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1.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 32-39, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968584

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study explored the potential feasibility of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in monitoring treatment response through the measurement of chromosomal instabilities using I-scores in the context of radiation therapy (RT) for other solid tumors. @*Materials and Methods@#This study enrolled 23 patients treated with RT for lung, esophageal, and head and neck cancer. Serial cfDNA monitoring was performed before RT, 1 week after RT, and 1 month after RT. Low-depth whole-genome sequencing was done using Nano kit and NextSeq 500 (Illumina Inc.). To measure the extent of genome-wide copy number instability, I-score was calculated. @*Results@#Pretreatment I-score was elevated to more than 5.09 in 17 patients (73.9%). There was a significant positive correlation between the gross tumor volume and the baseline I-score (Spearman rho = 0.419, p = 0.047). The median I-scores at baseline, post-RT 1 week (P1W), and post-RT 1 month (P1M) were 5.27, 5.13, and 4.79, respectively. The I-score at P1M was significantly lower than that at baseline (p = 0.002), while the difference between baseline and P1W was not significant (p = 0.244). @*Conclusion@#We have shown the feasibility of cfDNA I-score to detect minimal residual disease after RT in patients with lung cancer, esophageal cancer, and head and neck cancer. Additional studies are ongoing to optimize the measurement and analysis of I-scores to predict the radiation response in cancer patients.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1281-1290, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999809

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Despite numerous studies on the optimal treatments for oligometastatic disease (OMD), there is no established interdisciplinary consensus on its diagnosis or classification. This survey-based study aimed to analyze the differential opinions of colorectal surgeons and radiation oncologists regarding the definition and treatment of OMD from the colorectal primary. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 141 participants were included in this study, consisting of 63 radiation oncologists (44.7%) and 78 colorectal surgeons (55.3%). The survey consisted of 19 questions related to OMD, and the responses were analyzed using the chi-square test to determine statistical differences between the specialties. @*Results@#The radiation oncologists chose “bone” more frequently compared to the colorectal surgeons (19.2% vs. 36.5%, p=0.022), while colorectal surgeons favored “peritoneal seeding” (26.9% vs. 9.5%, p=0.009). Regarding the number of metastatic tumors, 48.3% of colorectal surgeons responded that “irrelevant, if all metastatic lesions are amendable to local therapy”, while only 21.8% of radiation oncologist chose same answer. When asked about molecular diagnosis, most surgeons (74.8%) said it was important, but only 35.8% of radiation oncologists agreed. @*Conclusion@#This study demonstrates that although radiation oncologists and colorectal surgeons agreed on a majority of aspects such as diagnostic imaging, biomarker, systemic therapy, and optimal timing of OMD, they also had quite different perspectives on several aspects of OMD. Understanding these differences is crucial to achieving multidisciplinary consensus on the definition and optimal management of OMD.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 707-719, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999775

ABSTRACT

Introduction of the concept for oligometastasis led to wide application of metastasis-directed local ablative therapies for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). By application of the metastasis-directed local ablative therapies including surgical resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR), the survival outcomes of patients with metastatic CRC have improved. The liver is the most common distant metastatic site in CRC patients, and recently various metastasis-directed local therapies for hepatic oligometastasis from CRC (HOCRC) are widely used. Surgical resection is the first line of metastatic-directed local therapy for HOCRC, but its eligibility is very limited. Alternatively, RFA can be applied to patients who are ineligible for surgical resection of liver metastasis. However, there are some limitations such as inferior local control (LC) compared with surgical resection and technical feasibility based on location, size, and visibility on ultrasonography of the liver metastasis. Recent advances in radiation therapy technology have led to an increase in the use of SABR for liver tumors. SABR is considered complementary to RFA for patients with HOCRC who are ineligible for RFA. Furthermore, SABR can potentially result in better LC for liver metastases > 2-3 cm compared with RFA. In this article, the previous studies regarding curative metastasis-directed local therapies for HOCRC based on the radiation oncologist’s and surgeon’s perspective are reviewed and discussed. In addition, future perspectives regarding SABR in the treatment of HOCRC are suggested.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 245-252, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913834

