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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926015

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Drug-eluting stents and balloons are occasionally used to reduce restenosis in medically intractable intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis. The authors aimed to determine whether such drugs can cause neurotoxicity due to local effects in a rat model. @*Methods@#: Intra-arterial catheters were placed in the right common carotid artery of rats. Mannitol was injected to transiently open the brain-blood barrier (BBB), followed by high-dose drug (paclitaxel and rapamycin) injection. The optimal time interval of transient BBB opening for maximal drug penetration was determined to be 10 minutes. Paclitaxel and rapamycin were intraarterially administered in various doses. All the rats were neurologically evaluated, and their brain tissues were histologically examined. @*Results@#: Neither neurological deficits nor histological abnormalities were observed in all the rats. @*Conclusion@#: Paclitaxel and rapamycin did not cause neurotoxicity in a rat model with transient BBB opening.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900125

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: The fate of partially thrombosed intracranial aneurysms (PTIAs) is not well known after endovascular treatment. The authors aimed to analyze the treatment outcomes of PTIAs. @*Methods@#: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 27 PTIAs treated with endovascular intervention between January 1999 and March 2018. Twenty-one aneurysms were treated with intraluminal embolization (ILE), and six were treated with parent artery occlusion (PAO) with or without bypass surgery. Radiological results, clinical outcomes and risk factors for major recurrence were assessed. @*Results@#: The initial clinical status was similar in both groups; however, the last status was better in the ILE group than in the PAO group (p=0.049). Neurological deterioration resulted from mass effect in one case and rupture in one after ILE, and mass effect in two and perforator infarction in one after PAO. Twenty cases (94.2%) in the ILE group initially achieved complete occlusion or residual neck status. However, 13 cases (61.9%) showed major recurrence, the major causes of which included coil migration or compaction. Seven cases (33.3%) ultimately achieved residual sac status after repeat treatment. In the PAO group, all initially showed complete occlusion or a residual neck, and just one case ultimately had a residual sac. Two cases showed major recurrence, the cause of which was incomplete PAO. Aneurysm wall calcification was the only significantly protective factor against major recurrence (odds ratio, 36.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.85 to 705.18; p=0.018). @*Conclusion@#: Complete PAO of PTIAs is the best option if treatment-related complications can be minimized. Simple fluoroscopy is a useful imaging modality because of the recurrence pattern.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915582

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Biodegradable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) with a highly biocompatible surface via tantalum (Ta) ion implantation can be an innovative solution for the problems associated with current biodegradable stents. The purpose of this study is to develop a Ta-implanted PLLA stent for clinical use and to investigate its biological performance capabilities. @*Methods@#: A series of in vitro and in vivo tests were used to assess the biological performance of bare and Ta-implanted PLLA stents. The re-endothelialization ability and thrombogenicity were examined through in vitro endothelial cell and platelet adhesion tests. An in vivo swine model was used to evaluate the effects of Ta ion implantation on subacute restenosis and thrombosis. Angiographic and histologic evaluations were conducted at one, two and three months post-treatment. @*Results@#: The Ta-implanted PLLA stent was successfully fabricated, exhibiting a smooth surface morphology and modified layer integration. After Ta ion implantation, the surface properties were more favorable for rapid endothelialization and for less platelet attachment compared to the bare PLLA stent. In an in vivo animal test, follow-up angiography showed no evidence of in-stent stenosis in either group. In a microscopic histologic examination, luminal thrombus formation was significantly suppressed in the Ta-implanted PLLA stent group according to the 2-month follow-up assessment (21.2% vs. 63.9%, p=0.005). Cells positive for CD 68, a marker for the monocyte lineage, were less frequently identified around the Ta-implanted PLLA stent in the 1-month follow-up assessments. @*Conclusion@#: The use of a Ta-implanted PLLA stent appears to promote re-endothelialization and anti-thrombogenicity.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914854

