which does not show difference between S. aureus nosocomial infection and community infection, or between MRSA and MSSA. The length of hospital stay of hVISA infection is not significantly longer than that of nonhVISA infection. The clinical outcome of hVISA infection does not show difference from that of non-hVISA infection. Larger sample size is required to better understand the prevalence and clinical features of hVISA.

6.
Chinese Journal of Primary Medicine and Pharmacy ; (12): 1946-1949, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-619094

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the air permeability,water absorption and water locking properties of two different foam dressings,thus to provide theoretical and experimental evidence to alternative optimization for acute and chronic wound.Methods Five Mepilex foam dressings(group 1) and PermaFoam Comfort dressings(group 2) each was selected.Simulated wound exudation was made by NaCl and CaCl·H2O.The water-absorbing rate of dressings at post immersion 24 h (PIH),the water-absorbing speed of dressings at post immersion 1,5,10,20 min,the diffusion diameter of exudation dripped on the surface of dressings for 5 min,the beaker filled with exudation was sealed tightly by dressing for 24 h,and the weight was gotten before and after 24 h.Statistical analysis was performed.Results (1) The water-absorbing rate:the group 1(616±19)% was significantly higher than (313±13)% of the group 2 (t=29.137,P0.05).Conclusion The Mepilex foam dressing is more suitable for the early stage of acute wound with large exudation in short time,while the PermaFoam Comfort dressings is better for chronic wound or the later period of acute with less exudation in a relative slow seepage velocity.

7.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 148-152, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-511341

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the seroepidemiology of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in adult men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chongqing area. Methods Nonprobability sampling method was used to test EB-CA-IgG, EB-NA-IgG and EB-VCA-IgM in the sera of 1082 MSMs from the clinical trials of HIV/AIDS treatments in Chongqing area from 2012 to 2015, and 1059 healthy individuals by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results were analyzed by Chi-square test. The difference was considered statistically significant when P<0.05. Results The 1082 MSM included 130 HIV positive and 952 HIV negative subjects. The prevalence of prior EBV infection was 92.6% in total MSM population, 88.5% in HIV-positive MSM, and 93.2% in HIV-negative MSM. The prevalence in total MSM and HIV negative MSM was significantly higher than that in control group (89.9%). Prior EBV infection was not?found?in?0.5%?of?the?total?MSM,?0.8%?of?HIV?positive?MSM?and?0.4%?of?HIV?negative?MSM,?all?significantly?lower?than?that?of control group (5.0%) (P<0.05).?Finally,?the?rate?of?EBV?reactivation?in?HIV?positive?MSM?(10.0%)?was?significantly?higher?than?that in control group (3.8%) and in HIV negative MSM group(4.1%) (P<0.005). Conclusions EBV infection is highly prevalent in MSM, higher than that in the general population. The rate of EBV reactivation in HIV negative MSM is similar to that in general population. The rate of seroepidemiology-based EBV reactivation is significantly higher in HIV positive MSM, which may be associated with the immunocompromised status post HIV infection.

8.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 557-560, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809030

ABSTRACT

For patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction or failure, although parenteral nutrition can maintain nutrition and save their lives, lack of food stimulus during the fasting period can cause abnormal secretion of gastrointestinal fluid, bile, and pancreatic juice, which may result in the abnormal secretion of a series of enzymes and lead to the development of various liver diseases. Recent research has focused on the prevention and treatment of such diseases, and this article reviews the research advances in recent years.

