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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 758-765, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999794

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We aimed to determine the trends in the use of radiotherapy (RT) and the expenses associated with it in South Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#The statistical data of the claims and reimbursement records provided on the Health and Insurance Review and Assessment Service website were utilized. This included information such as the number of patients, fractions, medical expenses according to treatment codes, in/outpatient, sex, age, and regions of hospitals. We analyzed data from 2016 to 2020. @*Results@#With a growing RT infrastructure and an increase in the number of radiation oncologists, the expenses for RT were 605.5 million USD in 2020, which had increased 1.5 times from 394.7 million USD in 2016. This growth was mainly because of the increased usage of advanced RT techniques. Furthermore, the proportion of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) expenses in the total expenses increased by 1.6 times from 48.8% in 2016 to 76.9% in 2020. Advanced techniques were used more commonly in older individuals or children. However, the proportion of IMRT expenses increased mostly in young women. Additionally, geographical differences in RT use and expense were observed, although the gap in the IMRT fractions decreased among the regions. @*Conclusion@#Recent medical expenses associated with RT in Korea have increased in tandem with technological advances and changes in demographics.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 927-938, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999778

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is emerging as a valuable non-invasive tool to identify tumor heterogeneity and tumor burden. This study investigated ctDNA dynamics in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with regorafenib. @*Materials and Methods@#In this prospective biomarker study, plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples obtained at baseline, at the first response evaluation after 2 cycles of treatment, and at the time of progressive disease were sequenced using a targeted next-generation sequencing platform which included 106 genes. @*Results@#A total of 285 blood samples from 110 patients were analyzed. Higher baseline cfDNA concentration was associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). After 2 cycles of treatment, variant allele frequency (VAF) in the majority of ctDNA mutations decreased with a mean relative change of –31.6%. Decreases in the VAF of TP53, APC, TCF7L2, and ROS1 after 2 cycles of regorafenib were associated with longer PFS. We used the sum of VAF at each time point as a surrogate for the overall ctDNA burden. A reduction in sum (VAF) of ≥ 50% after 2 cycles was associated with longer PFS (6.1 vs. 2.7 months, p=0.002), OS (11.3 vs. 5.9 months, p=0.001), and higher disease control rate (86.3% vs. 51.1%, p < 0.001). VAF of the majority of the ctDNA mutations increased at the time of disease progression, and VAF of BRAF increased markedly. @*Conclusion@#Reduction in ctDNA burden as estimated by sum (VAF) could be used to predict treatment outcome of regorafenib.

3.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 492-499, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999633

ABSTRACT

Methods@#In retrospectively collected data, 149 patients who underwent single-level ACDF for degenerative disease were enrolled and divided into non-plating (n=66) and plating (n=83). Interspinous motion (ISM) at the arthrodesis segment, Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for neck pain, and Neck Disability Index (NDI) were serially evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Predictable factors for fusion, including age, sex, plating, diabetes, smoking, and type of grafts, were investigated, and fusion was defined as ISM <1 mm. @*Results@#In both groups, ISM was the highest at 3 months and gradually decreased thereafter, and the plating group showed significantly lower serial ISM than the non-plating group at 12 months. The plating group had lower NRS and NDI scores than the nonplating group at 12 months, and the difference in the NRS scores was statistically significant, particularly at 3 and 6 months, although that of the NDI scores was not. In a multivariate analysis, plating was the most powerful predictor for fusion. @*Conclusions@#Plating significantly decreases the serial ISM compared with non-plating in single-level ACDF, and such decreased motion is correlated with decreased neck pain until 12 months postoperatively, particularly at 3 and 6 months. Given that plating was the most predictive factor for fusion, we recommend plating even in single-level ACDF for better early clinical outcomes.