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating cerebrovascular event; patients are routinely admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for initial management. Because complications may be delayed, unplanned ICU readmissions can occur. Therefore, in this study we evaluate the rate of and factors associated with readmission after aSAH and identify if readmission is associated with poor clinical outcomes. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients receiving surgical or endovascular treatment for aSAH and admitted to the ICU between January 2008 and December 2019. We categorized patients by readmission and analyzed their clinical parameters. @*Results@#Of the 345 patients who transferred to ward-level care after an initial ICU stay (Group 2), 27 (7.3%) were readmitted to the ICU (Group 1). History of hypertension (HTN), initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, modified Fisher grade, and vasospasm therapy during first ICU stay were significantly different between the groups. The most common reason for readmission was delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI; 70.3%; OR 5.545; 95% CI 1.25−24.52; p=0.024). Comorbid HTN (OR 5.311; 95% CI 1.75−16.12; p=0.03) and vasospasm therapy during first ICU stay (OR 7.234; 95% CI 2.41−21.7; p<0.01) also were associated with readmission. Readmitted patients had longer hospital stay and lower GCS scores at discharge (p<0.01). @*Conclusions@#DCI was the most common cause of ICU readmission in patients with aSAH. Readmission may indicate clinical deterioration, and patients who are at a high risk for DCI should be monitored to prevent readmission.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892421

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: The fate of partially thrombosed intracranial aneurysms (PTIAs) is not well known after endovascular treatment. The authors aimed to analyze the treatment outcomes of PTIAs. @*Methods@#: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 27 PTIAs treated with endovascular intervention between January 1999 and March 2018. Twenty-one aneurysms were treated with intraluminal embolization (ILE), and six were treated with parent artery occlusion (PAO) with or without bypass surgery. Radiological results, clinical outcomes and risk factors for major recurrence were assessed. @*Results@#: The initial clinical status was similar in both groups; however, the last status was better in the ILE group than in the PAO group (p=0.049). Neurological deterioration resulted from mass effect in one case and rupture in one after ILE, and mass effect in two and perforator infarction in one after PAO. Twenty cases (94.2%) in the ILE group initially achieved complete occlusion or residual neck status. However, 13 cases (61.9%) showed major recurrence, the major causes of which included coil migration or compaction. Seven cases (33.3%) ultimately achieved residual sac status after repeat treatment. In the PAO group, all initially showed complete occlusion or a residual neck, and just one case ultimately had a residual sac. Two cases showed major recurrence, the cause of which was incomplete PAO. Aneurysm wall calcification was the only significantly protective factor against major recurrence (odds ratio, 36.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.85 to 705.18; p=0.018). @*Conclusion@#: Complete PAO of PTIAs is the best option if treatment-related complications can be minimized. Simple fluoroscopy is a useful imaging modality because of the recurrence pattern.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835656

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The role of surgery in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is still controversial. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) compared to conventional surgery (CS) for supratentorial sICH. @*Methods@#The medical data of 70 patients with surgically treated supratentorial sICH were retrospectively reviewed. MIS was performed in 35 patients, and CS was performed in 35 patients. The surgical technique was selected based on the neurological status and radiological findings, such as hematoma volume, neurological status and spot signs on computed tomographic angiography. Treatment outcomes, prognostic factors and the usefulness of the spot sign were analyzed. @*Results@#Clinical states in both groups were statistically similar, preoperatively, and in 1 and 3 months after surgery. Both groups showed significant progressive improvement till 3 months after surgery. Better preoperative neurological status, more hematoma removal and intensive care unit (ICU) stay ≤7 days were the significant prognostic factors for favorable 3-month clinical outcomes (odds ratio [OR] 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.96, p=0.04; OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08, p=0.02; OR 26.31, 95% CI 2.46-280.95, p=0.01, respectively). Initial hematoma volume and MIS were significant prognostic factors for a short ICU stay (≤7 days; OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.99; p=0.01; OR 3.91, 95% CI 1.03-14.82, p=0.045, respectively). No patients in the MIS group experienced hematoma expansion before surgery or postoperative rebleeding. @*Conclusions@#MIS was not inferior to CS in terms of clinical outcomes. The spot sign seems to be an effective radiological marker for predicting hematoma expansion and determining the surgical technique.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788807

