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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898201

ABSTRACT

Active surveillance (AS) for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) has been accepted worldwide as safe and effective. Despite the growing acceptance of AS in the management of low-risk PTMCs, there are barriers to AS in real clinical settings, and it is important to understand and establish appropriate AS protocol from initial evaluation to follow-up. PTMC management strategies should be decided upon after careful consideration of patient and tumor characteristics by a multidisciplinary team of thyroid cancer specialists. Patients should understand the risks and benefits of AS, participate in decision-making and follow structured monitoring strategies. In this review, we discuss clinical outcomes of AS from previous studies, optimal indications and follow-up strategies for AS, and unresolved questions about AS.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898183

ABSTRACT

Background@#A Korean Multicenter Prospective cohort study of Active Surveillance or Surgery (KoMPASS) for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs) has been initiated. The aim is to compare clinical outcomes between active surveillance (AS) and an immediate lobectomy for low-risk PTMCs. We here outline the detailed protocol for this study. @*Methods@#Adult patients with a cytopathologically confirmed PTMC sized 6.0 to 10.0 mm by ultrasound (US) will be included. Patients will be excluded if they have a suspicious extra-thyroidal extension or metastasis of a PTMC or multiple thyroid nodules or other thyroid diseases which require a total thyroidectomy. Printed material describing the prognosis of PTMCs, and the pros and cons of each management option, will be provided to eligible patients to select their preferred intervention. For the AS group, thyroid US, thyroid function, and quality of life (QoL) parameters will be monitored every 6 months during the first year, and then annually thereafter. Disease progression will be defined as a ≥3 mm increase in maximal diameter of a PTMC, or the development of new thyroid cancers or metastases. If progression is detected, patients should undergo appropriate surgery. For the lobectomy group, a lobectomy with prophylactic central neck dissection will be done within 6 months. After initial surgery, thyroid US, thyroid function, serum thyroglobulin (Tg), anti-Tg antibody, and QoL parameters will be monitored every 6 months during the first year and annually thereafter. Disease progression will be defined in these cases as the development of new thyroid cancers or metastases. @*Conclusion@#KoMPASS findings will help to confirm the role of AS, and develop individualized management strategies, for low-risk PTMCs.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898170

ABSTRACT

Background@#Serum calcitonin measurement contains various clinical and methodological aspects. Its reference level is wide and unclear despite sensitive calcitonin kits are available. This study aimed to identify the specific reference range in the healthy Korean adults. @*Methods@#Subjects were ≥20 years with available calcitonin (measured by a two-site immunoradiometric assay) data by a routine health checkup. Three groups were defined as all eligible subjects (group 1, n=10,566); subjects without self or family history of thyroid disease (group 2, n=5,152); and subjects without chronic kidney disease, autoimmune thyroid disease, medication of proton pump inhibitor/H2 blocker/steroid, or other malignancies (group 3, n=4,638). @*Results@#This study included 6,341 male and 4,225 female subjects. Males had higher mean calcitonin than females (2.3 pg/mL vs. 1.9 pg/mL, P<0.001) in group 1. This gender difference remained similar in groups 2 and 3. Calcitonin according to age or body mass index was not significant in both genders. Higher calcitonin in smoking than nonsmoking men was observed but not in women. Sixty-nine subjects had calcitonin higher than the upper reference limit (10 pg/mL) and 64 of them had factors associated with hypercalcitoninemia besides medullary thyroid cancer. Our study suggests the reference intervals for men who were non, ex-, current smokers, and women (irrespective of smoking status) as <5.7, <7.1, <7.9, and <3.6 pg/mL, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Specific calcitonin reference range should be provided considering for sex and smoking status. Taking account for several factors known to induce hypercalcitoninemia can help interpret the gray zone of moderately elevated calcitonin.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890497

ABSTRACT

Active surveillance (AS) for low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) has been accepted worldwide as safe and effective. Despite the growing acceptance of AS in the management of low-risk PTMCs, there are barriers to AS in real clinical settings, and it is important to understand and establish appropriate AS protocol from initial evaluation to follow-up. PTMC management strategies should be decided upon after careful consideration of patient and tumor characteristics by a multidisciplinary team of thyroid cancer specialists. Patients should understand the risks and benefits of AS, participate in decision-making and follow structured monitoring strategies. In this review, we discuss clinical outcomes of AS from previous studies, optimal indications and follow-up strategies for AS, and unresolved questions about AS.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890479