4.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 573-580, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003246

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) may involve subtypes that differ from the primary breast cancer lesion. This study aimed to develop a radiomics-based model that utilizes preoperative brain MRI for multiclass classification of BCBM subtypes and to investigate whether the model offers better prediction accuracy than the assumption that primary lesions and their BCBMs would be of the same subtype (non-conversion model) in an external validation set. @*Materials and Methods@#The training and external validation sets each comprised 51 cases (102 cases total). Four machine learning classifiers combined with three feature selection methods were trained on radiomic features and primary lesion subtypes for prediction of the following four subtypes: 1) hormone receptor (HR)+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-, 2) HR+/HER2+, 3) HR-/HER2+, and 4) triple-negative. After training, the performance of the radiomics-based model was compared to that of the non-conversion model in an external validation set using accuracy and F1-macro scores. @*Results@#The rate of discrepant subtypes between primary lesions and their respective BCBMs were 25.5% (n=13 of 51) in the training set and 23.5% (n=12 of 51) in the external validation set. In the external validation set, the accuracy and F1-macro score of the radiomics-based model were significantly higher than those of the non-conversion model (0.902 vs. 0.765, p=0.004; 0.861 vs. 0.699, p=0.002). @*Conclusion@#Our radiomics-based model represents an incremental advance in the classification of BCBM subtypes, thereby facilitating a more appropriate personalized therapy.

5.
Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine ; (6): 271-284, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#To achieve optimal bone marrow engraftment during bone marrow transplantation, migration of donor bone marrow cells (BMCs) toward the recipient’s bone marrow is critical. Despite the enhanced engraftment of BMCs by co-administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the efficiency can be variable depending on MSC donor. The purpose of this study is to examine the functional heterogeneity of tonsil-derived MSCs (TMSCs) and to identify a marker to evaluate efficacy for the enhancement of BMC migration. @*METHODS@#To examine the donor-to-donor variation of TMSCs in potentiating BMC migration, we isolated TMSCs from 25 independent donors. Transcriptome of TMSCs and proteome of conditioned medium derived from TMSC were analyzed. @*RESULTS@#Enhanced BMC migration by conditioned medium derived from TMSCs was variable depending on TMSC donor. The TMSCs derived from 25 donors showed distinct expression profiles compared with other cells, including fibroblasts, adipose-derived MSCs and bone marrow–derived MSCs. TMSCs were distributed in two categories: high- and low-efficacy groups for potentiating BMC migration. Transcriptome analysis of TMSCs and proteome profiles of conditioned medium derived from TMSCs revealed higher expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 1 in the high-efficacy group. MMP1 knockdown in TMSCs abrogated the supportive efficacy of conditioned medium derived from TMSC cultures in BMC migration. @*CONCLUSION@#These data suggest that secreted MMP1 can be used as a marker to evaluate the efficacy of TMSCs in enhancing BMC migration. Furthermore, the strategy of analyzing transcriptomes and proteomes of the MSCs may be useful to set the standard for donor variation.

6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 620-640, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003066

ABSTRACT

We aimed to develop evidence-based recommendations for treating axial spondylarthritis (axSpA) in Korea. The development committee was constructed, key clinical questions were determined, and the evidence was searched through online databases including MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, KoreaMed, and Kmbase. Systematic literature reviews were conducted, quality of evidence was determined, and draft recommendations were formulated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluations methodology. Recommendations that reached 80% consensus among a voting panel were finalized. Three principles and 21 recommendations were determined. Recommendations 1 and 2 pertain to treatment strategies, regular disease status assessment, and rheumatologist-steered multidisciplinary management. Recommendations 3 and 4 strongly recommend patient education, exercise, and smoking cessation. Recommendations 5–12 address pharmacological treatment of active disease using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucocorticoids, sulfasalazine, biologics, and Janus kinase inhibitors. Recommendations 13–16 address treatment in stable disease. We suggest against spa and acupuncture as therapies (Recommendation 17). Recommendations 18 and 19 pertain to total hip arthroplasty and spinal surgery. Monitoring of comorbidities and drug toxicities are recommended (Recommendations 20 and 21). Recommendations for axSpA treatment in a Korean context were developed based on comprehensive clinical questions and evidence. These are intended to guide best practice in the treatment of axSpA.

7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 912-922, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003040

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We investigated the effect of rituximab on systemic bone metabolism in patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). @*Methods@#Twenty seropositive patients with RA were enrolled and administered one cycle of rituximab. If RA became active for > 6 months after the first rituximab cycle, a second cycle was initiated; otherwise, no additional treatment was administered. Patients were divided into two groups according to the number of rituximab treatment cycles. @*Results@#In patients treated with a second cycle, the total hip bone mineral density (BMD) was clinically low, whereas the serum levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) were increased at 12 months. BMD in patients treated with one cycle did not change at 12 months, whereas serum RANKL levels decreased at all time points. DAS28 activity improved in both groups from baseline to 4 months; however, from 4 to 12 months, DAS28 activity worsened in the develgroup with the second cycle but remained stable in the group with one cycle. @*Conclusions@#Systemic inflammation, reflected by increased disease activity, may be responsible for the increase in RANKL levels, which causes systemic bone loss in rituximab-treated patients with RA. Although rituximab affects inflammation, it does not seem to alter systemic bone metabolism in RA.