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Intracranial aneurysms are not common in young age patients. We sought to find the characteristics of the intracranial aneurysms in patients under 20 years of age.METHODS: We reviewed 23 consecutive patients ≤20 years of age treated for their intracranial aneurysms during the period from 1995 to 2017. From medical records and imaging studies, we gathered data on age, sex, presentation, associated medical condition, location and characteristics of aneurysms, treatment and clinical outcomes.RESULTS: The patients’ ages ranged from 13 months to 20 years (median, 14 years). There were 16 males and seven females (male to female ratio, 2.3 : 1) with 31 aneurysms. Clinical presentations included sudden severe headache in 61%, followed by altered mentality in 17% and seizure in 17%. More than one-fourth patients had specific medical conditions related to the development of the cerebral aneurysms. The majority of aneurysms occurred in the anterior circulation (71%), and were saccular (71%). There were each three patients with false aneurysms (13%) and giant aneurysms (13%), and only one patient with multiple aneurysms (4%). We treated 22 patients : 21 aneurysms with the endovascular methods, three with open surgery, and one with combined treatment. Good functional outcome could be achieved in 86% during the follow-up period.CONCLUSION: In this series, the young-age patients with intracranial aneurysms were characterized by male predominance, related specific medical conditions, low incidence of multiple aneurysms, high incidence of giant aneurysms and good functional outcome after treatment.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Aneurysm , Aneurysm, False , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Aneurysm , Male , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Risk Factors , Seizures , Treatment Outcome
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Intracranial aneurysms are not common in young age patients. We sought to find the characteristics of the intracranial aneurysms in patients under 20 years of age. METHODS: We reviewed 23 consecutive patients ≤20 years of age treated for their intracranial aneurysms during the period from 1995 to 2017. From medical records and imaging studies, we gathered data on age, sex, presentation, associated medical condition, location and characteristics of aneurysms, treatment and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The patients’ ages ranged from 13 months to 20 years (median, 14 years). There were 16 males and seven females (male to female ratio, 2.3 : 1) with 31 aneurysms. Clinical presentations included sudden severe headache in 61%, followed by altered mentality in 17% and seizure in 17%. More than one-fourth patients had specific medical conditions related to the development of the cerebral aneurysms. The majority of aneurysms occurred in the anterior circulation (71%), and were saccular (71%). There were each three patients with false aneurysms (13%) and giant aneurysms (13%), and only one patient with multiple aneurysms (4%). We treated 22 patients : 21 aneurysms with the endovascular methods, three with open surgery, and one with combined treatment. Good functional outcome could be achieved in 86% during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: In this series, the young-age patients with intracranial aneurysms were characterized by male predominance, related specific medical conditions, low incidence of multiple aneurysms, high incidence of giant aneurysms and good functional outcome after treatment.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Aneurysm , Aneurysm, False , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Aneurysm , Male , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Risk Factors , Seizures , Treatment Outcome
9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1390-1398, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coiled aneurysms are known to recanalize over time, making follow-up evaluations mandatory. Although de novo intracranial aneurysms (DNIAs) are occasionally detected during routine patient monitoring, such events have not been thoroughly investigated to date. Herein, we generated estimates of DNIA development during long-term observation of coiled cerebral aneurysms, focusing on incidence and the risk factors involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 773 patients undergoing coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms between 2008 and 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Their medical records and radiologic data accrued over the extended period (mean, 52.7 ± 29.7 months) were analyzed. For the detection of DNIA, follow-up magnetic resonance angiography and/or conventional angiography were used. The incidence of DNIAs and related risk factors were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimator. RESULTS: In 19 (2.5%) of the 773 patients with coiled aneurysms, DNIAs (0.56% per patient-year) developed during continued long-term monitoring (3395.3 patient-years). Of these, 9 DNIAs (47.4%) were detected within 60 months, with 10 (52.6%) emerging thereafter. The most common site involved was the posterior communicating artery (n = 6), followed by the middle cerebral artery (n = 5) and the basilar top (n = 4). Multivariate analysis indicated that younger age ( 60 years; p < 0.001) and in the absence of post-coiling aneurysm recurrence (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: In most patients with coiled aneurysms, development of DNIAs during long-term monitoring is rare. However, younger patients (< 50 years) or patients with recurring aneurysms appear to be predisposed to DNIAs.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Angiography , Arteries , Embolization, Therapeutic , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Intracranial Aneurysm , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Medical Records , Middle Cerebral Artery , Monitoring, Physiologic , Multivariate Analysis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Survival Rate
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765248

