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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e252-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001078

ABSTRACT

Background@#Ralstonia mannitolilytica is a causative organism of nosocomial infections, particularly associated with contaminated water, and resistant to various antibiotics, including carbapenems. Several clusters of R. mannitolilytica infections appeared in children at our institute from August 2018 to November 2019. @*Methods@#From March 2009 to March 2023, all patients admitted to Asan Medical Center Children’s Hospital in Seoul, Korea, with culture-confirmed R. mannitolilytica and corresponding clinical signs of infection were identified. Epidemiological and environmental investigations were conducted. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for the genes of OXA-443 and OXA-444 on R. mannitolilytica isolates. @*Results@#A total of 18 patients with R. mannitolilytica infection were included in this study, with 94.4% (17/18) and 5.6% (1/18) being diagnosed with pneumonia and central line-associated bloodstream infection, respectively. All-cause 30-day mortality rate was 61.1% (11/18), and seven of the fatal cases were caused by R. mannitolilytica infection itself. The resistance rates to meropenem and imipenem werew 94.4% (17/18) and 5.6% (1/18), respectively. Although four out of nine meropenem-resistant R.mannitolilytica isolates had positive PCR results for OXA-443 and OXA-444 genes, there were no significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Environmental sampling identified R. mannitolylica at two sites: a cold-water tap of a water purifier and an exhalation circuit of a patient mechanical ventilator.After implementing and improving adherence to infection control policies, no additional R. mannitolilyticainfection cases have been reported since December 2019. @*Conclusion@#R. mannitolilytica can cause life-threatening infections with high mortality in fragile pediatric populations. To prevent outbreaks, healthcare workers should be aware of R. mannitolilytica infections and strive to comply with infection control policies.

2.
Pediatric Emergency Medicine Journal ; : 142-148, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002681

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a variety of neurologic manifestations. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare, life-threatening complication characterized by rapid deterioration of neurologic status following viral infection, such as influenza or human herpesvirus 6. Since the COVID-19 pandemic, a rise in ANE cases associated with the infectious disease has been reported in adult patients. We present a case of COVID-19-associated ANE in a 9-year-old boy. The patient experienced 3 days of fever and mild respiratory symptoms, followed by lethargy. Magnetic resonance imaging on day 4 showed hyperintensity in the bilateral thalami, midbrain, pons, hypothalamus, and cerebellum, along with some areas of hemorrhage. From the imaging findings, ANE was strongly suspected, leading to the initiation treatment involving a 5-day course of remdesivir and multiple immunomodulator therapies, including high-dose corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, tocilizumab, and 10 cycles of therapeutic plasma exchange. Subsequently, the patient gradually improved, experiencing only minor neurological sequelae and showing favorable radiologic improvement. In COVID-19-infected patients presenting neurologic symptoms, it is crucial to promptly suspect and investigate unexplained encephalopathy using neuroimaging. Early administration of immunomodulator therapy is vital for the diagnosis and optimizing clinical outcomes.

3.
Kidney Research and Clinical Practice ; : 322-331, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938433

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in critically ill children. However, the common lack of baseline serum creatinine values affects AKI diagnosis and staging. Several approaches for estimating baseline creatinine values in those patients were evaluated. Methods: This single-center retrospective study enrolled pediatric patients with documented serum creatinine measurements within 3 months before admission and more than two serum creatinine measurements within 7 days after admission to the pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care children’s hospital between January 2016 and April 2020. Four different approaches for estimating AKI using serum creatinine measurements were compared: 1) back-calculation using age-adjusted normal reference glomerular filtration rates, 2) age-adjusted normal reference serum creatinine values, 3) minimum values measured within 7 days after admission, and 4) initial values upon admission. Results: The approach using minimum values showed the best agreement with the measured baseline value, with the largest intraclass correlation coefficient (0.623), smallest bias (–0.04), and narrowest limit of agreement interval (1.032). For AKI diagnosis and staging, the minimum values were 80.8% and 76.1% accurate, respectively. The other estimated baseline values underestimated AKI and showed poor agreement with baseline values before admission, with a misclassification rate of up to 42% (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Minimum values of serum creatinine measured within 7 days after hospital admission showed the best agreement with creatinine measured within 3 months before admission, indicating the possibility of using it as a baseline when baseline data are unavailable. Further large-scale studies are required to accurately diagnose AKI in critically ill children.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e308-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the structure, organization, management, and staffing of pediatric critical care (PCC) in Korea. METHODS: We directed a questionnaire survey for all Upper Grade General Hospitals (n = 43) in Korea in 2015. The first questionnaire was mainly about structure, organization, and staffing and responses were obtained from 32 hospitals. The second questionnaire was mainly about patients and management. Responses to second questionnaire were obtained from 18 hospitals. RESULTS: Twelve from 32 Upper Grade General Hospitals had pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and 11 of them had the PICU which was exclusive for children. Total number of PICU beds in Korea was 113. The ratio of the number of PICU beds to the number of children was 1:77,460 in Korea and this ratio is lower than that of other developed countries. The mean number of beds in the PICUs was 9.4 ± 9.3 (range, 2–30). There were 16 medical doctors who were assigned for PCC and only 5 of them were full time pediatric intensivists. In the 18 Upper Grade General Hospitals that responded to the second questionnaire survey, there were 97 patients in the PICUs with an average number of 5.7 ± 7.2 (range, 0–22) on the survey day. The mean age of the patients was 3.4 ± 5.6 years. The mean length of hospital stay was 82 ± 271 days. The mean Pediatric Risk of Mortality score III was 9.4 ± 7.8 at the time of admission to the PICUs. CONCLUSION: There is a considerable shortage of PICU beds compared to those in developed countries. In addition, the proportion of PICUs with PCC specialists is much lower than those in the US and European countries.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Critical Care , Developed Countries , Hospitals, General , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Korea , Length of Stay , Mortality , Specialization
8.
The Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 152-155, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770931

