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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 405-412, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927173

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We evaluated the safety, feasibility, and early treatment outcomes of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) using a lowenergy X-ray source. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with resectable pancreatic cancer were enrolled in this single-institution, prospective, singlearm, phase II trial. Patients underwent surgery and IORT with 10 Gy prescribed at a 5-mm depth from the tumor bed using a 50 kV X-ray source (Intrabeam, Carl Zeiss). Six cycles of adjuvant gemcitabine-based chemotherapy were administered 8–12 weeks after surgery. @*Results@#A total of 41 patients were included. Thirty-one patients (75.6%) underwent wide R0 resection, while 5 (12.2%) underwent R1 resection and 5 (12.2%) underwent narrow R0 resection (retroperitoneal margin <1 mm). Grade 3 postoperative complications were reported in only one patient (4.9%) who needed additional surgery due to ulcer perforation. At a median follow-up of 9 months, four patients showed local-only recurrence, nine had distant metastases, and two showed both local and distant recurrence. The 1-year local control rate was 76.4%. @*Conclusion@#Our preliminary report suggests that IORT is well-tolerated and feasible in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer. Further follow-up is needed to confirm the clinical benefits of IORT in terms of local control and overall survival.Trial Registration: Clinical trial registration No. (NCT03273374).

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 241-251, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927157

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Here, we aimed to elucidate the differences in microbiota composition between patients with gout and those with asymptomatic hyperuricemia (asHU) and determine the effect of uric acid-lowering therapy (ULT) on the gut microbiome. @*Materials and Methods@#Stool samples from patients with asHU (n=8) and three groups of gout patients, i.e., acute gout patients before ULT (0ULT, n=14), the same acute gout patients after 30-day ULT (30ULT, n=9), and chronic gout patients after ≥6-month ULT (cULT, n=18) were collected and analyzed using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. The composition of microbial taxonomy and communities, species diversity, and relationships among microbial communities were elucidated by bioinformatic analysis. @*Results@#Gout patients showed less diverse gut microbiota than asHU patients. The microbiota of the asHU group exhibited a higher Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio and lower Prevotella-to-Bacteroides (P/B) ratio than the gout group; significantly, the F/B ratio increased in gout patients after ULT. Moreover, a balanced enterotype populated asHU patients compared to gout patients. Notably, the gut microbiota in asHU patients had a higher proportion of taxa with potentially anti-inflammatory effects compared to the gut microbiota in gout patients. @*Conclusion@#We found that microbial composition differs between asHU and gout patients. The differential gut microbiota in asHU patients may protect against gout development, whereas that in gout patients may have a role in gout provocation. ULT in gout patients altered the gut microbiota, and may help alleviate gout pathology and mitigate gout progression.

3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 272-281, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927153

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The study aimed to develop an objectified Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (OTAS) that can objectively and quickly classify severity, as well as a simple age-adjusted OTAS (S-OTAS) that reflects age and evaluate its usefulness. @*Materials and Methods@#A retrospective analysis was performed of all adult patients who had visited the emergency department at three teaching hospitals. Sex, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, O 2 saturation, and consciousness level were collected from medical records. The OTAS was developed with objective criterion and minimal OTAS level, and S-OTAS was developed by adding the age variable. For usefulness evaluation, the 30-day mortality, the rates of computed tomography scan and emergency procedures were compared between Korean Triage and Acuity Scale (KTAS) and OTAS. @*Results@#A total of 44402 patients were analyzed. For 30-day mortality, S-OTAS showed a higher area under the curve (AUC) compared to KTAS (0.751 vs. 0.812 for KTAS and S-OTAS, respectively, p<0.001). Regarding the rates of emergency procedures, AUC was significantly higher in S-OTAS, compared to KTAS (0.807 vs. 0.830, for KTAS and S-OTAS, respectively, p=0.013). @*Conclusion@#S-OTAS showed comparative usefulness for adult patients visiting the emergency department as a triage tool compared to KTAS.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927036