ABSTRACT

Despite advancements in treating ruptured cerebral aneurysms, an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is still a grave cerebrovascular disease associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Based on the literature published to date, worldwide academic and governmental committees have developed clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to propose standards for disease management in order to achieve the best treatment outcomes for aSAHs. In 2013, the Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgeons issued a Korean version of the CPGs for aSAHs. The group researched all articles and major foreign CPGs published in English until December 2015 using several search engines. Based on these articles, levels of evidence and grades of recommendations were determined by our society as well as by other related Quality Control Committees from neurointervention, neurology and rehabilitation medicine. The Korean version of the CPGs for aSAHs includes risk factors, diagnosis, initial management, medical and surgical management to prevent rebleeding, management of delayed cerebral ischemia and vasospasm, treatment of hydrocephalus, treatment of medical complications and early rehabilitation. The CPGs are not the absolute standard but are the present reference as the evidence is still incomplete, each environment of clinical practice is different, and there is a high probability of variation in the current recommendations. The CPGs will be useful in the fields of clinical practice and research.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Brain Ischemia , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Diagnosis , Disease Management , Hydrocephalus , Intracranial Aneurysm , Mortality , Neurology , Quality Control , Rehabilitation , Risk Factors , Search Engine , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Surgeons
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717865

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mirror aneurysms are generally considered as a subset of multiple aneurysms, defined as aneurysms occurring bilaterally and symmetrically on the same-named vessels. Although not infrequent, the characteristics of mirror aneurysms are not well studied. This investigation was conducted to elucidate the anatomic features of such lesions and examine treatment options. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted, aimed at 172 patients treated for 344 mirror aneurysms between January 2007 and December 2015. Aneurysms of similar nature but in asymmetric locations on the same-named vessels were excluded. All available records were examined and lesion characteristics, as well as treatment outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: In study subjects (n = 172), mirror aneurysms most often involved middle cerebral artery bifurcation (n = 83), followed by a paraclinoid internal carotid artery (n = 50) and posterior communicating artery (n = 21). Most of the lesions (95.3%) measured ≤ 10 mm, and in 126 patients (74.6%), the size ratios were > 50%. Of the 344 aneurysms studied, coil embolization was undertaken in 217, surgical clipping in 62, and observation alone (no treatment) in 65. Coil embolization and surgical clipping were done bilaterally in 83 and 12 patients, respectively. In 12 patients, combined coiling and clipping were implemented on each side. Single-stage coil embolization of both the aneurysms was performed in 73 patients, with excellent post-procedural (85.6%) and follow-up (86.8%) occlusive results. There was no procedure-related morbidity or mortality. CONCLUSION: By adopting different treatment strategies to different configurations and vascular sources, mirror aneurysms can be safely and effectively treated. If feasible, single-stage coil embolization should be considered as a reasonable treatment option for mirror aneurysms.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Arteries , Carotid Artery, Internal , Embolization, Therapeutic , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Middle Cerebral Artery , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Instruments
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713863