ABSTRACT

Malposition of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) venous cannula in the azygos vein is not frequently reported. We hereby present such a case, which occurred in a neonate with right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Despite ECMO application, neither adequate flow nor sufficient oxygenation was achieved. On the cross-table lateral chest radiograph, the cannula tip was identified posterior to the heart silhouette, which implied malposition of the cannula in the azygos vein. After repositioning the cannula, the target flow and oxygenation were successfully achieved. When sufficient venous flow is not achieved, as in our case, clinicians should be alerted so they can identify the cannula tip location on lateral chest radiograph and confirm whether malposition in the azygos vein is the cause of the ineffective ECMO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Azygos Vein , Catheters , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital , Oxygen , Radiography, Thoracic
9.
Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 152-155, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42555

ABSTRACT

Malposition of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) venous cannula in the azygos vein is not frequently reported. We hereby present such a case, which occurred in a neonate with right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Despite ECMO application, neither adequate flow nor sufficient oxygenation was achieved. On the cross-table lateral chest radiograph, the cannula tip was identified posterior to the heart silhouette, which implied malposition of the cannula in the azygos vein. After repositioning the cannula, the target flow and oxygenation were successfully achieved. When sufficient venous flow is not achieved, as in our case, clinicians should be alerted so they can identify the cannula tip location on lateral chest radiograph and confirm whether malposition in the azygos vein is the cause of the ineffective ECMO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Azygos Vein , Catheters , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital , Oxygen , Radiography, Thoracic
10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 817-821, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11683

ABSTRACT

From 2006 to 2011, an outbreak of a particular type of childhood interstitial lung disease occurred in Korea. The condition was intractable and progressed to severe respiratory failure, with a high mortality rate. Moreover, in several familial cases, the disease affected young women and children simultaneously. Epidemiologic, animal, and post-interventional studies identified the cause as inhalation of humidifier disinfectants. Here, we report a 4-year-old girl who suffered from severe progressive respiratory failure. She could survive by 100 days of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support and finally, underwent heart-lung transplantation. This is the first successful pediatric heart-lung transplantation carried out in Korea.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Disinfectants/toxicity , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humidifiers , Lung/drug effects , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/chemically induced , Lung Transplantation , Republic of Korea , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 151-157, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179306