8.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1061-1068, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002735

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to identify the factors affecting posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom remission prospectively through a 1-year follow-up of sexual assault (SA) victims. @*Methods@#A total 65 female SA victims who visited the crisis intervention center were included. Self-administered questionnaires regarding PTSD symptoms and PTSD related prognostic factors were conducted at both recruitment (T1) and 1 year after recruitment (T2). The multivariate analyses were used to determine the significant predictors of PTSD remissionon-remission state 1 year after SA. @*Results@#In logistic regression analysis, both anxiety and secondary victimization were identified as significant factors explaining the results on PTSD remissionon-remission state at T2 (Beck’s Anxiety Inventory [BAI], p=0.003; Secondary Victimization Questionnaire, p=0.024). In a linear mixed analysis, both depression and anxiety were found to be significant variables leading to changes in Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition from T1 to T2 (BAI, p<0.001; Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Depression, anxiety symptoms, and secondary victimization after SA were associated with PTSD symptom non-remission 1 year after SA.

9.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 165-171, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002505

ABSTRACT

Background@#The Omicron variant has become the most prevalent SARS-CoV-2 variant. Omicron is known to induce milder lesions compared to the original Wuhan strain. Fatal infection of the Wuhan strain into the brain has been well documented in COVID-19 mouse models and human COVID-19 cases, but apparent infections into the brain by Omicron have not been reported in human adult cases or animal models. In this study, we investigated whether Omicron could spread to the brain using K18-hACE2 mice susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. @*Results@#K18-hACE2 mice were intranasally infected with 1 × 105 PFU of the original Wuhan strain and the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2. A follow-up was conducted 7 days post infection. All Wuhan-infected mice showed > 20% body weight loss, defined as the lethal condition, whereas two out of five Omicron-infected mice (40%) lost > 20% body weight. Histopathological analysis based on H&E staining revealed inflammatory responses in the brains of these two Omicron-infected mice. Immunostaining analysis of viral nucleocapsid protein revealed severe infection of neuron cells in the brains of these two Omicron-infected mice. Lymphoid depletion and apoptosis were observed in the spleen of Omicron-infected mice with brain infection. @*Conclusion@#Lethal conditions, such as severe body weight loss and encephalopathy, can occur in Omicron-infected K18-hACE2 mice. Our study reports, for the first time, that Omicron can induce brain infection with lymphoid depletion in the mouse COVID-19 model.

10.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : e11-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002454

ABSTRACT

A seven-month pregnant four-year-old Thoroughbred mare with colic weighing 600 kg was referred to the Jeju National University Equine Hospital. A physical examination and ultrasound suggested epiploic foramen entrapment. The patient underwent ileum resection and end-to-side jejunocecostomy. After surgery, the horse showed a consistent pain when introduced to feeding. A repeat laparotomy was performed to enlarge the stoma size with side-to-side jejunocecostomy. The repeat laparotomy was successful, and the mare gave birth uneventfully. This report describes a case of small intestinal epiploic foramen entrapment and the clinical outcomes of the 2 consecutive laparotomies a Thoroughbred mare in late gestation.

11.
Journal of the Korean Medical Association ; : 374-381, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001691

ABSTRACT

Biomarkers are used in diverse clinical fields, including oncological, cardiovascular, infectious, and rheumatoid diseases. In infectious diseases, biomarkers are widely used for identifying fever due to infection, evaluating the possibility of progression to sepsis, predicting prognosis, estimating treatment response, and determining the timing of discontinuation of antibiotic treatment. Thus, biomarkers are used as indicators that can inform clinical decisions.Current Concepts: Biomarkers for infectious diseases typically relate to inflammatory processes in, which are activated by external antigens. Historically, research has focused on acute phase reactants; however, more recently, various inflammatory response biomarkers have been investigated.Discussion and Conclusion: To date, no infallible biomarker has been identified for infectious diseases. The main reasons are the potential for these molecules to also be affected by non-infectious causes and the individual differences in the degree of change of the biomarker. Although diagnosis and clinical decisions cannot depend on biomarkers alone, these are undoubtedly essential tools in clinical contexts, if thoroughly and carefully characterized. Here, we review several substances used or showing significant potential as biomarkers for infectious diseases.