9.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 431-436, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809003

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To explore the influence of different inner dressings in negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on escharectomy wound of full-thickness burn rabbits.@*Methods@#Eighteen Japanese white rabbits were inflicted with full-thickness burn on unilateral back. They were divided into polymer dressing group (PD), biological dressing group (BD), and silver biological dressing group (SBD), according to the random number table, with 6 rabbits in each group. On 3 days post burn, the wounds were performed with escharectomy, and then wounds of rabbits in group PD were covered with polyurethane foam. Wounds of rabbits in group BD were covered with porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and wounds of rabbits in group SBD were covered with silver porcine ADM. Then continuous NPWT was performed on rabbits of the three groups for 7 days. Immediately after surgery and on post surgery day (PSD) 7, general observation of wound was conducted and tissue around the wound was harvested for determination of dry to wet weight ratio. The content of bacteria was counted and the content of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in wound was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fibroblasts in wound were counted after Masson staining and number of microvessels was counted after CD31 antibody immunohistochemical staining. Data were processed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement, LSD-t test, paired samples t test, and Bonferroni correction.@*Results@#(1) Immediately after surgery, there was no granulation tissue in basal wound of rabbits in the three groups, with rich blood supply and obvious edema. On PSD 7, much granulation tissue was found in basal wound of rabbits in the three groups, with no or mild edema and no obvious redness and swelling in wound edge. (2) There were no significant differences in dry to wet weight ratios of tissue around the wound among and within the three groups immediately after surgery and on PSD 7 (with F values respectively 0.70 and 0.09, t values from 0.17 to 0.52, P values above 0.05). (3) Immediately after surgery, the content of bacteria in wounds of rabbits in groups PD, BD, and SBD was respectively (603.0±146.0) ×104, (573.0±63.0) ×104, and (590.0±100.0)×104 colony-forming unit (CFU)/g, with no significant difference among them (F=0.13, P>0.05). On PSD 7, the content of bacteria in wounds of rabbits in groups PD, BD, and SBD were respectively (5.4±0.8) ×104, (4.6±0.9) ×104, and (3.5±0.9)×104 CFU/g. Among them, the content of bacteria in wounds of rabbits in group SBD was lower than that in groups PD and BD, respectively (with t values respectively 3.78 and 2.29, P<0.05 or P<0.01). The content of bacteria in wounds of rabbits in the three groups on PSD 7 was decreased compared with that immediately after surgery (with t values from 10.05 to 21.81, P values below 0.01). (4) There was no significant difference in content of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in wounds of rabbits in the three groups immediately after surgery and on PSD 7 (with F values from 0.10 to 1.89, P values above 0.05). The content of TNF-α in wounds of rabbits in the three groups on PSD 7 was significantly higher than that immediately after surgery (with t values from 2.93 to 5.01, P<0.05 or P<0.01). (5) There was no significant difference in amount of fibroblasts in wounds of rabbits in the three groups immediately after surgery and on PSD 7 (with F values respectively 0.01 and 0.81, P values above 0.05). The amount of fibroblasts in wounds of rabbits in the three groups on PSD 7 was larger than that immediately after surgery (with t values from 4.78 to 11.58, P values below 0.01). (6) There was no significant difference in number of microvessels in wounds of rabbits in the three groups immediately after surgery and on PSD 7 (with F values respectively 2.42 and 2.49, P values above 0.05). The number of microvessels in wounds of rabbits in the three groups on PSD 7 was larger than that immediately after surgery (with t values from 7.17 to 11.14, P values below 0.01).@*Conclusions@#SBD is better at inhibiting the growth of bacteria. PD, BD, and SBD have almost the same effects on reducing tissue edema and inflammatory reaction, and on promoting the accumulation of collagen fibers and tissue vascularization.

10.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 217-222, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808378