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The preventive role of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of HCQ and other immunosuppressive drugs on the incidence of COVID-19. @*Methods@#The data were collected from the South Korea National Health Insurance Sharing-COVID-19 database. All individuals who underwent nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab tests for COVID-19 from January 2020 to May 2020 are included. The association between COVID-19 risk and HCQ use was examined in a propensity score-matched population. Factors associated with COVID-19 were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#Total 8,070 patients with COVID-19 and 121,050 negative controls were included from the database. Among all participants, 381 were HCQ users. In a propensity score-matched population, the incidence of COVID-19 was 7.1% in HCQ users and 6.8% in non-users. The odds ratio (OR) for HCQ use was 1.05 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.58 to 1.89. Among the subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 33 were diagnosed with COVID-19 and 478 were not. Use of HCQ, glucocorticoids, or other immunosuppressive drugs was not associated with COVID-19 risk, whereas abatacept use was. Chronic lung disease was an independent risk factor for COVID-19 diagnosis in patients with RA (adjusted OR, 6.07; 95% CI, 1.10 to 33.59). @*Conclusions@#The risk of COVID-19 did not differ between HCQ users and non-users. Glucocorticoids, conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biological DMARDs other than abatacept did not increase the risk of COVID-19.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926962

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Previous studies have reported the protective effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) on gastric epithelial cells in some animal models, but the precise mechanisms are unclear. This study examined the effects of TUDCA on NF-κB signaling in gastric epithelial cells. Moreover, the protective effects of TUDCA in experimental gastritis models induced by ethanol and NSAID were evaluated and compared with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). @*Methods@#After a pretreatment with TUDCA or UDCA, human gastric epithelial MKN-45 cells were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α to activate NF-κB signaling. A real-time PCR (RT-PCR) for human interleukin (IL)-1 mRNA was performed. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and immunoblot analyses were carried out. In murine models, after a pretreatment with TUDCA or UDCA, ethanol and indomethacin were administered via oral gavage. Macroscopic and microscopic assessments were performed to evaluate the preventive effects of TUDCA and UDCA on murine gastritis. @*Results@#A pretreatment with TUDCA downregulated the IL-1α mRNA levels in MKN-45 cells stimulated with TNF-α, as assessed by RT-PCR. As determined using EMSA, a pretreatment with TUDCA reduced the TNF-α-induced NF-κB DNA binding activity. A pretreatment with TUDCA inhibited IκBα phosphorylation induced by TNF-α, as assessed by immunoblot analysis. TUDCA attenuated the ethanol-induced and NSAID-induced gastritis in murine models, as determined macroscopically and microscopically. @*Conclusions@#TUDCA inhibited NF-κB signaling in gastric epithelial cells and ameliorated ethanol- and NSAID-induced gastritis in murine models. These results support the potential of TUDCA for the prevention of gastritis in humans.

6.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 326-332, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926890

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The objectives of this study were to investigate the suicide risk in diabetes patients and evaluate the variations in suicide risk by the duration of diabetes using a large population sample in South Korea. @*Methods@#Data from 6,296 adults in the 2019 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included. The suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicidal behavior of diabetes patients were compared to the general population. After classifying the patients into ≤1 year, 2 to 9 years, and ≥10 years of diabetes duration, we evaluated the relationship between the duration of diabetes and the suicide risk. @*Results@#Diabetes patients had higher prevalences of suicidal ideation (9.1%, p<0.001) and suicide plans (3.6%, p<0.001) than the general population. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, suicide plans (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.926, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.325–6.463) were significantly associated with diabetes. In the 2 to 9 years group of diabetes patients, we found an increase in the risk of suicidal ideation (aOR=2.035, 95% CI=1.129–3.670), suicide plans (aOR=3.507, 95% CI=1.538–7.996), and suicidal behavior (aOR=7.130, 95% CI=2.035–24.978) after adjusting for the covariates. However, no increases in suicide risk were observed ≤1 year and ≥10 years after diabetes diagnosis. @*Conclusion@#In adults, diabetes is associated with an increase in suicide risk. Suicide risk in diabetes patients showed an inverted U-shaped depending upon the duration of diabetes.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926837