ABSTRACT

Background@#A Korean Multicenter Prospective cohort study of Active Surveillance or Surgery (KoMPASS) for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs) has been initiated. The aim is to compare clinical outcomes between active surveillance (AS) and an immediate lobectomy for low-risk PTMCs. We here outline the detailed protocol for this study. @*Methods@#Adult patients with a cytopathologically confirmed PTMC sized 6.0 to 10.0 mm by ultrasound (US) will be included. Patients will be excluded if they have a suspicious extra-thyroidal extension or metastasis of a PTMC or multiple thyroid nodules or other thyroid diseases which require a total thyroidectomy. Printed material describing the prognosis of PTMCs, and the pros and cons of each management option, will be provided to eligible patients to select their preferred intervention. For the AS group, thyroid US, thyroid function, and quality of life (QoL) parameters will be monitored every 6 months during the first year, and then annually thereafter. Disease progression will be defined as a ≥3 mm increase in maximal diameter of a PTMC, or the development of new thyroid cancers or metastases. If progression is detected, patients should undergo appropriate surgery. For the lobectomy group, a lobectomy with prophylactic central neck dissection will be done within 6 months. After initial surgery, thyroid US, thyroid function, serum thyroglobulin (Tg), anti-Tg antibody, and QoL parameters will be monitored every 6 months during the first year and annually thereafter. Disease progression will be defined in these cases as the development of new thyroid cancers or metastases. @*Conclusion@#KoMPASS findings will help to confirm the role of AS, and develop individualized management strategies, for low-risk PTMCs.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890466

ABSTRACT

Background@#Serum calcitonin measurement contains various clinical and methodological aspects. Its reference level is wide and unclear despite sensitive calcitonin kits are available. This study aimed to identify the specific reference range in the healthy Korean adults. @*Methods@#Subjects were ≥20 years with available calcitonin (measured by a two-site immunoradiometric assay) data by a routine health checkup. Three groups were defined as all eligible subjects (group 1, n=10,566); subjects without self or family history of thyroid disease (group 2, n=5,152); and subjects without chronic kidney disease, autoimmune thyroid disease, medication of proton pump inhibitor/H2 blocker/steroid, or other malignancies (group 3, n=4,638). @*Results@#This study included 6,341 male and 4,225 female subjects. Males had higher mean calcitonin than females (2.3 pg/mL vs. 1.9 pg/mL, P<0.001) in group 1. This gender difference remained similar in groups 2 and 3. Calcitonin according to age or body mass index was not significant in both genders. Higher calcitonin in smoking than nonsmoking men was observed but not in women. Sixty-nine subjects had calcitonin higher than the upper reference limit (10 pg/mL) and 64 of them had factors associated with hypercalcitoninemia besides medullary thyroid cancer. Our study suggests the reference intervals for men who were non, ex-, current smokers, and women (irrespective of smoking status) as <5.7, <7.1, <7.9, and <3.6 pg/mL, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Specific calcitonin reference range should be provided considering for sex and smoking status. Taking account for several factors known to induce hypercalcitoninemia can help interpret the gray zone of moderately elevated calcitonin.

7.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1078-1085, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914253

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC), a type of thyroid carcinoma, is rare in South Korea, and few studies have investigated its prognosis. @*Methods@#This long-term multicenter retrospective cohort study evaluated the clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes in patients with HCC who underwent thyroid surgery between 1996 and 2009. @*Results@#The mean age of the 97 patients included in the study was 50.3 years, and 26.8% were male. The mean size of the primary tumor was 3.2±1.8 cm, and three (3.1%) patients had distant metastasis at initial diagnosis. Ultrasonographic findings were available for 73 patients; the number of nodules with low-, intermediate-, and high suspicion was 28 (38.4%), 27 (37.0%), and 18 (24.7%), respectively, based on the Korean-Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System. Preoperatively, follicular neoplasm (FN) or suspicion for FN accounted for 65.2% of the cases according to the Bethesda category, and 13% had malignancy or suspicious for malignancy. During a median follow-up of 8.5 years, eight (8.2%) patients had persistent/recurrent disease, and none died of HCC. Older age, gross extrathyroidal extension (ETE), and widely invasive types of tumors were significantly associated with distant metastasis (all P<0.01). Gross ETE (hazard ratio [HR], 27.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 346.4; P=0.01) and widely invasive classification (HR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 39.4; P=0.04) were independent risk factors for poor disease-free survival (DFS). @*Conclusion@#The long-term prognosis of HCC is relatively favorable in South Korea from this study, although this is not a nation-wide data, and gross ETE and widely invasive cancer are significant prognostic factors for DFS. The diagnosis of HCC by ultrasonography and cytopathology remains challenging.