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the effect of waiting time, from diagnosis to initiation of definitive concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT), on overall survival in cervical cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with cervical cancer who were treated with definitive CCRT between 2000 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Time from initial pathological diagnosis to definitive CCRT was analyzed both as a continuous variable (per day) and as a categorical variable in two groups (group 1 ≤ median, group 2 > median). Patients with a waiting time of more than 60 days were excluded. @*Results@#The median waiting time was 14 days (0-60). There were differences between group 1 and group 2 in age and chemotherapy regimens. However, no significant difference was found in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, cell type, or the number of cycles of chemotherapy received during CCRT. A longer waiting time was associated with poorer overall survival on the Kaplan-Meier curve (group 1 vs. group 2, p=0.042). On multivariate analysis, intervals as either a continuous variable (hazard ratio [HR], 1.023; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.006 to 1.040; p=0.007) or a categorical variable (HR, 1.513; 95% CI, 1.073 to 2.134; p=0.018), FIGO stage, cell type, and the number of cycles of chemotherapy received during CCRT were significant independent prognostic factors for overall survival. @*Conclusion@#A shorter waiting time from pathological diagnosis to definitive CCRT showed benefit on overall survival. Our findings suggest that an effort to minimize waiting times should be recommended in cervical cancer patients who are candidates for CCRT.

5.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : e71-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967237

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The recently updated World Health Organization classification divides endocervical adenocarcinomas (ADCs) into human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated (HPVA) and HPV-independent (HPVI) ADCs. This study aimed to investigate the differences in the clinical features and treatment outcomes between patients with HPVA and HPVI. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and pathology slides of 123 patients with endocervical ADC who underwent radical hysterectomy and adjuvant radiation therapy. Tumor characteristics, patterns of failure, and survival outcomes were compared between HPVA and HPVI ADCs. @*Results@#Eighty-one (65.9%) and 42 (34.1%) patients were diagnosed with HPVA and HPVI ADCs, respectively. HPVI ADC showed more frequent positive vaginal resection margin (VRM) and peritoneal seeding than HPVA ADC. After a median follow-up of 58.1 months, local recurrence and distant metastasis were more frequently observed in HPVI ADC than in HPVA ADC. Both local recurrence-free survival (77.3% vs. 91.8%) and distant metastasis-free survival (50.1% vs. 73.7%) rates of HPVI ADC were lower than those of HPVA ADC. Disease-free survival was not significantly different between HPVI and HPVA ADCs. @*Conclusion@#We demonstrated that HPVI ADC exhibited higher rates of VRM involvement and peritoneal seeding than those of HPVA ADC, resulting in higher rates of local recurrence and distant metastasis. Further studies with larger populations are warranted to explore optimal treatment strategies based on the histological subtypes of endocervical ADC.

6.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : e32-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967217

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to evaluate the oncologic outcomes according to disease burden in uterine cervical cancer patients with metachronous distant metastases. @*Methods@#Between 2005 and 2015, 163 patients with metachronous distant metastases from uterine cervical cancer after receiving a definitive therapy were evaluated at seven institutions in Korea. Low metastatic burden was defined as less than 5 metastatic sites, whereas high metastatic burden was others. Each metastasis site was divided based on the lymph node (LN) and organs affected. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed. Cox proportional hazards models, including other clinical variables, were used to evaluate the survival outcomes. @*Results@#The median follow-up duration was 22.2 months (range: 0.3–174.8 months). Para-aortic LNs (56.4%), lungs (26.4%), supraclavicular LNs (18.4%), and peritoneum (13.5%) were found to be the common metastasis sites. Among 37 patients with a single metastasis, 17 (45.9%) had LN metastases and 20 (54.1%) had organ metastases. The 1- and 2-year OS rates were 73.9% and 55.0%, respectively, whereas the PFS rates were 67.2% and 42.9%, respectively. SCC Ag after recurrence and high metastatic burden were significant factors affecting the OS (p=0.004 and p<0.001, respectively). Distant organ recurrence, short disease-free interval (≤2 years), and high metastatic burden were unfavorable factors for PFS (p=0.003, p=0.011, and p=0.002, respectively). @*Conclusion@#A favorable oncologic outcome can be expected by performing salvage treatments in selected patients with a long disease-free interval, low metastatic burden, and/or lymphatic-only metastasis.