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Bilateral cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSdAVF) is very rare, even in Asian countries. The research intended to present clinical and radiologic outcomes of treating such fistulas through endovascular embolization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was obtained from 220 consecutive patients, with CSdAVF, who were treated from January 2004 to December 2015. Bilateral CSdAVF was identified in 17 patients (7.7%). The clinical and radiologic outcomes of the fistulas were assessed with an emphasis on the technical aspects of treatment. RESULTS: At the time of treatment, 7 and 10 patients presented with bilateral and unilateral symptoms, respectively. In the former cases, 4 patients had progressed from unilateral to bilateral symptoms. Bilateral fistulas were treated with a single-stage transvenous embolization (TVE) in 15 patients, via bilateral inferior petrosal sinuses (IPS) (n = 9) and unilateral IPS (n = 6). In the other 2 patients with one-sided dominance of shunting, only dominant fistula was treated. Two untreated lesions were found on follow-up to have spontaneously resolved after treatment of the dominant contralateral fistula. Of the 34 CSdAVF lesions, complete occlusion was achieved in 32 lesions after TVE. Seven patients (41.2%) developed worsening of cranial nerve palsy after TVE. During the follow-up period, 4 patients obtained complete recovery, whereas the other 3 remained with deficits. CONCLUSION: With adjustments of endovascular procedures to accommodate distinct anatomical configurations, endovascular treatment for bilateral CSdAVF can achieve excellent angiographic occlusion results. However, aggravation of symptoms after TVE may occur frequently in bilateral CSdAVF. In the patients with one-sided dominance of shunt, treatment of only dominant fistula might be an alternative option.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Fistula , Asians , Cavernous Sinus , Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Endovascular Procedures , Fistula , Follow-Up Studies , Humans
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717043

ABSTRACT

Cavernous malformations (CMs) are angiographically occult vascular lesions, and their clinical presentations vary widely according to location of the lesion. Here, we reviewed three cases of CM located at the optic apparatus. All three patients experienced visual deterioration and underwent surgical resection. One achieved complete resection of the CM, whereas the others achieved subtotal resection. Visual symptoms of the two patients who achieved subtotal resection improved, but the visual symptom of the patient who achieved complete resection remained unchanged. One patient with subtotal resection presented postoperative improvement of visual symptoms but experienced deterioration in two years after surgical resection due to rebleeding from the remnant lesion, and he required a second operation. We recommend total resection of CM when feasible and regular follow-up after subtotal resection due to the risk of rebleeding.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Hemangioma, Cavernous , Hemorrhage , Humans , Optic Nerve
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sudden neurological deterioration which cannot be explained by structural change, ischemia or seizure is often observed among neurosurgical patients. We aimed to provide new insight into the pathophysiology of postoperative transient neurologic dysfunction. METHODS: We describe prolonged but fully reversible focal neurologic dysfunction of unknown origin based on the initial evaluation in 8 patients who had received encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis for moyamoya disease. We performed brain imaging, including diffusion weighted imaging and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging or single photon emission computed tomography, and electroencephalography (EEG) during the episodes and after resolution of the symptoms. RESULTS: The symptoms consisted of dysarthria, hemiparesis, or hemiparesthesia of limbs contralateral to the operated side. These symptoms developed between 12 hours and 8 days after surgery and lasted between 12 hours and 17 days. Structural imaging did not show any significant interval change compared with the immediate postoperative images. Perfusion imaging showed increased cerebral blood flow in the symptomatic hemisphere. EEG revealed low amplitude arrhythmic slowing in the corresponding hemisphere. Follow-up imaging and EEG after recovery did not show any abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Transient neurologic dysfunction can occur during the postoperative period of brain surgery. Although this may last more than usual transient ischemic attack or seizure, it eventually resolves regardless of treatment. Based on our observation, we propose that this is the manifestation of the transient cortical depression triggered by mechanical stimulation, analogous to migraine aura associated with cortical spreading depression.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Cortical Spreading Depression , Depression , Diffusion , Dysarthria , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy , Extremities , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Ischemia , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Migraine Disorders , Moyamoya Disease , Neuroimaging , Neurologic Manifestations , Paresis , Perfusion Imaging , Postoperative Period , Seizures , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788678

ABSTRACT

Despite advancements in treating ruptured cerebral aneurysms, an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is still a grave cerebrovascular disease associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Based on the literature published to date, worldwide academic and governmental committees have developed clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to propose standards for disease management in order to achieve the best treatment outcomes for aSAHs. In 2013, the Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgeons issued a Korean version of the CPGs for aSAHs. The group researched all articles and major foreign CPGs published in English until December 2015 using several search engines. Based on these articles, levels of evidence and grades of recommendations were determined by our society as well as by other related Quality Control Committees from neurointervention, neurology and rehabilitation medicine. The Korean version of the CPGs for aSAHs includes risk factors, diagnosis, initial management, medical and surgical management to prevent rebleeding, management of delayed cerebral ischemia and vasospasm, treatment of hydrocephalus, treatment of medical complications and early rehabilitation. The CPGs are not the absolute standard but are the present reference as the evidence is still incomplete, each environment of clinical practice is different, and there is a high probability of variation in the current recommendations. The CPGs will be useful in the fields of clinical practice and research.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Brain Ischemia , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Diagnosis , Disease Management , Hydrocephalus , Intracranial Aneurysm , Mortality , Neurology , Quality Control , Rehabilitation , Risk Factors , Search Engine , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Surgeons
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56972