8.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1268-1276, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914249

ABSTRACT

Background@#The association between Graves’ disease (GD) and co-existing thyroid cancer is still controversial and most of the previously reported data have been based on surgically treated GD patients. This study investigated the clinicopathological findings and prognosis of concomitant thyroid cancer in GD patients in the era of widespread application of ultrasonography. @*Methods@#Data of GD patients who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer between 2010 and 2019 in three tertiary hospitals in South Korea (Asan Medical Center, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, and Pusan National University Hospital) were collected and analyzed retrospectively. In the subgroup analysis, aggressiveness and clinical outcomes of thyroid cancer were compared nodular GD and non-nodular GD groups according to the presence or absence of the thyroid nodules other than thyroid cancer (index nodules). @*Results@#Of the 15,159 GD patients treated at the hospitals during the study period, 262 (1.7%) underwent thyroidectomy for coexisting thyroid cancer. Eleven patients (4.2%) were diagnosed with occult thyroid cancer and 182 patients (69.5%) had microcarcinomas. No differences in thyroid cancer aggressiveness, ultrasonographic findings, or prognosis were observed between the nodular GD and non-nodular GD groups except the cancer subtype. In the multivariate analysis, only lymph node (LN) metastasis was an independent prognostic factor for recurrent/persistent disease of thyroid cancer arising in GD (P=0.020). @*Conclusion@#The prevalence of concomitant thyroid cancer in GD patients was considerably lower than in previous reports. The clinical outcomes of thyroid cancer in GD patients were also excellent but, more cautious follow-up is necessary for patients with LN metastasis in the same way as for thyroid cancer in non-GD patients.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898156

ABSTRACT

Background@#The clinical outcomes of delayed radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) therapy in patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are unclear. We aimed to evaluate the clinical impact of the interval between total thyroidectomy (TT) and RRA therapy in patients with low-risk PTC. @*Methods@#We included 526 patients who underwent TT and RRA for low-risk PTC with a primary tumor size of >1 cm between 2000 and 2012. Patients were divided into the early (3 months after TT considering other prognostic factors.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890452

ABSTRACT

Background@#The clinical outcomes of delayed radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) therapy in patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are unclear. We aimed to evaluate the clinical impact of the interval between total thyroidectomy (TT) and RRA therapy in patients with low-risk PTC. @*Methods@#We included 526 patients who underwent TT and RRA for low-risk PTC with a primary tumor size of >1 cm between 2000 and 2012. Patients were divided into the early (3 months after TT considering other prognostic factors.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832419

ABSTRACT

Background@#The optimal dose of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for N1b papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is controversial. We evaluated the clinical outcome of N1b PTC patients treated with either 100 or 150 mCi of RAI. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed N1b PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and postoperative RAI therapy at a tertiary referral center between 2012 and 2017. As the baseline characteristics differed between treatment groups, we performed exact matching for various pathological factors according to RAI dose. We evaluated the response to therapy and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in the matched patients. Structural recurrent/persistent disease was defined as new structural disease detected after initial therapy, which was confirmed by cytology or pathology. @*Results@#Of the total 436 patients, 37 (8.5%) received 100 mCi of RAI and 399 (91.5%) received 150 mCi of RAI. After an exact 1:3 matching, 34 patients in the 100 mCi group and 100 patients in the 150 mCi group remained. There was no significant difference in response to therapy between the groups in the matched population (P=0.63). An excellent response was achieved in 70.6% (n=24) of patients in the 100 mCi group and 76.0% (n=76) in the 150 mCi group. Two (5.9%) patients in the 100 mCi group and four (4.0%) in the 150 mCi group had recurrence and there was no significant difference in RFS between the groups in the matched population (P=0.351). @*Conclusion@#There were no differences in response to therapy and RFS in N1b PTC patients according to RAI dose.