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To examine the regulatory effect of ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1) on endoplasmic reticulum stress and its effect on hepatocellular apoptosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver failure (ALF).@*Methods@#Forty healthy, adult male C57/BL mice were randomly divided into normal saline control (NS) group, G-Rg1 blank control (G-Rg1) group, CCl4 model (CCl4) group, and G-Rg1 preventive treatment (CCl4+G-Rg1) group, and an ALF mouse model was established by CCl4 induction. Blood and liver specimens were collected from all mice upon sacrifice at 12 hours post-intraperitoneal injection. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBil) levels were determined using commercial test kits. The mRNA expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) was measured using real-time PCR. The protein expression of GRP78, CHOP, caspase12, and caspase3 were measured by Western blot. Histological changes in the liver were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the expression of GRP78 and caspase3 was detected by immunohistochemistry. Hepatocyte apoptosis was determined using terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Quantitative data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, and subsequent pairwise comparisons were performed using the LSD-t method.@*Results@#Serum ALT, AST, and TBil levels in the CCl4+G-Rg1 group were significantly reduced compared with those in the CCl4 group (ALT: 691.30 ± 108.06 U/L vs 980.66 ± 110.29 U/L, F = 365.07, P < 0.05; AST: 195.40 ± 15.41 U/L vs 319.44 ± 89.32 U/L, F = 115.64, P < 0.05; TBil: 1.09 ± 0.11 mg/dl vs 1.56 ± 0.12 mg/dl, F = 211.29, P < 0.05). The relative mRNA expression of GRP78 and CHOP was significantly lower in the CCl4 + G-Rg1 group than in the CCl4 group (P < 0.05). The relative protein expression of caspase3, GRP78, caspase12, and CHOP was significantly reduced to different extents in the CCl4+G-Rg1 group compared with those in the CCl4 group (P < 0.05). The CCl4 + G-Rg1 group showed reduced liver tissue degeneration and necrosis compared with the CCl4 group. Furthermore, the CCl4+G-Rg1 group showed significantly fewer brown granules in the liver than the CCl4 group (P < 0.05), indicating that G-Rg1 preventive treatment reduced CCl4-induced hepatocyte apoptosis.@*Conclusion@#G-Rg1 prophylaxis can inhibit inflammation and reduce hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis during CCl4-induced ALF. Its mechanism may involve the suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related signaling molecules to alleviate hepatocyte endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. The results of this study suggest that G-Rg1 may inhibit liver inflammation and hepatocyte apoptosis through multiple targets to protect liver function.

11.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2214-2217, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-778382

ABSTRACT

Liver disease during pregnancy is classified as pregnancy-specific liver disease and non-pregnancy-specific liver disease. The unique physicochemical status during pregnancy increases the burden of liver metabolism. Once liver injury occurs, it tends to be more serious and is closely associated with maternal and fetal outcome. If no diagnosis and treatment are given in time, pregnant women and parturients may experience more complications and the mortality rate of perinatal infants will also increase. This article reviews the latest research advances in the diagnosis and treatment of liver disease during pregnancy, in order to provide a reference for the diagnosis and treatment of liver disease during pregnancy in clinical practice.

12.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 340-345, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493646

ABSTRACT

Objective To detect the disinfectant-resistant geneqacA/B in the strains ofStaphylococcous aureus isolated from January 2014 to December 2014.Methods Fifty-one isolates were collected. PCR assay was used to detectmecA gene andqacA/B gene in the isolates followed byStaphylococcus protein A (spa) typing. Antimicrobial-resistant phenotypic typing was conducted to analyze the homology of theseqacA/B positive strains. The clinical information of the patients from whom the strains were isolated was collected to further understand the clinical background ofqacA/B-carryingS. aureus.Results The prevalence ofmecA and qacA/B genes was 21.6% (11/51) and 13.7% (7/51), respectively in the strains. The prevalence ofqacA/B gene in the methicillin-resistantS. aureus strains (54.5%, 6/11) was signiifcantly higher than that in the methicillin-sensitiveS. aureus strains (2.50%, 1/40). The prevalence ofmecA gene inqacA/B gene positive strains (6/7) was signiifcantly higher than that inqacA/B gene negative strains (1/7). TheseqacA/B positive strains were classiifed into 4 spa types (t037, t091, t932 and t895). The main type was t037 (4/7), which was from the pediatric ward.Conclusions The prevalence ofqacA/B gene is low in theS. aureus strains. However, the prevalence of this gene in methicillin-resistantS. aureus strains is far higher than that in methicillin-sensitiveS. aureus. spa type t037 may be a prevalent clone in pediatric ward.