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Hydrolyzed formula is often fed to infants with gastrointestinal or immune issues, such as malabsorption or cow's milk allergy, because enzymatic treatment has rendered it more digestible and less allergenic than standard cow's milk formula (SF). Partially hydrolyzed formula (PHF) should be considered for those infants who are intolerant to extensively hydrolyzed formula. However, there are concerns about the nutritional insufficiencies of PHF. We aimed to evaluate the effects of PHF on the growth and health indicators in infants who were at high-risk of allergic disease and potential candidates for consuming PHF. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#A total of 83 infants aged 0–2 mon with a family history of allergies were assigned to consume either PHF or SF until 24 weeks of age. Anthropometric measures were obtained at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks; blood samples were drawn and evaluated at the end of the study. @*RESULTS@#No significant differences were observed in weight, height, and weight-for-height at any time point in each sex between the PHF and SF groups. At 24 weeks of age, the weightfor-age and height-for-age z-scores of the SF group were higher than those of the PHF group, but there was no significant difference in the weight-for-height z-score. There were no significant differences in levels of white blood cells, hemoglobin, ferritin, protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, eosinophil cationic protein, and immunoglobulin E. @*CONCLUSIONS@#In this study, there were no differences in growth and blood panels between the infants consuming PHF or SF. Therefore, infants who are unable to tolerate SF can be fed PHF without nutritional concerns about growth.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926761

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the completeness of the reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in a general radiology journal using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 guidelines. @*Materials and Methods@#Twenty-four articles (systematic review and meta-analysis, n = 18; systematic review only, n = 6) published between August 2009 and September 2021 in the Korean Journal of Radiology were analyzed. Completeness of the reporting of main texts and abstracts were evaluated using the PRISMA 2020 statement. For each item in the statement, the proportion of studies that met the guidelines’ recommendation was calculated and items that were satisfied by fewer than 80% of the studies were identified. The review process was conducted by two independent reviewers. @*Results@#Of the 42 items (including sub-items) in the PRISMA 2020 statement for main text, 24 were satisfied by fewer than 80% of the included articles. The 24 items were grouped into eight domains: 1) assessment of the eligibility of potential articles, 2) assessment of the risk of bias, 3) synthesis of results, 4) additional analysis of study heterogeneity, 5) assessment of non-reporting bias, 6) assessment of the certainty of evidence, 7) provision of limitations of the study, and 8) additional information, such as protocol registration. Of the 12 items in the abstract checklists, eight were incorporated in fewer than 80% of the included publications. @*Conclusion@#Several items included in the PRISMA 2020 checklist were overlooked in systematic review and meta-analysis articles published in the Korean Journal of Radiology. Based on these results, we suggest a double-check list for improving the quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Authors and reviewers should familiarize themselves with the PRISMA 2020 statement and check whether the recommended items are fully satisfied prior to publication.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926704

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic, and some patients require mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. Owing to the risks of aerosol spreading to health care workers, the protocols and guidelines related to the novel timing and technique for tracheostomy are rapidly changing. We investigated the characteristics of tracheostomy with patients with COVID-19 over a year.Subjects and Method We measured the mean time from intubation to the tracheostomy, survival rate, the incidence of infection to medical staff, and operation time, complications for tracheostomy, and the time of decannulation. All patients underwent a novel percutaneous tracheostomy without bronchoscope (hybrid modified percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy, hybrid MPDT) in the negative pressure intensive care unit. @*Results@#Of the 448 patients with COVID-19 patients, 34 required invasive mechanical ventilation at a tertiary hospital from February 2020 to April 2021. Of those, 15 patients underwent tracheostomy. Of the tracheostomy patients, survival rate was 93.33%. The mean time from intubation to the tracheostomy was 18.27±14.74 days (range, 8-36 days). The incidence of infection to medical staff was zero percent whereas racheostomy-related bleeding was the most common complication (2 patients). Operation time for hybrid MPDT was 5.45±1.12 min. @*Conclusion@#The optimal timing of tracheostomy procedure for COVID-19 patients is still unknown, but it is believed that the treatment of COVID-19 can be achieved better if the hybrid MPDT is used at the right time.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926422