12.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832417

ABSTRACT

Background@#The study aimed to compare the prognostic value of the 4th edition of World Health Organization classification (WHO-2017) with the previous WHO classification (WHO-2004) for follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). @*Methods@#This multicenter retrospective cohort study included 318 patients with FTC from five tertiary centers who underwent thyroid surgery between 1996 and 2009. We evaluated the prognosis of patients with minimally invasive (MI), encapsulated angioinvasive (EA), and widely invasive (WI) FTC according to WHO-2017. Further, we evaluated the proportion of variation explained (PVE) and Harrell’s C-index to compare the predictability of disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). @*Results@#In total, 227, 58, and 33 patients had MI-, EA-, and WI-FTC, respectively. During a median follow-up of 10.6 years, 46 (14.5%) patients had disease recurrence and 20 (6.3%) patients died from FTC. The 10-year DFS rates of patients with MI-, EA-, and WI-FTC were 91.1%, 78.2%, and 54.9%, respectively (P<0.001, PVE=7.1%, C-index=0.649). The corresponding 10-year DSS rates were 95.9%, 93.5%, and 73.5%, respectively (P<0.001, PVE=2.6%, C-index=0.624). The PVE and C-index values were higher using WHO-2017 than using WHO-2004 for the prediction of DFS, but not for DSS. In multivariate analysis, older age (P=0.02), gross extrathyroidal extension (ETE) (P=0.003), and distant metastasis (P<0.001) were independent risk factors for DSS. @*Conclusion@#WHO-2017 improves the predictability of DFS, but not DSS, in patients with FTC. Distant metastasis, gross ETE and older age (≥55 years) were independent risk factors for DSS.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831844

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To evaluate the association between the urinary sodium concentration and iodine status in different age groups in Korea. @*Methods@#This nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (VI 2-3, 2014 to 2015). We included 3,645 subjects aged 10 to 75 years with normal kidney function and without a history of thyroid disease. Adequate iodine intake was defined as a urinary iodine/creatinine (I/Cr) ratio of 85 to 220 µg/g. The urinary sodium/ creatinine (Na/Cr) ratios were classified as low ( 114 mmol/g). @*Results@#The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 292 µg/L (interquartile range [IQR], 157 to 672), and the median urinary I/Cr ratio was 195 µg/g (IQR, 104 to 478). Iodine deficiency ( 300 µg/L) were observed in 11.3% and 49.0% of subjects, respectively. The UIC was significantly associated with the urinary sodium concentration, and the urinary I/Cr ratio was significantly correlated with the urinary Na/Cr ratio (both p < 0.001). The distributions of UIC, urinary I/Cr ratio, and Na/Cr ratio varied among age groups. Low urinary I/Cr and Na/Cr ratios were most common in young adults (age, 19 to 29 years), while high urinary I/Cr and Na/Cr ratios were most common in elderly people (age, 60 to 75 years). @*Conclusions@#Iodine intake was significantly associated with sodium intake in the Korean population. Our study suggested that an adequately low salt intake might be helpful for preventing iodine excess in Korea.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816633