13.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 267-274, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493494

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the changing pattern of antibiotic resistance inKlebsiella strains isolated from the patients in 19 hospitals across China based on the data from CHINET Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program during the period from 2005 through 2014.Methods Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and automated susceptibility testing methods were used to test the susceptibility ofKlebsiella isolates to the commonly used antibiotics. The results were interpreted according to the criteria of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (CLSI-2014).Results A total of 61 406Klebsiella strains were identified between 2005 and 2014, includingK. pneumoniae (56 281 strains), K. oxytoca(4 779),Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp.Ozaenae (300) and otherKlebsiella species (46). Most (89.0%, 54 664/61 406) of theKlebsiella strains were isolated from inpatients, and 60.0% (36 835/61 406) were from respiratory tract speciems. About 16.7% (10 248/61 406) of the strains were isolated from pediatric patients aged 0-17 years and 83.3% (51 158/61 406) from adult patients. The prevalence ofKlebsiella spp. increased with time from 10.1% in 2005 to 14.3% in 2014. Based on the surveillance data during the 10-year period, we found a marked increase of resistance to imipenem (2.9% to 10.5%) and meropenem (2.8% to 13.4%) inKlebsiella spp. The prevalence of ESBLs-producing isolates inK. pneumoniae andK. oxytoca decreased from 39.0% in 2005 to 30.1% in 2014. The resistance to amikacin, ceftazidime, ciprolfoxacin, pipracillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam was on decline. The resistance rate to cefotaxime remained high about 49.5%. Carbapenem resistantance was identiifed in 5 796 (9.4%) of the isolates, including 5 492 strains ofK. pneumoniae and 280 strains ofK. oxytoca. Overall, 4 740 (7.8%) strains were identiifed as extensively-drug resistant (XDR), including 4 520 strains ofK. pneumoniae and 202 strains ofK. oxytoca. The carbapenem-resistant strains showed high (>60%) resistance rate to majority of the antimicrobial agents tested, but relatively low resistance to tigecycline (16.8%), amikacin (54.4%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (55.5%).Conclusions During the 10-year period from 2005 through 2014, carbapenem resistance amongKlebsiella isolates has increased dramatically in the hospitals across China. The level of resistance to other antibiotics remains stable.

14.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 275-283, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493493

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution and antibiotic resistance proifle of clinicalEnterobacter isolates using the data from CHINET during the period from 2005 through 2014.Methods A total of 20 558 clinical strains ofEnterobacter spp. were collected from 2005 to 2014 in CHINET Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with Kirby-Bauer or minimum inhibitory concentration method. The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2014 breakpoints.ResultsEnterobacter cloacae andEnterobacter aerogenes accounted for 71.1% (14 617/20558) and 20.1% (4 129/20 558) of all theEnterobacterisolates, respectively. The proportion ofEnterobacter spp. increased with time from 3.5% in 2005 to 4.3% in 2014. The main source of the isolates was respiratory tract, accounting for 55.2% (11 358/20 558). More than 90% of theEnterobacterisolates were resistant to cefazolin and cefoxitin, but less than 30% of the strains were resistant to cefepime, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoperazone-sulbactam, amikacin, gentamicin, ciprolfoxacin, meropenem, imipenem and ertapenem. TheEnterobacterisolates showed a trend of declining resistance to most antibiotics except ertapenem and meropenem. The resistance proifle ofEnterobacterisolates varied with departments where they were isolated. The strains from ICU and Department of Surgery were relatively more resistant to antibiotics. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains was decreasing, but the prevalence of carbapenem-resistantEnterobacter (CRE, resistant to any of imipenem, meropenem or ertapenem) was increasing. The MDR and CRE strains were primarily isolated from ICU and Department of Surgery. At least 30% of the MDREnterobacter strains were resistant to any of the antimicrobial agents tested except meropenem, imipenem and ertapenem and at least 35% of the CRE strains were resistant to any of the antimicrobial agents tested except amikacin and ciprolfoxacin.Conclusions TheEnterobacter isolates in CHINET Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program showed decreasing resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents tested since 2011, but the prevalence of CRE strains increased progressively. Effective measures should be carried out to prevent the spread of CRE strains in hospitals.