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the various factors that affect renal function following percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy in patients with renal tumors. @*Materials and Methods@#Between 2010 and 2018, 91 patients diagnosed with renal tumors using ultrasonography and CT-guided RFA were enrolled. We retrospectively investigated the serum creatinine (SCr) level and estimated glomerular filtration rates immediately prior to RFA and during post-treatment follow-up. The patients were divided into two groups based on the degree of change in SCr level (0.3 mg/dL). Group comparisons were performed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to determine the factors impacting renal function. @*Results@#Impaired renal function was associated with solitary kidney, chronic kidney disease (CKD) over stage 3, and pyeloureteral injury. Sex, age, other cancers, tumor size, location, growth pattern, and proximity to the collecting system were not significantly associated with impaired renal function. There was a difference in the overall change over time between the association with and without solitary kidney, CKD stage 3, and pyeloureteral injury. @*Conclusion@#Among the medical conditions present prior to RFA, solitary kidney and CKD over stage 3 could be considered as risk factors for impaired renal function. Post-procedural pyeloureteral injury can also be considered a risk factor.

11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926400

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Cough suppression therapy (CST) is a physiotherapy that can be used for patients with chronic refractory cough (CRC). We aimed to investigate the efficacy of CST for CRC.Materials and Method A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in 27 patients with CRC. Participants were randomized to receive either standard mucolytic medications for CRC combined with supplemental CST (CST group) or standard medications alone (control group). CST consists of laryngeal hygiene management, humidification, cough suppression technique, breathing method, and counseling. We assessed the symptoms change at baseline and week 4 with the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). Secondary efficacy outcomes included the degree of cough Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score (0 to 100 scale). @*Results@#From 2019 to 2021, 14 CST group patients and 13 control group patients were included. The improvement was significantly greater in the CST group than in the control group for cough VAS score (36.67 to 13.33 vs. 74.29 to 16.43, p<0.001). Patients in the CST group had a significant improvement in total (70.14 to 107.71, p=0.005), physical (31.42 to 43.86, p= 0.015), psychological (23.57 to 40.14, p=0.003), and social (15.14 to 23.71, p=0.005) LCQ scores. However, there was not a significant pre- to post-treatment LCQ score improvement in control group. @*Conclusion@#CST might be an effective supplemental intervention for CRC.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926399

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), mucolytics, and steroids were commonly recommended after phonomicrosurgery to prevent worsening of vocal fold (VF) scar formation and subglottal swelling. However, there is no consensus about whether laryngeal reflux and thick discharge are associated with the voice outcomes following phonomicrosurgery in benign VF lesions. The purpose of this study is to examine voice outcomes of use of PPIs, mucolytics,and steroids after phonomicrosurgery.Materials and Method This randomized controlled study is performed with patients undergoing laryngomicroscopic surgery for VF polyp and cyst. Participants were randomly assigned to 1) no medication, 2) PPIs, 3) PPIs+mucolytics, and 4) PPIs+mucolytics+steroids for 2 months postoperatively. Grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain (GRBAS) scale, stroboscopic examination, aerodynamic assessment, acoustic analysis, and Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) were performed pre- and post-operatively at 2 months. Parameters were compared among four groups. @*Results@#Among 85 patients, a total of 50 patients were included. The VHI-10, perceptual and acoustic parameters improved in all groups after surgery. However, there was no significant difference in those parameters among all groups. @*Conclusion@#PPIs, mucolytics, and steroids did not significantly influence voice outcomes after phonomicrosurgery in patients with benign VF lesions.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926374

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:This study assessed the psychological impact of quarantine during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. @*Methods@#:A total of 2080 participants filled the self-report questionnaire from March 17 to April 20, 2020 in Daegu, Republic of Korea. An online link was sent to currently or previously quarantined participants. The self-report questionnaire included patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), primary care post-traumatic stress disorder screen for diagnostic and statistical manual-5 (PTSD-PC), state-trait anger expression inventory (STAXI), and P4 suicidality screener scale (P4). PHQ-9 score of 5 or more and 9 or less indicates mild to moderate depressive symptoms, and 10 or more indicates severe depressive symptoms; A GAD-7 score of 5 or more and 14 or less indicates mild to moderate anxiety symptoms, and a score of 15 or more indicates severe anxiety symptoms; A PTSD-PC-5 score of 2 indicates mild to moderate PTSD; a score of 3 or higher indicates severe PTSD; A STAXI score of 14 or higher indicates severe anger symptoms; In P4, the cut-off points for each self-report questionnaire were set as mild suicidal thoughts at 1 point or more and 2 points or less, and severe suicide thoughts at 3 or more points. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore COVID-19-related risk factors. @*Results@#:The prevalence of mental health symptoms among the survey respondents was at 52.5% for depression, 44.5% for anxiety, 39.4% for post-traumatic stress, 31.6% for anger, and 10.9% for suicidal ideation. Participants with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 family members showed a high risk for symptoms of anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and anger. Participants with financial loss had increased symptoms of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, anger, and suicidal ideation. Participants with a history of medical/psychiatric illnesses reported more symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger, and suicidal ideation. Having inadequate basic supplies during quarantine was associated with negative mental health outcomes. @*Conclusions@#:Quarantine had a negative psychological impact on all five mental health factors. The risk of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, anger, and suicidality increased among those who suffered from financial losses due to COVID-19. The associated risk factors will help identify populations at risk for mental health problems and implement mental health intervention policies.