ABSTRACT

The increased incidence of thyroid cancer is a worldwide phenomenon; however, the issue of overdiagnosis has been most prominent in South Korea. The age-standardized mortality rate of thyroid cancer in Korea steeply increased from 1985 to 2004 (from 0.17 per 100,000 to 0.85 per 100,000), and then decreased until 2015 to 0.42 per 100,000, suggesting that early detection reduced mortality. However, early detection of thyroid cancer may be cost-ineffective, considering its very high prevalence and indolent course. Therefore, risk stratification and tailored management are vitally important, but many prognostic markers can only be evaluated postoperatively. Discovery of preoperative marker(s), especially for small cancers, is the most important unmet clinical need for thyroid cancer. Herein, we discuss some such factors that we recently discovered. Another unmet clinical need is better treatment of radioiodine-refractory (RAIR) differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and undifferentiated cancers. Although sorafenib and lenvatinib are available, better drugs are needed. We found that phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, a critical enzyme for serine biosynthesis, could be a novel therapeutic target, and that the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio is a prognostic marker of survival in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma or RAIR DTC. Deeper insights are needed into tumor-host interactions in thyroid cancer to improve treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Incidence , Korea , Medical Overuse , Mortality , Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase , Prevalence , Prognosis , Serine , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, there has been some controversy regarding the role of radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation in the treatment of low-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), especially papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This study aimed to compare quality of life (QoL) parameters between patients with PTMC who underwent total thyroidectomy (TT) alone and those who underwent TT with RAI ablation.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients with PTMC who underwent TT with/without RAI remnant ablation were prospectively enrolled between June 2016 and October 2017. All patients completed three questionnaires: the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12), thyroid cancer-specific quality of life (THYCA-QoL) questionnaire, and fear of progression (FoP) questionnaire.RESULTS: The TT and TT with RAI groups comprised 107 and 182 patients, respectively. The TT with RAI group had significantly lower serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels than the TT group. However, after matching for TSH levels between the groups (n=100 in both groups), there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. According to the SF-12, the score for general health was significantly lower in the TT with RAI group than in the TT group (P=0.047). The THYCA-QoL also showed a significant difference in the “felt chilly” score between groups (P=0.023). No significant differences in FoP scores were observed between the groups.CONCLUSION: Patients with PTMC who underwent TT with RAI ablation experienced more health-related problems than those managed with TT alone. These findings support the idea that RAI ablation should be carefully considered in patients with low-risk DTCs.


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Humans , Iodine , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerns have arisen about the classification of extra-thyroidal extension (ETE) and lateral cervical lymph node metastasis (N1b) in the 8th edition of the tumor-node-metastasis staging system (TNM-8). This study evaluated the prognostic validity of a modified-TNM staging system, focusing on ETE and N1b, in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients.METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study included 4,878 DTC patients from five tertiary hospitals. In the modified-TNM, T3b in TNM-8 was down-staged to T2, and stage II was subdivided into stages IIA and IIB. Older patients with N1b were reclassified as stage IIB.RESULTS: The modified-TNM resulted in staging migration in 540 patients (11%) classified as stage II according to the TNM-8, with 75 (14%), 381 (71%), and 84 patients (16%) classified as stages I, IIA, and IIB, respectively. The 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rates in patients classified as stages I, II, III, and IV by TNM-8 were 99.8%, 95.9%, 81.0%, and 41.6%, respectively. The DSS rates of patients classified as stages I, IIA, IIB, III, and IV according to the modified-TNM were 99.8%, 96.4%, 93.3%, 81.0%, and 41.6%, respectively. DSS curves between stages on TNM-8 (P<0.001) and modified-TNM (P<0.001) differed significantly, but the modified-TNM discriminated better than TNM-8. The proportions of variation explained values of TNM-8 and modified-TNM were 6.3% and 6.5%, respectively.CONCLUSION: Modification of the TNM staging system focusing on ETE and N1b could improve the prediction of DSS in patients with DTC. Further researches are needed to validate the prognostic accuracy of this modified-TNM staging system.


Subject(s)
Classification , Cohort Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We previously reported the frequent neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) gene mutations in anaplastic thyroid cancers in association with the BRAF V600E mutation. We aimed to investigate the role of NF2 in thyroid cancer with BRAF mutation. METHODS: To identify the function of NF2 in thyroid cancers, we investigated the changes in cell proliferation, colon formation, migration and invasion of thyroid cancer cells (8505C, BHT101, and KTC-1) with BRAF V600E mutation after overexpression and knock-down of NF2. We also examined how cell proliferation changed when NF2 was mutagenized. Human NF2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was analyzed using the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. RESULTS: First, NF2 was overexpressed in 8505C and KTC-1 cells. Compared to control, NF2 overexpressed group of both thyroid cancer cells showed significant inhibition in cell proliferation and colony formation. These results were also confirmed by cell migration and invasion assay. After knock-down of NF2 in 8505C cells, there were no significant changes in cell proliferation and colony formation, compared with the control group. However, after mutagenized S288* and Q470* sites of NF2 gene, the cell proliferation increased compared to NF2 overexpression group. In the analysis of TCGA data, the mRNA expression of NF2 was significantly decreased in PTCs with lateral cervical lymph node (LN) metastasis compared with PTCs without LN metastasis. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that NF2 might play a role as a tumor suppressor in thyroid cancer with BRAF mutation. More studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism how NF2 acts in thyroid cancer with BRAF mutation.