7.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology ; : e72-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915122

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Unlike cervical squamous cell carcinoma, there are no consensus criteria for serum tumor markers in cervical adenocarcinoma. This study aimed to identify the prognostic value of preoperative carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) levels in cervical adenocarcinoma patients with adverse pathologic features. @*Methods@#A total of 105 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiation therapy were included. Locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. @*Results@#Using a cutoff value of 50 U/mL, 83 and 22 patients had low- and high-CA125, respectively. Patients with high-CA125 had a larger tumor size, more frequent parametrial extension, and more frequent lymph node metastasis than those with low-CA125. During a median follow-up of 59.3 (interquartile range, 32.7–97.8) months, patients with high-CA125 showed inferior 5-year LRFS, DMFS, and OS rates compared to those with low-CA125 (38.5% vs. 70.0%; 37.0% vs. 69.4%; 43.6% vs. 78.1%, respectively, all p<0.05). In multivariable analysis, the high-CA125 remained significant prognostic factor for LRFS, DMFS, and OS (all p<0.05). Furthermore, 12 patients with high-CA125 at recurrence exhibited lower 5-year OS rates than 21 patients with low-CA125 at recurrence (0.0% vs. 51.3%, p=0.003). @*Conclusion@#In this retrospective analysis, the serum CA125 level at diagnosis and recurrence was related to the extent of disease and prognosis of cervical adenocarcinoma with adverse pathologic features. A CA125 level of ≥50 U/mL may be a prognostic surrogate marker for cervical adenocarcinoma in patients with the presence of adverse factors.

8.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 206-217, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898976

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this study, we examined the impact of reconstruction using tissue expander insertion (TEI) on the risk of radiation dermatitis in patients undergoing postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). @*Methods@#Between August 2015 and March 2019, patients with breast cancer who had received systemic chemotherapy and PMRT were prospectively included. Skin parameters, including melanin, erythema, hydration, sebum, and elasticity, were measured using a multiprobe instrument at 6 time points: before the initiation of radiotherapy (pre-RT), at weeks 1, 3, and 5 during radiotherapy (weeks 1–5), and 1 and 3-month after radiotherapy (post-RT-1m and post-RT-3m). Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were assessed at each time point.Changes in biophysical parameters and PRO were compared between patients with and without TEI (TEI+ vs. TEI−). @*Results@#Thirty-eight patients, including 18 with TEI+ and 20 with TEI-, were analyzed. The pattern of time-course changes in biophysical parameters and PRO did not differ between TEI+ and TEI− patients. The melanin index was highest at post-RT-1m, while the erythema index was highest at week 5. At post-RT-3m, TEI+ patients presented higher melanin values than TEI- patients, with no statistical significance (coefficient, 47.9 vs. 14.2%; p = 0.07). In all patients, water content decreased throughout the measurement period. At post-RT-3m, TEI+ patients demonstrated a further decrease in water content, while the TEI- group nearly recovered the water content to pre-RT status (coefficient, −17.1, −2.5; p = 0.11). The sebum and elasticity levels were not altered by TEI. @*Conclusion@#In patients undergoing PMRT, TEI did not significantly affect the changing patterns of skin biophysical parameters and PRO during radiotherapy.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 803-812, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897468