12.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry ; : 181-187, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001599

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study aimed to investigate the correlation between the Comprehensive Attention Test, Korean-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Rating Scale-IV scores in children and adolescents with ADHD. @*Methods@#Fifty-five children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and not taking psychiatric medications were included in this retrospective study. A correlation analysis was performed. @*Results@#Although simple visual and auditory selective attention have diagnostic value in traditional continuous performance tests, this study revealed that inhibition-sustained attention and interference-selective attention are also effective in evaluating ADHD. Furthermore, the correlation between the attention and intelligence test scores varied depending on the use of visual or auditory stimuli. @*Conclusion@#The findings of this study contribute to clarifying our understanding of the cognitive characteristics of children and adolescents with ADHD and can be used in future research.

13.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 151-169, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001531

ABSTRACT

We aimed to develop evidence-based recommendations for treating axial spondylarthritis (axSpA) in Korea. The development committee was constructed, key clinical questions were determined, and the evidence was searched through online databases including MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, KoreaMed, and KMbase. Systematic literature reviews were conducted, quality of evidence was determined, and draft recommendations were formulated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluations methodology. Recommendations that reached 80% consensus among a voting panel were finalized. Three principles and 21 recommendations were determined. Recommendations 1 and 2 pertain to treatment strategies, regular disease status assessment, and rheumatologist-steered multidisciplinary management. Recommendations 3 and 4 strongly recommend patient education, exercise, and smoking cessation. Recommendations 5~12 address pharmacological treatment of active disease using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucocorticoids, sulfasalazine, biologics, and Janus kinase inhibitors.Recommendations 13~16 address treatment in stable disease. We suggest against spa and acupuncture as therapies (Recommendation 17). Recommendations 18 and 19 pertain to total hip arthroplasty and spinal surgery. Monitoring of comorbidities and drug toxicities are recommended (Recommendations 20 and 21). Recommendations for axSpA treatment in a Korean context were developed based on comprehensive clinical questions and evidence. These are intended to guide best practice in the treatment of axSpA.

14.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 330-340, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001328

ABSTRACT

Background@#/Aim: Radiotherapy (RT) is an effective local treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether additional RT is safe and effective in patients with advanced HCC receiving atezolizumab plus bevacizumab remains unclear. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of additional RT in these patients. @*Methods@#Between March and October 2021, we retrospectively analyzed seven patients with advanced HCC who received RT during treatment with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab. The median prescribed RT dose was 35 Gy (range, 33–66). Freedom from local progression (FFLP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) after RT were analyzed. @*Results@#The median follow-up duration after RT was 14.2 months (range, 10.0–18.6). Of the seven patients, disease progression was noted in six (85.7%), the sites of disease progression were local in two (28.6%), intrahepatic in four (57.1%), and extrahepatic in four (57.1%). The median time of FFLP was not reached, and PFS and OS times were 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6–4.5) and 14.8% (95% CI, 12.5–17.2) months, respectively. The 1-year FFLP, PFS, and OS rates were 60% (95% CI, 43.8–76.2), 0%, and 85.7% (95% CI, 75.9–95.5), respectively. Grade 3 or higher hematologic adverse events (AEs) were not observed, but grade 3 nonhematologic AEs unrelated to RT were observed in one patient. @*Conclusions@#The addition of RT may be feasible in patients with advanced HCC treated with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab. However, further studies are required to validate these findings.

15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e272-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001224