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: As the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has increased, it is important to understand the clinical outcomes of BPD patients discharged from neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The purpose of our study was to describe the characteristics of BPD patients who are re-hospitalized in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and to evaluate the prognostic outcome factors. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of BPD patients who were admitted to our PICU between May 2006 and November 2014. In total, we identified 101 cases which were divided into two groups, group 1, those who required intensive care for an acute illness or disease aggravation (n=62), and group 2, those who were admitted for post-operative care unrelated to having BPD as a control group (n=39). We subsequently compared the characteristics. RESULTS: Most patients in group 1 were aged less than 1 year, with weight below the 3rd percentile for age at the time of their PICU admission. The main cause for their admission was respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation. When comparing the two groups, group 1 showed higher gestational age at birth, and a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, oxygen support, and NICU hospitalization than group 2. However, we failed to identify any factor significantly associated with the duration of the PICU stay, hospital stay, and mortality. Further large-scale, long-term follow-up studies will be necessary. CONCLUSION: As the majority of patients are admitted to PICU because of respiratory symptoms during their infantile period, careful follow-up with supportive care and prevention of respiratory infection are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , Critical Care , Follow-Up Studies , Gestational Age , Hospitalization , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Length of Stay , Medical Records , Mortality , Oxygen , Parturition , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies
12.
The Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; : 86-92, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-643720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Selenium is an essential trace-element with antioxidant and immunological function. We studied the relationship between blood selenium concentrations, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and organ dysfunctions in critically ill children. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study of the blood selenium concentrations of critically ill children at the time of a pediatric intensive care unit admission. RESULTS: A total of 62 patients with a median age of 18 (5-180) months were included in this study. The mean of blood selenium concentration (microg/dl) was 8.49 +/- 2.42. The platelet count (r = -0.378) and PaCO2 (r = -0.403) showed negative correlations with blood selenium concentration, while PaO2/FiO2 (r = 0.359) and PaO2 (r = 0.355) showed positive correlations (p 300 (7.90 +/- 2.43 vs. 9.54 +/- 2.17, p = 0.018). Blood selenium concentrations were significantly lower in patient with PaO2/FiO2 300 (7.64 +/- 2.76 vs. 9.54 +/- 2.17, p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome or respiratory dysfunction showed significantly low blood selenium concentrations.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Selenium , Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
13.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 308-311, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12392

ABSTRACT

In this report, we present a pediatric case of severe symptomatic hypermagnesemia resulting from the use of magnesium oxide as a laxative in a child undergoing continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal disease. The patient showed abnormal electrocardiography (ECG) findings, such as tall T waves, a widened QRS complex, and irregular conduction, which were initially misdiagnosed as hyperkalemia; later, the correct diagnosis of hypermagnesemia was obtained. Emergent hemodialysis successfully returned the serum magnesium concentration to normal without complications. When abnormal ECG changes are detected in patients with renal failure, hypermagnesemia should be considered.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Electrocardiography , Hyperkalemia , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Magnesium , Magnesium Oxide , Peritoneal Dialysis , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency
14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 915-923, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159646

ABSTRACT

Interstitial lung disease in children (chILD) is a group of disorders characterized by lung inflammation and interstitial fibrosis. In the past recent years, we noted an outbreak of child in Korea, which is possibly associated with inhalation toxicity. Here, we report a series of cases involving toxic inhalational injury-associated chILD with bronchiolitis obliterans pattern in Korean children. This study included 16 pediatric patients confirmed by lung biopsy and chest computed tomography, between February 2006 and May 2011 at Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital. The most common presenting symptoms were cough and dyspnea. The median age at presentation was 26 months (range: 12-47 months), with high mortality (44%). Histopathological analysis showed bronchiolar destruction and centrilobular distribution of alveolar destruction by inflammatory and fibroproliferative process with subpleural sparing. Chest computed tomography showed ground-glass opacities and consolidation in the early phase and diffuse centrilobular nodular opacity in the late phase. Air leak with severe respiratory difficulty was associated with poor prognosis. Although respiratory chemicals such as humidifier disinfectants were strongly considered as a cause of this disease, further studies are needed to understand the etiology and pathophysiology of the disease to improve the prognosis and allow early diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , APACHE , Bronchi/pathology , Cough/etiology , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Disinfectants/toxicity , Dyspnea/etiology , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Inhalation , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/chemically induced , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Steroids/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery ; : 186-188, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55390

ABSTRACT

Status asthmaticus is a rare, fatal condition, especially in children. Sometimes respiratory support is insufficient with a mechanical ventilator or medical therapy for patients with status asthmaticus. In such situations, early extracorporeal membrane oxygenation application is a useful method for treating refractory respiratory failure. We report on a case of a six-year-old, male child who underwent venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for refractory status asthmaticus.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Asthma , Extracorporeal Circulation , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Status Asthmaticus , Ventilators, Mechanical
16.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 494-496, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108466

ABSTRACT

Congenital left ventricular aneurysm (CVA) is a rare cardiac malformation. The prognosis is variable, depending on such factors as the size in comparison to the ventricular cavity, signs of heart failure, arrhythmia and so on. Most infants and young children with large aneurysm showed poor clinical outcomes. Here, we report the case of patient who was prenatally diagnosed with a large CVA, who had severe left ventricular dysfunction at 21 weeks' gestation for which she successfully underwent a modified Damus-Kaye-Stansel/Dor procedure.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Aneurysm , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Heart Aneurysm , Heart Failure , Prognosis , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 593-598, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190746