15.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 294-301, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493488

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution and changing resistance proifle ofSalmonella isolates in hospitals across China during the period from January 2005 to December 2014.Methods Seventeen general hospitals and two children’s hospitals were involved in this program. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by means of a unified protocol using Kirby-Bauer method or MIC determination. The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2014 breakpoints.Results The proportion ofSalmonella isolates increased with time from 0.2% in 2005 to 0.7% in 2014. A total of 3 478Salmonella strains were collected from 19 hospitals. The proportion ofSalmonella typhimurium andSalmonella enteritidis was 27.4% and 24.4%, respectively. During the 10-year period, theSalmonella strains showed highest resistance rate to ampicillin (33.3%-64.8%), but low resistance to cefoperazone-sulbactam (0-5.3%) and ciprofloxacin (2.4%-14.3%).S. typhimurium showed higher resistance rate thanS. typhi,S. paratyphi andS. enteritidis. About 76.8% and 50.5% ofS. typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The average prevalence of multi-drug resistantSalmonellawas 3.9% in the ten-year period, the highest (7.5%) was in 2005, the lowest (1.5%) in 2013.Conclusions During the period from 2004 to 2015, majority of theSalmonella isolates in hospitals across China wasS. typhimurium andS. enteritidis. Ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are no longer appropriate for empirical treatment ofS. typhimurium infection due to high resistance rate.Salmonella isolates are relatively more susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones. Ongoing monitoring is necessary to identify multi-drug resistant strains ofSalmonella.

16.
Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy ; (6): 302-314, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-493486

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the resistance proifle of bacterial strains isolated from geriatric patients in 17 hospitals across China from 2005 to 2014.Methods A total of 17 representative general hospitals were involved in this program. Bacterial susceptibility testing was carried out by means of a uniifed protocol using Kirby-Bauer method and MIC determination. The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2014 breakpoints.Results The proportion of the strains isolated from geriatric patients among all the clinical isolates increased with time from 30.0% in 2005 to 32.7% in 2014. A total of 159 888 clinical isolates were collected from geriatric patient during the period from 2005 to 2014, about 33.1% of the whole patient population. Gram negative organisms and gram positive cocci accounted for 77.1% (123 229/159 888) and 22.9% (36 659/159 888), respectively. Majority (92.8%, 148 376/159 888) of the isolates were from inpatients and more than half (55.2%, 88 201/159 888) of the isolates were from sputum or other respiratory tract specimens. Methicillin-resistant strains inS. aureus (MRSA) and coagulase negativeStaphylococcus (MRCNS) accounted for an average of 67.1% and 75.9%, respectively. The resistance rates of methicillin-resistant strains to β-lactams and other antimicrobial agents were much higher than those of methicillin-susceptible strains. No staphylococcal strains were found resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. Some strains ofE. faecalis (0.4%) andE. faecium (4.6%) were resistant to vancomycin, which was higher than average national level (0.3%, 3.2%). Vancomycin-resistant strains ofE. faecalisandE. faecium were mainly VanA type and VanB type based on their phenotype. The prevalence of penicillin-susceptibleS. pneumoniae strains was 78.2%, slightly lower than the 95.0% in Chinese adults in year 2014. The prevalence of ESBLs-producing strains was 67.5% inE. coli, 40.4% inKlebsiella (K. pneumoniae andK. oxytoca) and 34.3% inProteus mirabilis isolates on average. The strains ofEnterobacteriaceae were still highly susceptible to carbapenems (<10% resistant), followed by amikacin and the beta-lactam and beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Overall, 35.9% and 33.0% of theP. aeruginosa strains were resistant to imipenem and meropenem. More than 50% of theA. baumannii strains were resistant to imipenem and meropenem. The prevalence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR)P. aeruginosa (4.0%-1.8%) was higher than the average national level (2.1%-1.6%). The prevalence of XDR A. baumannii (19.2%-15.5%) and XDREnterobacteriaceae (0.1%-1.0%) was lower than the average national level (21.4%-19.7% and 0.3%-3.2%).Conclusions The proportion of clinical isolates from geriatric patients is different from average national level at the same period. The isolates from geriatric patients are more likely from inpatients, respiratory tract specimens and more likely non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli compared to average national level. The proportion of fastidious bacteria andEnterobacteriaceae species is generally lower than average national level. MRSA, VRE, ESBLs-producing strains and XDRP. aeruginosa are more prevalent in geriatric patients than in general Chinese patient population. This study suggests that surveillance of antimicrobial resistance for the clinical isolates from geriatric patients is very important for rational antimicrobial therapy.