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir is highly effective in preventing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in high-risk patients with mild-to-moderate severity. However, real-world performance data are limited, and the drug is not so acceptable to the COVID-19 patients at high risk who need it in Korea. @*Methods@#To evaluate the effectiveness of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir, we conducted a propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study on patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 at high risk for a severe disease who were hospitalized at four hospitals in South Korea from February 2022 to April 2022. A total of 236 patients in the treatment group (administered nirmatrelvir-ritonavir) and 236 in the matched control group (supportive care only) were analyzed for the primary outcome, i.e., the time to oxygen support-free survival. The secondary outcome was a composite result of disease progression. The reason for not prescribing nirmatrelvir-ritonavir to the indicated patients was also investigated. @*Results@#The treatment group showed significantly longer oxygen support-free survival than the matched control group (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01–0.31; P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (aHR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00–1.07), National Early Warning Score-2 at admission (aHR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08–1.71), nirmatrelvir-ritonavir treatment, female sex (aHR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15–0.88), and time from symptom onset to admission (aHR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48–0.95) were significantly associated with oxygen therapy. However, none of the factors were related to the composite outcome. In the unmatched control group, 19.9% of 376 patients had documented explanations for nirmatrelvir-ritonavir non-prescription, and 44.0% of these were due to contraindication criteria. In the treatment group, 10.9% of patients discontinued the medication primarily because of adverse events (71.4%), with gastrointestinal symptoms being the most common (50.0%). @*Conclusion@#Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir treatment significantly reduced oxygen therapy requirements in high-risk patients with COVID-19 during the omicron variant surge in South Korea. Physicians are encouraged to consider the active use of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir and to be watchful for gastrointestinal symptoms during medication.

16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e257-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001077

ABSTRACT

Background@#The rapidly increasing socioeconomic strain caused by dementia represents a significant public health concern. Regional dementia centers (RDCs) have been established nationwide, and they aim to provide timely screening and diagnosis of dementia. This study investigated the clinical characteristics and progression of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), who underwent treatment in RDCs or conventional communitybased hospital systems. @*Methods@#This retrospective single-center cohort study included patients who were diagnosed with AD between January 2019 and March 2022. This study compared two groups of patients: the hospital group, consisting of patients who presented directly to the hospital, and the RDC group, those who were referred to the hospital from the RDCs in Pohang city. The clinical courses of the patients were monitored for a year after AD diagnosis. @*Results@#A total of 1,209 participants were assigned to the hospital (n = 579) or RDC group (n = 630). The RDC group had a mean age of 80.1 years ± 6.6 years, which was significantly higher than that of the hospital group (P < 0.001). The RDC group had a higher proportion of females (38.3% vs. 31.9%; P = 0.022), higher risk for alcohol consumption (12.4% vs. 3.3%; P < 0.001), and greater number of patients who discontinued treatment 1 year after diagnosis (48.3% vs. 39.0%; P = 0.001). In the linear regression model, the RDC group was independently associated with the clinical dementia rating sum of boxes increment (β = 22.360, R 2 = 0.048, and P < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#Patients in the RDC group were older, had more advanced stages of conditions, and exhibited a more rapid rate of cognitive decline than patients diagnosed through the conventional hospital system. Our results suggested that RDC contributed to the screening of AD in a local region, and further nationwide study with the RDC database of various areas of Korea is needed.

17.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 309-333, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000774

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adherence and persistence to adjuvant hormone therapy (AHT) are seldom maintained among early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer (BC) survivors, despite the significant clinical benefits of long-term AHT. As the factors influencing adherence to AHT remain unclear, this study aimed to comprehensively identify such factors and classify them into specific dimensions. @*Methods@#PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched for qualified articles. The search mainly focused on three components: early-stage (0–III) BC, oral AHT administration, and adherence to AHT, with keywords derived from MeSH and entry terms. The factors identified were then classified into six categories based on a modified WHO multidimensional model. @*Results@#Overall, 146 studies were included; the median sample size was 651 (range, 31– 40,009), and the mean age of the population was 61.5 years (standard deviation, 8.3 years).Patient- and therapy-related factors were the most frequently investigated factors. Necessity/ concern beliefs and self-efficacy among patient-related factors were consistently related to better adherence than depression. Although drug side effects and medication use cannot be modified easily, a refined prescription strategy for the initiation and switching of AHT is likely to increase adherence levels. @*Conclusion@#An effective psychological program that encourages positive views and beliefs about medication and management strategies for each therapy may be necessary to improve adherence to AHT. Social support and a sense of belonging can be enhanced through community participation and social media for better adherence to AHT. Patient-centered communication and appropriate recommendations by physicians may be attributable to better adherence outcomes. Findings from systematically organized factors that influence adherence to AHT may contribute to the establishment of intervention strategies to benefit patients with early-stage BC to achieve optimal health.