ABSTRACT

Heart transplantation is a standard treatment for end-stage heart disease. Pediatric heart transplantation, however, is not frequently performed due to the shortage of pediatric heart donors. This is the first report of pediatric heart transplantation in Korea. Our retrospective study included 37 patients younger than 18 yr of age who underwent heart transplantation at Asan Medical Center between August 1997 and April 2009. Preoperative diagnosis was either cardiomyopathy (n = 29, 78.3%) or congenital heart disease (n = 8, 22.7%). Mean follow up period was 56.9 +/- 44.6 months. There were no early death, but 7 late deaths (7/37, 18.9%) due to rejection after 11, 15, 41 months (n = 3), infection after 5, 8, 10 months (n = 3), suspicious ventricular arrhythmia after 50 months (n = 1). There was no significant risk factor for survival. There were 25 rejections (25/37, 67.6%); less than grade II occurred in 17 patients (17/25, 68%) and more than grade II occurred in 8 patients (8/25, 32%). Actuarial 1, 5, and 10 yr survival was 88.6%, 76.8%, and 76.8%. Our midterm survival of pediatric heart transplantation showed excellent results. We hope this result could be an encouraging message to do more pediatric heart transplantation in Korean society.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Cardiomyopathies/surgery , Graft Rejection/mortality , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Heart Transplantation , Immunosuppression Therapy/methods , Infections/mortality , Postoperative Complications , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Tissue Donors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 471-474, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115101

ABSTRACT

Postoperative intractable arrhythmia can result in high morbidity and mortality. This report describes our experiences using mechanical circulatory support (MCS) to control medically intractable arrhythmias in three pediatric patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), after palliative or total corrective open-heart surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart Diseases , Thoracic Surgery
19.
Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease ; : 277-283, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91049

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In pediatric acute respiratory failure patients requiring mechanical ventilator support, mortality is seldom related to respiratory disease alone, but more generally to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether early changes in the SOFA score (Delta-SOFA) are more effective for predicting the outcome than a single assessment upon admission for pediatric acute respiratory failure patients requiring mechanical ventilator support. METHODS: The medical records of pediatric patients with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilator support for more than 72 hours in the PICU of the Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital, Seoul, Korea, between January 2008 and May 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Early Delta-SOFA showed a significantly stronger correlation with patient mortality compared with the initial SOFA score, PRISM III score and PELOD score (P<0.05). When analyzing the trends in the SOFA score during the first 72 hours, the mortality rate was significantly higher in children with increased and unchanged SOFA scores 72 hours after admission than in children with a decreased SOFA score. (14.5% vs. 42.9%, P<0.05) CONCLUSION: Regardless of the initial SOFA score, early serial evaluation of the SOFA scores during the first 3 days of PICU admission is a better indicator of the prognosis than a single assessment obtained at admission in acute respiratory failure patients mechanically ventilated for more than 3 days.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Korea , Medical Records , Multiple Organ Failure , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Ventilators, Mechanical
20.
Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease ; : 284-291, 2010.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225902

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio, oxygenation index (OI) and the ventilation index (VI) have been used as parameters of acute respiratory failure. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the prognosis and early changes in the respiratory parameters in pediatric patients with acute lung injury (ALI). METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 97 patients who had ventilator care for more than 3 days due to acute respiratory failure between January 2008 and May 2009 in PICU of Asan Medical Center. RESULTS: The mean age was 3.7+/-5.0 years. This study included 58 males and 39 females. The mortality rate was 27.8%. There was no significant difference between the survivors and non-survivors in the initial P/F ratio, OI and VI. However, these parameters improved in the survivor group, unlike the non-survivor group whose parameters remained unchanged or worsened. When comparing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the initial respiratory parameters and the changes in parameters for 3 days, the area under the ROC curves representing the changes in respiratory parameters for 3 days was significantly greater than that of initial respiratory parameters, thus indicating the parameter changes are more reliable predictors of mortality than the initial parameters. CONCLUSION: Early changes in respiratory parameters such as the P/F ratio, OI and VI, rather than initial parameters themselves, are more directly related to the prognosis of pediatric patients with ALI and would be useful in determining optimal treatment and predicting the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Acute Lung Injury , Oxygen , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Survivors , Ventilation , Ventilators, Mechanical
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