17.
Chinese Journal of Pathophysiology ; (12): 707-712, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-486763

ABSTRACT

AIM:To determine the therapeutic efficacy of recombinant adenovirus containing hyper-interleu-kin-6 (HIL-6) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (Ad-HGF-HIL-6) on acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in rats u-sing that of recombinant adenovirus HIL-6 or HGF ( Ad-HIL-6 or Ad-HGF) for comparison.METHODS:The rat model of ACLF was established and the model rats were randomly divided into model group, Ad0 group, Ad-HGF group, Ad-HIL-6 group and Ad-HGF-HIL-6 group.The sera and liver tissues were collected for biochemical, pathological and molecular bio-logical examinations.RESULTS:Compared with Ad0 group, prothrombin time ( PT) and the serum levels of alanine amin-otransferase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interferon-γ(IFN-γ) and high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) were markedly reduced in the ACLF rats treated with Ad-HGF, Ad-HIL-6 and Ad-HGF-HIL-6, and similarly, reduced he-patic damages and apoptotic activity, reduced Bax at protein level, and increased expression of Ki67 and Bcl-2 at protein levels were observed.Among them, treatment with Ad-HGF-HIL-6 showed the most significant therapeutic efficacy without obvious side effects.CONCLUSION:The therapeutic efficacy of Ad-HGF-HIL-6 is more potent than that of Ad-HGF or Ad-HIL-6 alone on ACLF rats with no significant side effects.

18.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 84-89, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-316845

ABSTRACT

<p><b>PURPOSE</b>To investigate and analyze the clinical and etiological characteristics of community-acquired intraabdominal infections (CIAIs) and hospital-acquired or nosocomial intraabdominal infections (NIAIs) in a comprehensive hospital, to understand the characteristics, pathogen composition, and drug resistance of CIAIs as well as NIAIs, and to provide a reference for clinical treatment.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We collected the clinical data of patients with intraabdominal infections admitted to our hospital from June 2013 to June 2014. In vitro drug sensitivity tests were conducted to separate pathogens, and the data were analyzed using the WHONET 5.4 software and SPSS 13.0 software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 221 patients were enrolled in the study, including 144 with CIAIs (55 mild-moderate and 89 severe) and 77 with NIAIs. We isolated 322 pathogenic strains, including 234 strains of gram-negative bacteria, 82 strains of gram-positive bacteria, and 6 strains of fungi. Based on clinical features, NIAIs and severe CIAIs presented significantly higher values in age, length of hospital stay, mortality, and the incidence of severe intra-abdominal infection than mild-moderate CIAIs (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the prognosis between NIAIs and severe CIAIs. Primary diseases leading to CIAIs and NIAIs mostly were hepatobiliary diseases and gastrointestinal diseases respectively. Bacteria isolated from various types of IAIs mainly were Enterobacteriaceae; mild-moderate CIAIs mostly were mono-infection of gram-negative bacteria; NIAIs mostly were mixed infections of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria; and severe CIAIs were from either type of infection. The rate of Extended Spectrum b-Lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was much higher in NIAIs than in CIAIs (p < 0.05). The antimicrobial drug sensitivity of gram-negative bacteria isolated from NIAIs was significantly lower than that of CIAIs.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>CIAIs and NIAIs have their own unique clinical features and epidemiological features of pathogens which should be considered during the initial empiric therapy for the rational use of antimicrobial drugs. Regional IAIs pathogenic bacteria have their own features in drug resistance, slightly different from some recommendations of 2010 Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bacterial Infections , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Cross Infection , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Intraabdominal Infections , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies
19.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 609-615, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290391