18.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 281-292, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000524

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocyte (CM) hold greatpromise as a cellular source of CM for cardiac function restoration in ischemic heart disease. However, the use of animal-derived xenogeneic substances during the biomanufacturing of hiPSC-CM can induce inadvertent immune responses or chronic inflammation, followed by tumorigenicity. In this study, we aimed to reveal the effects of xenogeneic substances on the functional properties and potential immunogenicity of hiPSC-CM during differentiation, demonstrating the quality and safety of hiPSC-based cell therapy. @*Methods@#and Results: We successfully generated hiPSC-CM in the presence and absence of xenogeneic substances(xeno-containing (XC) and xeno-free (XF) conditions, respectively), and compared their characteristics, including the contractile functions and glycan profiles. Compared to XC-hiPSC-CM, XF-hiPSC-CM showed early onset of myocyte contractile beating and maturation, with a high expression of cardiac lineage-specific genes (ACTC1, TNNT2, and RYR2) by using MEA and RT-qPCR. We quantified N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), a xenogeneic sialic acid, in hiPSC-CM using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry. Neu5Gc was incorporated into the glycans of hiPSC-CM during xeno-containing differentiation, whereas it was barely detected in XF-hiPSC-CM. @*Conclusions@#To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that the electrophysiological function andglycan profiles of hiPSC-CM can be affected by the presence of xenogeneic substances during their differentiation and maturation. To ensure quality control and safety in hiPSC-based cell therapy, xenogeneic substances should be excluded from the biomanufacturing process.

19.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 500-513, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000238

ABSTRACT

Background@#Curcumin 2005-8 (Cur5-8), a derivative of curcumin, improves fatty liver disease via AMP-activated protein kinase activation and autophagy regulation. EW-7197 (vactosertib) is a small molecule inhibitor of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor I and may scavenge reactive oxygen species and ameliorate fibrosis through the SMAD2/3 canonical pathway. This study aimed to determine whether co-administering these two drugs having different mechanisms is beneficial. @*Methods@#Hepatocellular fibrosis was induced in mouse hepatocytes (alpha mouse liver 12 [AML12]) and human hepatic stellate cells (LX-2) using TGF-β (2 ng/mL). The cells were then treated with Cur5-8 (1 μM), EW-7197 (0.5 μM), or both. In animal experiments were also conducted during which, methionine-choline deficient diet, Cur5-8 (100 mg/kg), and EW-7197 (20 mg/kg) were administered orally to 8-week-old C57BL/6J mice for 6 weeks. @*Results@#TGF-β-induced cell morphological changes were improved by EW-7197, and lipid accumulation was restored on the administration of EW-7197 in combination with Cur5-8. In a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-induced mouse model, 6 weeks of EW-7197 and Cur5-8 co-administration alleviated liver fibrosis and improved the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score. @*Conclusion@#Co-administering Cur5-8 and EW-7197 to NASH-induced mice and fibrotic hepatocytes reduced liver fibrosis and steatohepatitis while maintaining the advantages of both drugs. This is the first study to show the effect of the drug combination against NASH and NAFLD. Similar effects in other animal models will confirm its potential as a new therapeutic agent.

20.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 763-778, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999973

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) has shown promising results in treating advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). However, whether TARE can provide superior or comparable outcomes to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in patients with HCC and PVTT remains unclear. We compared the outcomes of TARE and TKI therapy in treatment-naïve patients with locally advanced HCC and segmental or lobar PVTT. @*Methods@#This multicenter study included 216 patients initially treated with TARE (n=124) or TKI (sorafenib or lenvatinib; n=92) between 2011 and 2021. Baseline characteristics were balanced using propensity score matching (PSM) or inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). The secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR). @*Results@#In the unmatched cohort, the median OS of the TARE and TKI groups were 28.2 and 7.2 months, respectively (p<0.001), and the TARE group experienced significantly and independently longer OS compared to the TKI group (adjusted hazard ratio=0.41, 95% confidence interval=0.28–0.60, p<0.001). Similar results were observed in the study cohorts balanced with IPTW (p=0.003) or PSM (p=0.004). Although PFS was comparable between the two groups, the TARE group showed a trend of prolonged PFS in a subpopulation of patients with Vp1 or Vp2 PVTT (p=0.052). In the matched cohorts, the ORR of the TARE group was 53.0–56.7%, whereas that of the TKI group was 12.3–15.0%. @*Conclusions@#For patients with advanced HCC with segmental or lobar PVTT and well-preserved liver function, TARE may provide superior OS compared to sorafenib or lenvatinib.

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