Subject(s)
Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Colon , Genes, Neurofibromatosis 2 , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Genome , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neurofibromatosis 2 , RNA, Messenger , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785838

ABSTRACT

Lenvatinib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for use in patients with iodine-131–refractory thyroid cancer. The common adverse events of lenvatinib include hypertension, proteinuria, fatigue, and diarrhea. To date, no report on Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients receiving lenvatinib has been published. Here, we present a case of severe PCP that led to the death of a 79-year-old woman who was diagnosed with poorly differentiated thyroid cancer and received lenvatinib. The development of PCP should be considered when patients taking lenvatinib show clinical symptoms of pneumonia, and regular chest X-ray follow-up is needed for patients receiving lenvatinib.


Subject(s)
Aged , Diarrhea , Fatigue , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypertension , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Pneumocystis , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Proteinuria , Thorax , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Levothyroxine (L-T4) monotherapy to normalize TSH level might be not sufficient to restore serum free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels in hypothyroid patients. This study aimed to compare the thyroid hormone levels in euthyroid L-T4 treated athyreotic patients and euthyroid healthy control subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 69 euthyroid L-T4 treated athyreotic female patients after total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation therapy and 90 euthyroid healthy female. Serum fT3 and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were simultaneously measured using two different assay kits (A and B). RESULTS: The serum fT4 level was higher in the athyreotic patients (kit A: p<0.001, kit B: p=0.046), and the serum fT3 level was higher in control subjects (kit A: p=0.047, kit B: p=0.102). In the control group, the serum fT3 level was stable and not correlated with the TSH level (kit A: tau=−0.10, p=0.18, kit B: tau=−0.06, p=0.40). However, in the patient group, the serum fT3 level was negatively correlated with the TSH level (kit A: tau=−0.22, p=0.012, kit B: tau=−0.31, p<0.001). All thyroid hormone parameters measured by kit A showed higher area under the curve values than those measured by kit B for distinguishing the patients from the control subjects. CONCLUSION: The serum fT3 levels in L-T4 treated athyreotic euthyroid patients were significantly lower than and varied from those of euthyroid healthy control subjects. Thus, L-T4 monotherapy might not be appropriate for some athyreotic patients to maintain optimal T3 levels.


Subject(s)
Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Iodine , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones , Thyroidectomy , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) shows a very good prognosis, but older patients have a higher recurrence rate and those show poor prognosis than younger patients. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes of thyroid cancer patients who experienced recurrence in old age according to the treatment strategy used. METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study was conducted at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Among DTC patients with no evidence of disease after initial treatment, we enrolled 86 patients who experienced recurrence at an age >65 years from 1994 to 2012. Sixty-nine patients had local recurrence and 17 patients showed distant metastasis. RESULTS: The mean age of patients at recurrence was 72 years. Patients were followed up for a median of 4.1 years after recurrence. Sixty-three of the 69 patients with local recurrence received additional treatment, while the other six received conservative care. The cancer-specific mortality rate was 15.5% in the local recurrence group. Airway problems were the main cause of death in patients who did not receive further treatment for local recurrence. Among the 17 patients with distant metastasis, 10 underwent specific treatment for metastasis and seven received only supportive management. Seven of those 17 patients died, and the cancer-specific mortality rate was 35% in the distant metastasis group. CONCLUSION: The overall cancer-specific mortality rate was 20% in DTC patients in whom recurrence was first detected at an age >65 years. Mortality due to uncontrolled local disease occurred frequently in patients who did not receive definitive management for recurrence.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Humans , Korea , Mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
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