ABSTRACT

Treating diseases in the field of neurosurgery has progressed concomitantly with technical advances. Here, as a surgical armamentarium for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms, the history and present status of the keyhole approach and the use of neuroendoscopy are reviewed, including our clinical data. The major significance of keyhole approach is to expose an essential space toward a target, and to minimize brain exposure and retraction. Among several kinds of keyhole approaches, representative keyhole approaches for anterior circulation aneurysms include superciliary and lateral supraorbital, frontolateral, mini-pterional and mini-interhemispheric approaches. Because only a fixed and limited approach angle toward a target is permitted via the keyhole, however, specialized surgical devices and preoperative planning are very important. Neuroendoscopy has helped to widen the indications of keyhole approaches because it can supply illumination and visualization of structures beyond the straight line of microscopic view. In addition, endoscopic indocyanine green fluorescence angiography is useful to detect and correct any compromise of the perforators and parent arteries, and incomplete clipping. The authors think that keyhole approach and neuroendoscopy are just an intermediate step and robotic neurosurgery would be realized in the near future.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Arteries , Brain , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Indocyanine Green , Intracranial Aneurysm , Lighting , Neuroendoscopy , Neurosurgery , Parents
17.
Journal of Stroke ; : 21-30, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135897

ABSTRACT

Although the pathogenesis of moyamoya disease (MMD) has not been fully elucidated, the effectiveness of surgical revascularization in preventing stroke has been addressed by many studies. The main mechanism of surgical revascularization is augmenting the intracranial blood flow using an external carotid system by either direct bypass or pial synangiosis. This can improve resting cerebral blood flow as well as vascular reserve capacity. For direct revascularization, the superficial temporal artery is used as the donor artery in most cases, although the occipital artery may be used in limited cases. Usually, the cortical branch of the middle cerebral artery is selected as the recipient of direct anastomosis. As for indirect revascularization, various techniques using different kinds of connective tissues have been introduced. In some cases, reinforcing the anterior cerebral artery and the posterior cerebral artery territories can be considered. The effectiveness of surgical revascularization for preventing ischemic stroke had been generally accepted by many studies. However, for preventing hemorrhagic stroke, new evidence has been added by a recent randomized controlled trial. The incidence of peri-operative complications such as stroke and hyperperfusion syndrome seems to be high due to the nature of the disease and technical demands for treatment. Preventing and adequately managing these complications are essential for ensuring the benefits of surgery.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Cerebral Revascularization , Connective Tissue , Humans , Incidence , Middle Cerebral Artery , Moyamoya Disease , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Stroke , Temporal Arteries , Tissue Donors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Journal of Stroke ; : 21-30, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-135892