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to identify the prognostic value of early metabolic response assessed using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) during radiation therapy (RT) for cervical cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified 116 patients treated with definitive RT, including FDG-PET/CT–guided intracavitary brachytherapy, between 2009 and 2018. We calculated parameters including maximum (SUVmax) and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) for baseline FDG-PET/CT (PETbase) and image-guided brachytherapy planning FDG-PET/CT (PETIGBT). Multivariable analyses of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were performed. @*Results@#We observed a time-dependent decrease in PET parameters between PETbase and PETIGBT; ΔSUVmax, ΔSUVmean, ΔMTV, and ΔTLG were 65%, 61%, 78%, and 93%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 59.5 months, the 5-year DFS and OS rates were 66% and 79%, respectively. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that ΔSUVmax ≥ 50% was associated with favorable DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 5.77) and OS (HR, 5.14; 95% CI, 1.55 to 17.01). Patients with ΔSUVmax ≥ 50% (n=87) showed better DFS and OS than those with ΔSUVmax 50%, can help improve survival outcome predictions for patients with cervical cancer treated with definitive RT.

10.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 206-217, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891272

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In this study, we examined the impact of reconstruction using tissue expander insertion (TEI) on the risk of radiation dermatitis in patients undergoing postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). @*Methods@#Between August 2015 and March 2019, patients with breast cancer who had received systemic chemotherapy and PMRT were prospectively included. Skin parameters, including melanin, erythema, hydration, sebum, and elasticity, were measured using a multiprobe instrument at 6 time points: before the initiation of radiotherapy (pre-RT), at weeks 1, 3, and 5 during radiotherapy (weeks 1–5), and 1 and 3-month after radiotherapy (post-RT-1m and post-RT-3m). Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were assessed at each time point.Changes in biophysical parameters and PRO were compared between patients with and without TEI (TEI+ vs. TEI−). @*Results@#Thirty-eight patients, including 18 with TEI+ and 20 with TEI-, were analyzed. The pattern of time-course changes in biophysical parameters and PRO did not differ between TEI+ and TEI− patients. The melanin index was highest at post-RT-1m, while the erythema index was highest at week 5. At post-RT-3m, TEI+ patients presented higher melanin values than TEI- patients, with no statistical significance (coefficient, 47.9 vs. 14.2%; p = 0.07). In all patients, water content decreased throughout the measurement period. At post-RT-3m, TEI+ patients demonstrated a further decrease in water content, while the TEI- group nearly recovered the water content to pre-RT status (coefficient, −17.1, −2.5; p = 0.11). The sebum and elasticity levels were not altered by TEI. @*Conclusion@#In patients undergoing PMRT, TEI did not significantly affect the changing patterns of skin biophysical parameters and PRO during radiotherapy.

11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 803-812, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889764

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to identify the prognostic value of early metabolic response assessed using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) during radiation therapy (RT) for cervical cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified 116 patients treated with definitive RT, including FDG-PET/CT–guided intracavitary brachytherapy, between 2009 and 2018. We calculated parameters including maximum (SUVmax) and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) for baseline FDG-PET/CT (PETbase) and image-guided brachytherapy planning FDG-PET/CT (PETIGBT). Multivariable analyses of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were performed. @*Results@#We observed a time-dependent decrease in PET parameters between PETbase and PETIGBT; ΔSUVmax, ΔSUVmean, ΔMTV, and ΔTLG were 65%, 61%, 78%, and 93%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 59.5 months, the 5-year DFS and OS rates were 66% and 79%, respectively. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that ΔSUVmax ≥ 50% was associated with favorable DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 5.77) and OS (HR, 5.14; 95% CI, 1.55 to 17.01). Patients with ΔSUVmax ≥ 50% (n=87) showed better DFS and OS than those with ΔSUVmax 50%, can help improve survival outcome predictions for patients with cervical cancer treated with definitive RT.