14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926303

ABSTRACT

Cardiac papillary fibroelastomas are associated with a high risk of systemic embolization in spite of benign nature. We report a case of 85-year-old patient with left supraclinoid internal carotid artery occlusion who treated with aspiration thrombectomy. Despite of the absence of residual mass on echocardiography, we could analyze pathologic specimens using retrieved embolus and confirmed cardiac papillary fibroelastoma as a rare cause of stroke.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926192

ABSTRACT

Objective@#With many chronic inflammatory diseases, outcomes are determined by assessing both disease activity at presentation and cumulative activity over time. Here, we investigated whether cumulative activity better reflects the radiographic progression (RP) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) than measurement of activity at a single time point. @*Methods@#From a prospective cohort of RA patients, most of whom were treated with anti-rheumatic drugs, we selected 117 subjects for whom laboratory, clinical, and radiographic parameters potentially influencing RP were monitored serially for more than 1 year. X-ray images of both hands and both feet were scored using the van der Heijde modified total Sharp score (mTSS). In addition to cross-sectional values at baseline, longitudinal and cumulative values for each parameter were calculated in a timeintegrated and averaged manner. @*Results@#Among the values measured at baseline, mTSS, but not the baseline erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or C-reactive protein level, was associated with RP. By contrast, multivariate analyses identified cumulative values such as the cumulative ESR, cumulative tender joint count, cumulative swollen joint count (SJC), and cumulative Disease Activity Score 28-ESR as major determinants of RP. In particular, the cumulative SJC showed the best predictive performance for RP. @*Conclusion@#This study highlights the importance of cumulative indices for predicting progression of RA. Specifically, dynamic and cumulative values of RA activity-related factors, particularly the cumulative SJC, may be the major determinants of RP in the current practice.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926030

ABSTRACT

In this review, we provide information about the etiology, risk factors, and clinical presentations of maltreatment to help clinicians better understand child abuse and neglect. Child maltreatment is a major global health challenge that can result in severe consequences. Abused and neglected children are likely to develop psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Understanding child maltreatment is expected to prevent and reduce victimization in children, adolescents, and their families.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926008

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#There has been increased use of medications in treating depressive disorders.Nowadays, patient value is an important part of prescribing medications. This study examines depressive patients’ perspectives on the side effects of medications. @*Methods@#We administered questionnaires nationwide to 364 patients with depressive disorders. Intent or willingness to endure 21 side effects from the Antidepressant Side-Effect Checklist (ASEC) were examined and compared in patients who are less than mildly ill and who are more than moderately ill. @*Results@#In the population, decreased appetite, yawning, increased body temperature, dry mouth, sweating, and constipation are regarded as generally endurable side effects. In contrast, dizziness, light-headedness, nausea or vomiting, headaches, disorientation, problems with urination, and difficulty sleeping are hard to endure. There were differences between patients who are less than mildly ill and those who are more than moderately ill regarding the willingness to endure drowsiness, decreased appetite, sexual dysfunction, palpitations, and weight gain. @*Conclusion@#This nationwide study revealed a general willingness in depressed patients to endure side effects. Sensitive and premeditative discussions of patient value with regard to medications might contribute to finding successful treatments.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926005

