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1.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 49(2): e20180451, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045283

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Samples of 168 maté trees (Ilex paraguariensis) from four natural populations of different states of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul) were analyzed for their variability in storage proteins seed, which were used to estimate the degree of differentiation among and within species, because are relatively stable during evolution. Data on band presence/absence from 80 different polypeptides were used to perform similarity coefficient of Jaccard. A high level of genetic variability was reported within sampled populations (SJ intra=0.374). Lower levels of diversity were observed between populations (SJ inter=0.308). Total genetic diversity of maté was Hsp=0.264 estimated by Shannon measure. Partition of that value disclosed that 95 % of the total diversity is within-population, and only 5% to between-populations. The phenogram based on King's distances indicates a certain degree of geographic differentiation. This represents the first study on storage protein variability in I. paraguariensis and guides the choice of the specimens to increment germoplasm banks and genetic improvement programs.


RESUMO: A variabilidade de proteínas de reserva das sementes foi analisada em 168 árvores de quatro populações naturais de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) dos estados brasileiros Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná e Mato Grosso do Sul. Estes marcadores foram utilizados para estimar o grau de diferenciação entre e dentro da espécie porque são relativamente estáveis ao longo da evolução. Dados sobre presença e ausência de bandas de 80 diferentes polipeptídios foram utilizados para calcular o coeficiente de similaridade de Jaccard. Encontramos alto grau de variabilidade genética dentro de cada uma das quatro populações de árvores (SJ intra=0.374). Menores níveis de diversidade foram observados entre as populações (SJ inter=0.308). A diversidade total da espécie Ilex foi Hsp=0,264, estimada pela medida de Shannon. A partição deste valor revelou que 95% da diversidade total é intrapopulacional, enquanto somente 5% é entre populações. O fenograma, baseado nas distâncias de King, indica certo grau de diferenciação geográfica. Este trabalho representa o primeiro estudo de variabilidade em proteínas de reserva de I. paraguariensis e pode ser utilizado para orientar a escolha de espécimes para compor bancos de germoplasma e programas de melhoramento genético da espécie.

2.
Genet. mol. biol ; 32(1): 111-116, 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-505778

ABSTRACT

The genus Nothoscordum Kunth comprises approximately 20 species native to South America. Karyologically, the genus is remarkable for its large chromosomes and Robertsonian translocations. Variation in chromosome number has been recorded in a few polyploid species and it is unknown among diploids. This study presents the chromosome number and morphology of 53 individuals of seven populations of N. arenarium Herter (2n = 10). In addition, karyotype analyses after C-banding, staining with CMA and DAPI, and in situ hybridization with 5S and 45S rDNA probes were performed in six individuals from one population. All individuals exhibited 2n = 10 (6M + 4A), except for one tetraploid (2n = 20, 12M + 8A) and one triploid (2n = 15, 9M + 6A) plant. C-banding revealed the presence of CMA+/DAPI- heterochromatin in the short arm and in the proximal region of the long arm of all acrocentric chromosomes. The 45S rDNA sites co-localized with the CMA+ regions of the acrocentrics short arms, while the 5S rDNA probe only hybridized with the subterminal region of a pair of metacentric chromosomes. A change in the pattern of CMA bands and rDNA sites was observed in only one individual bearing a reciprocal translocation involving the long arm of a metacentric and the long arm of an acrocentric chromosome. These data suggest that, despite isolated cases of polyploidy and translocation, the karyotype of N. arenarium is very stable and the karyotypic instability described for other species may be associated with their polyploid condition.


Subject(s)
Allium/genetics , Chromosome Banding , Genetics, Population , Cytogenetic Analysis , Genetic Variation , Heterochromatin , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Karyotyping , Translocation, Genetic
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