12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 622-634, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898954

ABSTRACT

Methods@#In the breast cancer registry of our institution, 18,790 patients received curative surgery for stage I–III breast cancer between January 1995 and June 2016. Of those patients, only 87 (0.5%)underwent salvage local treatment for isolated nodal recurrence on the axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) (n = 58), supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCNs) (n = 17), or internal mammary lymph nodes (IMNs) (n = 12). @*Results@#The median follow-up duration after regional oligo-recurrence was 49 months (range: 6–194 months). For patients with recurrence of ALN, SCN, or IMN, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 40.0%, 32.1%, and 25.0%, respectively (p = 0.3) and 62.7%, 70.0%, and 58.3%, respectively(p = 0.97). In the multivariable analysis for PFS, age at recurrence ≥ 65 years, disease-free interval 1 RF (p 1 RF, the 5-year PFS rates were 7.3% in the ALN group and 7.1% in the SCN/IMN group (p = 1.00). @*Conclusion@#In breast cancer patients with regional oligo-recurrence, clinical outcomes after salvage treatment were favorable in patients with ≤ 1 RF, while patients with > 1 RF had poor prognoses irrespective of the location of recurrence.

13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 622-634, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891250

ABSTRACT

Methods@#In the breast cancer registry of our institution, 18,790 patients received curative surgery for stage I–III breast cancer between January 1995 and June 2016. Of those patients, only 87 (0.5%)underwent salvage local treatment for isolated nodal recurrence on the axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) (n = 58), supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCNs) (n = 17), or internal mammary lymph nodes (IMNs) (n = 12). @*Results@#The median follow-up duration after regional oligo-recurrence was 49 months (range: 6–194 months). For patients with recurrence of ALN, SCN, or IMN, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 40.0%, 32.1%, and 25.0%, respectively (p = 0.3) and 62.7%, 70.0%, and 58.3%, respectively(p = 0.97). In the multivariable analysis for PFS, age at recurrence ≥ 65 years, disease-free interval 1 RF (p 1 RF, the 5-year PFS rates were 7.3% in the ALN group and 7.1% in the SCN/IMN group (p = 1.00). @*Conclusion@#In breast cancer patients with regional oligo-recurrence, clinical outcomes after salvage treatment were favorable in patients with ≤ 1 RF, while patients with > 1 RF had poor prognoses irrespective of the location of recurrence.

14.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 83-89, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836978

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis is a worldwide disease leading to significant economic and societal burdens globally. Osteoporosis is caused by unbalanced bone remodeling between the rate of osteoclast bone resorption and osteoblast bone formation. Acer tegmentosum Maxim (AT) is a traditional herbal medicine containing multiple biological activities such as anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory purposes. However, its role in osteoporosis has not been fully studied. Therefore, we investigated whether AT has a potent inhibitory effect on osteoporosis and its mechanism through a systemic evaluation in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. OVX mice were orally administrated with the AT at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg for 10 weeks. Histological images and histomorphometry analyses were performed by H&E and Toluidine blue satin, and the expression levels of receptor activator for nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL), nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasm 1 (NFATc1), c-Fos, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) related to the osteoclast differentiation were investigated using immunohistochemical analysis. Administration of AT prevented bone loss and the alternations of osteoporotic bone parameters at the distinct regions of the distal femur and spongiosa region in OVX mice. Further, administration of AT increased periosteal bone formation in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, AT inhibited not only the expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos, which are two major regulators of osteoclastogenesis but also reduced bone resorbed encoding expression of MMP9 and RANKL. Our results indicated that administration of AT prevented bone loss and the alternations of osteoporotic bone parameters at the distinct regions of the distal femur and spongiosa region in OVX mice. Also AT has the bone protective effect through the suppression of osteoclast and promotion of osteoblast, suggesting that it could be a preventive and therapeutic candidate for anti-osteoporosis.