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder is complex. A treatment guideline or algorithm can help clinicians implement better practices and clinical decisions. Therefore, the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was revised through expert consensus on pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder. @*Methods@#We revised the KMAP-BP 2018 questionnaire and conducted a survey of expert clinicians. Out of ninety-three members of the review committee, eighty-seven completed the survey. We analyzed the answers, discussed the data, and held a clinician hearing. Here, we report the results from KMAP-BP 2022. @*Results@#The preferred first-step strategies for acute euphoric mania are a combination of a mood stabilizer (MS) and an atypical antipsychotic (AAP), MS monotherapy, and AAP monotherapy. For psychotic mania, an MS and AAP combination, and AAP monotherapy are preferred. For hypomania, MS monotherapy and AAP monotherapy are preferred. The first-step strategies for mild to moderate bipolar depression are MS monotherapy, lamotrigine (LMT) monotherapy, AAP monotherapy, an MS+AAP combination, and an AAP+LMT combination. For non-psychotic severe depression, the MS+AAP combination, the AAP+LMT combination, and the MS+LMT combination are preferred. For psychotic severe depression, MS+AAP and AAP+LMT are preferred. @*Conclusion@#We obtained expert consensus and developed KMAP-BP 2022. Compared with KMAP-BP 2018, we can figure out clinicians’ preferences and decisions in real clinical situations more clearly. The preference for AAP increased, and that of MS and an antidepressant decreased. We hope KMAP-BP 2022 is helpful for clinicians who treat patients with bipolar disorder.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926004

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) is a consensus-based medication guideline. To reflect advances in pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorders, we updated KMAP-BP to provide more timely information for clinicians. @*Methods@#We conducted a survey using a questionnaire on treatments formanic/hypomanic episodes. Eighty-seven members among ninety-three members of the review committee (93.5%) completed the survey. Each treatment strategy or treatment option for manic/hypomanic episodes was evaluated with an overall score of 9, and the resulting 95% confidence interval treatment options were categorized into three recommendation levels (primary, secondary, and tertiary). The executive committee analyzed the results and discussed the final production of an algorithm by considering the scientific evidence. @*Results@#The combination of a mood stabilizer and an atypical antipsychotic, monotherapy with a mood stabilizer, or monotherapy with an atypical antipsychotic were recommended as the firstline pharmacotherapeutic strategy for the initial treatment of mania without psychotic features. The mood stabilizer and atypical antipsychotic combination was the treatment of choice, and atypical antipsychotic monotherapy was the first-line treatment for mania with psychotic features. When initial treatment fails, a combination of mood stabilizer+atypical antipsychotic and switching to another first-line agent is recommended. For hypomania, monotherapy with either mood stabilizer or atypical antipsychotic is the recommended first-line treatment, but the mood stabilizer+atypical antipsychotic combination is recommended as well. @*Conclusion@#It is notable that there were changes in the preferences for the use of individual atypical antipsychotics, and the preference for the use of mood stabilizer increased for treatment-resistant mania.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926003

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#After the Korean Medication Algorithm Project for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was developed in 2002, its fifth revision was completed in 2022 to reflect the recent rapid developments and research into bipolar disorder and its psychopharmacology. @*Methods@#According to the methodology for previous versions, the depressive episode section of KMAP-BP 2022 was revised based on a survey consisting of 11 questions. Among ninetythree experts, eighty-seven members of the review committee (93.5%) completed the survey.The executive committee analyzed the results and discussed the final production of an algorithm by considering the scientific evidence. @*Results@#Overall, the results from this study showed little change in comparison with previous versions of KMAP-BP. However, there have been significant changes in recommendations over the span of about 20 years. The preferences for lamotrigine and atypical antipsychotics, especially aripiprazole, quetiapine, and olanzapine, have shown a tendency to continuously increase, but the preferences for risperidone and ziprasidone have not increased, but have decreased. Moreover, the preference for typical antipsychotics has significantly decreased. Additionally, concerns over the use of antidepressants in bipolar depression have been raised, and their use is not recommended in KMAP-BP 2022 as a first-line treatment. @*Conclusion@#Pharmacotherapy for acute depressive episodes with various clinical progressions and various subtypes still shows diversity, compared to pharmacotherapy for mania. We look forward to the development of bipolar depressive, episode-specific therapeutic drugs in the future, and hope the fifth update of KMAP-BP will be a complementary option for clinicians and their patients with bipolar disorder.

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