ABSTRACT

Although the pathogenesis of moyamoya disease (MMD) has not been fully elucidated, the effectiveness of surgical revascularization in preventing stroke has been addressed by many studies. The main mechanism of surgical revascularization is augmenting the intracranial blood flow using an external carotid system by either direct bypass or pial synangiosis. This can improve resting cerebral blood flow as well as vascular reserve capacity. For direct revascularization, the superficial temporal artery is used as the donor artery in most cases, although the occipital artery may be used in limited cases. Usually, the cortical branch of the middle cerebral artery is selected as the recipient of direct anastomosis. As for indirect revascularization, various techniques using different kinds of connective tissues have been introduced. In some cases, reinforcing the anterior cerebral artery and the posterior cerebral artery territories can be considered. The effectiveness of surgical revascularization for preventing ischemic stroke had been generally accepted by many studies. However, for preventing hemorrhagic stroke, new evidence has been added by a recent randomized controlled trial. The incidence of peri-operative complications such as stroke and hyperperfusion syndrome seems to be high due to the nature of the disease and technical demands for treatment. Preventing and adequately managing these complications are essential for ensuring the benefits of surgery.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cerebral Artery , Arteries , Cerebral Revascularization , Connective Tissue , Humans , Incidence , Middle Cerebral Artery , Moyamoya Disease , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Stroke , Temporal Arteries , Tissue Donors , Treatment Outcome
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Outcomes of stent-assisted coil embolization (SACE) have not been well established in the setting of vertebrobasilar dissecting aneurysms (VBDAs) due to the low percentage of cases that need treatment and the array of available therapeutic options. Herein, we presented clinical and radiographic results of SACE in patients with VBDAs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 47 patients (M:F, 30:17; mean age ± SD, 53.7 ± 12.6 years), with a VBDA who underwent SACE between 2008 and 2014 at two institutions were evaluated retrospectively. Medical records and radiologic data were analyzed to assess the outcome of SACE procedures. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to determine the factors that were associated with aneurysmal recanalization after SACE. RESULTS: Stent-assisted coil embolization technically succeeded in all patients. Three cerebellar infarctions occurred on postembolization day 1, week 2, and month 2, but no other procedure-related complications developed. Immediately following SACE, 25 aneurysms (53.2%) showed no contrast filling into the aneurysmal sac. During a mean follow-up of 20.2 months, 37 lesions (78.7%) appeared completely occluded, whereas 10 lesions showed recanalization, 5 of which required additional embolization. Overall recanalization rate was 12.64% per lesion-year, and mean postoperative time to recanalization was 18 months (range, 3-36 months). In multivariable analysis, major branch involvement (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.28; p = 0.013) and the presence of residual sac filling (HR: 8.49, p = 0.044) were identified as statistically significant independent predictors of recanalization. No bleeding was encountered in follow-up monitoring. CONCLUSION: Stent-assisted coil embolization appears feasible and safe for treatment of VBDAs. Long-term results were acceptable in a majority of patients studied, despite a relatively high rate of incomplete occlusion immediately after SACE. Major branch involvement and coiled aneurysms with residual sac filling may predispose to recanalization.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Dissecting , Embolization, Therapeutic , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Infarction , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Stents
20.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1109-1118, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The dual microcatheter technique is common practice for coil embolization of a wide-necked aneurysm, due to safety and efficacy. However, technical limitations of some complex configurations may necessitate additional microcatheters to bolster coil stability, compact the coil, or for protection. Described herein is a triple microcatheter technique for endovascular management of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data accruing prospectively between January 2006 and October 2014 on simultaneously executed triple microcatheter coil embolization procedures done in 38 saccular aneurysms were reviewed. Clinical and morphological outcomes were assessed, with emphasis on technical aspects of treatment. RESULTS: The triple microcatheter technique was successfully applied to all 38 saccular aneurysms, involving the posterior communicating artery (n = 13), the middle cerebral artery (n = 10), the basilar tip (n = 7), the anterior cerebral artery (n = 5), and the internal carotid artery (n = 3). Stent protection was added in four patients and balloon remodeling in one. Dual microcatheters (n = 24) were usually deployed to deliver the coil within sacs of aneurysms, with the additional microcatheter used for protection. Otherwise, triple microcatheters were deployed for coil delivery (n = 11) or coils were delivered via a single microcatheter, with dual microcatheters deployed for protection (n = 3). Successful occlusion of aneurysms was achieved in 89.5% of cases, with no procedure-related morbidity or mortality. Stable occlusion was maintained in 72.2% (26/36) of the aneurysms at the final follow-up (mean interval, 30.2 +/- 22.7 months). CONCLUSION: The outcomes of this limited study suggest that the triple microcatheter technique may be an effective and safe therapeutic option for wide-necked aneurysms, using technical strategies tailored to complex angio-anatomic configurations.


Subject(s)
Aged , Angiography , Carotid Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Embolization, Therapeutic , Female , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Stents
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