15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 167-180, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831078

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#Localized prostate cancer patients who received PORT after radical prostatectomy between 2001 and 2012 were identified retrospectively in a multi-institutional database. In total, 1,117 patients in 19 institutions were included. Biochemical failure after PORT was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ nadir+2 after PORT or initiation of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for increasing PSA regardless of its value. @*Results@#Ten-year biochemical failure-free survival, clinical failure-free survival, distant metastasisfree survival, overall survival (OS), and cause-specific survival were 60.5%, 76.2%, 84.4%, 91.1%, and 96.6%, respectively, at a median of 84 months after PORT. Pre-PORT PSA ≤ 0.5 ng/ml and Gleason’s score ≤ 7 predicted favorable clinical outcomes, with 10-year OS rates of 92.5% and 94.1%, respectively. The 10-year OS rate was 82.7% for patients with a PSA > 1.0 ng/mL and 86.0% for patients with a Gleason score of 8-10. The addition of longterm ADT (≥ 12 months) to PORT improved OS, particularly in those with a Gleason score of 8-10 or ≥ T3b. @*Conclusion@#Clinical outcomes of PORT in a Korean prostate cancer population were very similar to those in Western countries. Lower Gleason score and serum PSA level at the time of PORT were significantly associated with favorable outcomes. Addition of long-term ADT (≥ 12 months) to PORT should be considered, particularly in unfavorable risk patients with Gleason scores of 8-10 or ≥ T3b.

16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 446-454, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831053

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levelsin improving the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the predictionof pathologic response after the neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NCRT) for patients with rectalcancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 524 rectal cancer patients who underwentNCRT and total mesorectal excision between January 2009 and December 2014. Theperformances of MRI with or without CEA parameters (initial CEA and CEA dynamics) forprediction of pathologic tumor response grade (pTRG) were compared by receiver-operatingcharacteristic analysis with DeLong’s method. Cox regression was used to identify the independentfactors associated to pTRG and disease-free survival (DFS) after NCRT. @*Results@#The median follow-up was 64.0 months (range, 3.0 to 113.0 months). On multivariate analysis,poor tumor regression grade on MRI (mrTRG; p < 0.001), initial CEA (p < 0.001) andthe mesorectal fascia involvement on MRI before NCRT (mrMFI; p=0.054) showed associationwith poor pTRG. The mrTRG plus CEA parameters showed significantly improved performancesin the prediction of pTRG than mrTRG alone. All of mrTRG, mrMFI, and initial CEAwere also identified as independent factors associated with DFS. The initial CEA further discriminatedDFS in the subgroups with good mrTRG or that without mrMFI. @*Conclusion@#The CEA parameters significantly improved the performance of MRI in the prediction ofpTRG after NCRT for patients with rectal cancer. The DFS was further discriminated by initialCEA level in the groups with favorable MRI parameters.

17.
Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism ; : 163-168, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830475

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To analyze growth patterns over 2 years after birth according to preterm infant birth weight and length percentiles. @*Methods@#Anthropometric measurements of 82 preterm infants were retrospectively reviewed. Preterm infants with birth weight or length below the 10th percentile were classified as small for gestational age (SGA) (n=19) and those between the 10th and 89th percentile as appropriate for gestational age (AGA) (n=63). The association between the length standard deviation score (SDS) at 2 years of corrected age and clinical factors were analyzed. @*Results@#The length SDS of the SGA group was significantly increased at 6 months (-1.30±1.71) and 24 months (-0.97±1.06) of corrected age. The length SDS was lower in the SGA group than those in the AGA group at 6 months (-1.30±1.71 vs. -0.25±1.15, P=0.004), 18 months (-0.97±1.39 vs. -0.03±1.29, P=0.015), and 24 months (-0.97±1.06 vs. -0.29±1.12, P=0.022,). The percentage of children with a length SDS of <-2 (growth failure) at 24 months was 15.8% in the SGA group and 4.8% in the AGA group (P=0.108). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that length at 24 months of corrected age was negatively correlated with birth length below the 10th percentile (coefficient β=-0.91, P=0.001) and duration of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (coefficient β=-0.01, P=0.001). @*Conclusion@#Despite the fact that catch-up growth occurs during the early period of infancy in a large portion of preterm SGA infants, a significant portion of these infants show growth failure at 24 months of age. Growth over 2 years after birth is affected by birth length and duration of stay in the NICU in preterm children.