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of Rgl treatment on prognosis of alcoholic hepatitis using a rat model.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Female Sprague-Dawley rats were radomly divided into four groups:unmodeled control, untreated model, Rgl-treated model, and dexamethasone (DXM)-treated model. The model groups were generated by intragastric injection of alcohol. The unmodeled control group was given an equal dosage of normal saline by the same route. After model establishment, the Rg1 treatment group and the DXM treatment group were administered a 120-hour treatment of Rgl or DXM; the unmodeled controls were administered normal saline on the same schedule. All rats were then fasted for 120 hours and venous blood samples were collected for detection of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBil), albumin (Alb), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFat) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Markers of liver inflammation were measured by immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Fat and apoptosis indices were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and TUNEL assay, respectively. The t-test and F test were used for statistical analyses.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The model group showed remarkably more liver steatosis (over one-third of the tissue) than the unmodeled control group, indicating proper establishment of alcoholic liver disease in the modeled rats. The AST, ALT, TBil, and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the untreated model group than in the Rgl-treated group and the DXM-treated group. The values were significantly different between the Rg1-treated group and the DXM-treated group:ALT, 69.19+/-8.00 U/L vs.102.88+/-5.16 U/L; TBil, 0.36+/-0.07 µmol/L vs.1.20+/-0.18 µmol/L; IL-6, 126.50+/-6.50 U/ml vs.169.19+/-7.68 U/ml; TNFa, 268.31+/-13.19 µg/L vs.318.94+/-7.87 µg/L (all P less than 0.05). Expression of caspase3 and caspase8 was significantly higher in the model group than in the Rgltreated group and the DXM-treated group (both P<0.05). The apoptosis index was significantly lower in the Rgltreated group and the DXM-treated group than in the model group (both P<0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of caspase3, caspase8 and NF-kB were significantly lower in the Rgl-treated group and the DXM-treated group than in the model group (allP less than 0.05), and the levels of all were significantly lower in the Rgl-treated group cornered to the DXM-treated group (all P<0.05). Conehision In rats with alcoholic hepatitis, Rg1 can significantly relieve pathological injury, improve liver function by blocking the apoptotic pathway, and inhibit release of inflammatory cytokines.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bilirubin , Cytokines , Disease Models, Animal , Ethanol , Ginsenosides , Hepatitis, Alcoholic , NF-kappa B , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
Chinese Journal of Pathophysiology ; (12): 1272-1276, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-463094

ABSTRACT

[ ABSTRACT] AIM: To investigate the seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies to human adenovirus type 5 (AdHu5) , human adenovirus type 26 (AdHu26) and chimpanzee adenovirus type 68 (AdC68) in the patients with chro-nic hepatitis B ( CHB) and the patients with primary liver cancer ( PLC) , and to provide guidance for developing safe and effective biotherapy vectors against CHB and PLC.METHODS:The blood samples from 196 patients with CHB and 193 patients with PLC were examined to assess the presence of neutralizing antibodies against AdHu5, AdHu26 and AdC68 by adenovirus neutralization assays.RESULTS:The seroprevalence rates of neutralizing antibodies to AdHu5, AdHu26 and AdC68 in the CHB patients were 84.7%, 58.2%and 39.8%, respectively.Among the patients with PLC, the prevalence rates of neutralizing antibodies were as follows:AdHu5, 75.1%;AdHu26, 66.8%;AdC68, 32.1%.CONCLUSION:The prevalence rates and titers of neutralizing antibodies against AdC68 were the lowest among the 3 adenoviruses.There-fore, AdC68 serves as more suitable biological therapy vectors for CHB and PLC than AdHu5 and AdHu26.

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