18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 407-413, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742566

ABSTRACT

Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is regarded as a chronic inflammatory lung disease, the disease mechanism is still not known. Intriguingly, aging lungs are quite similar to COPD-affected lungs in many ways, and COPD has been viewed as a disease of accelerated premature aging of the lungs. In this paper, based on a literature review, we would like to propose immunosenescence, age-associated decline in immunity, as a critical mechanism for the development of COPD. Immunosenescence can cause a low-grade, systemic inflammation described as inflammaging. This inflammaging may be directly involved in the COPD pathogenesis. The potential contributors to the development of inflammaging in the lungs possibly leading to COPD are discussed in the review paper. A notable fact about COPD is that only 15% to 20% of smokers develop clinically significant COPD. Given that there is a substantial inter-individual variation in inflammaging susceptibility, which is genetically determined and significantly affected by the history of the individual's exposure to pathogens, immunosenescence and inflammaging may also provide the answer for this unexpectedly low susceptibility of smokers to clinically significant COPD.


Subject(s)
Aging , Aging, Premature , Immunosenescence , Inflammation , Lung , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
19.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 464-471, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764276

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In some patients who receive adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for the left breast, the stomach is located inside the RT field. This study investigates the incidence of gastric complications following adjuvant RT for breast cancer using data of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in South Korea. METHODS: We identified 37,966 women who underwent surgery and received adjuvant RT for breast cancer. The cumulative incidence rate of gastric hemorrhage and gastric cancer was calculated and compared for left and right breast cancers. RESULTS: Among 37,966 patients, 19,531 (51.4%) and 18,435 (48.6%) had right and left breast cancers, respectively. After a median follow-up duration of 6.3 years, the cumulative incidence of gastric cancer and gastric hemorrhage did not differ between right and left breast cancers (p = 0.414 and p = 0.166, respectively). The multivariable analysis revealed that old age was the only factor associated with the development of gastric cancer (p < 0.001) and gastric hemorrhage (p < 0.001). The incidence of gastric cancer and hemorrhage did not differ between patients who received adjuvant RT for right and left breast cancers. CONCLUSION: Irradiation-related chronic complications of the stomach in patients with breast cancer are minimal. A study with a longer follow-up duration might be needed to assess the risk of gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hemorrhage , Incidence , Insurance, Health , Korea , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Stomach , Stomach Neoplasms
20.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 285-296, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764262

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The benefit of post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in patients with breast cancer who achieve ypN0 following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has not yet been established. This study aimed to identify the role of PMRT in patients who achieve ypN0 according to molecular subtype. METHODS: We identified patients initially suspected with axillary disease who achieved ypN0 following NAC. From 13 institutions of the Korean Radiation Oncology Group between 2005 and 2011, a total of 189 patients were included in the analysis. Effects of PMRT on loco-regional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated for different molecular subtypes. RESULTS: In all patients, the prognostic effect of PMRT on LRC, DFS, or OS was not significant. Subgroups analysis showed that the effect of PMRT on LRC was different according to molecular subtype (p for interaction = 0.019). PMRT was associated with greater LRC in the luminal subtype (p = 0.046), but not in other subtypes. CONCLUSION: In patients who achieve ypN0 following NAC and mastectomy, PMRT shows no additional survival benefits for any molecular subtype.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Mastectomy , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Phenobarbital , Radiation Oncology , Radiotherapy
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