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1.
Journal of the Korean Fracture Society ; : 148-161, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001668

ABSTRACT

Acute fracture-related infection (FRI) is a common and serious complication of fracture treatment. The clinical symptoms of the patient and the results of the serological, radiological, and histopathologi-cal examinations can be divided into ‘Confirmatory’ criteria and ‘Suggestive’ criteria, allowing for the diagnosis of FRI. Treatment principles can be broadly categorized into (1) the DAIR (Debridement, Antimicrobial therapy, Implant Retention) method and (2) the staged reconstruction method. The choice of treatment depends on factors such as the time elapsed after infection, stability of the internal fixation device, reduction status, host physiology, and virulence of the pathogens. Thorough surgical debridement and irrigation, ensuring stability at the fracture site, reconstruction of bone defects, and appropriate soft tissue coverage, along with antibiotic therapy, are essential to suppress or eradicate the infection. The restoration of limb function should be promoted through proper soft tissue coverage and bone union at the fracture site.

2.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 410-418, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000111

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has multiple negative impacts on the psychiatric health of both those previously infected and not infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Moreover, the negative impacts of COVID-19 are closely associated with geographical region, culture, medical system, and ethnic background. We summarized the evidence of the impact of COVID-19 on the psychiatric health of the Korean population. This narrative review included thirteen research articles, which investigated the impact of COVID-19 on the psychiatric health of Koreans. COVID-19 survivors were reported to have a 2.4 times greater risk of developing psychiatric disorders compared to members of a control group, and anxiety and stress-related disorders were the most common newly diagnosed psychiatric illnesses. Studies also reported that COVID-19 survivors had a 3.33-fold higher prevalence of insomnia, a 2.72-fold higher prevalence of mild cognitive impairment, and a 3.09-fold higher prevalence of dementia compared to the control group. In addition, more than four studies have highlighted that the medical staff members, including nurses and medical students, exhibit a greater negative psychiatric impact of COVID-19. However, none of the articles investigated the biological pathophysiology or mechanism linking COVID-19 and the risk of diverse psychiatric disorders. Moreover, none of the studies were actual prospective studies. Thus, longitudinal studies are needed to more clearly elucidate the effect of COVID-19 on the psychiatric health of the Korean population. Lastly, studies focusing on preventing and treating COVID-19–associated psychiatric problems are needed to provide a benefit in real clinical settings.

3.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 13-17, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913904

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of neurodegeneration. It is characterized by deposits of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and impaired memory. Microglia are associated with AD. They are activated in the AD brain and AD models. However, the exact role of microglia has not been established. We thus investigated the role of microglia in AD models using a primary culture and an ex-vivo assay. We showed that oligomerized Aβ is toxic to neurons in the primary culture. In the ex-vivo assay, a microglial cell line removed amyloid plaques in the brain of 5XFAD (AD model) mice. To verify if microglia can be protective for the neuron, we co-cultured neurons with primary microglia and treated them with Aβ. The loss of neurons, induced by amyloid toxicity, was attenuated by co-cultured microglia. Taken together, our data suggest that microglia promote neuronal survival by phagocytic clearance of Aβ in AD models.

4.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 409-418, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966839

ABSTRACT

Till date, researchers have been developing animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in various species to understand the pathological characterization and molecular mechanistic pathways associated with this condition in humans to identify potential therapeutic treatments. A widely recognized AD model that mimics the pathology of human AD involves the intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection with streptozotocin (STZ).However, ICV injection as an invasive approach has several limitations related to complicated surgical procedures. Therefore, in the present study, we created a customized stereotaxic frame using the XperCT-guided system for injecting STZ in cynomolgus monkeys, aiming to establish an AD model. The anatomical structures surrounding the cisterna magna (CM) were confirmed using CT/MRI fusion images of monkey brain with XperCT, the c-arm cone beam computed tomography. XperCT was used to determine the appropriate direction in which the needle tip should be inserted within the CM region. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected to confirm the accurate target site when STZ was injected into the CM.Cynomolgus monkeys were administered STZ dissolved in artificial CSF once every week for 4 weeks via intracisterna magna (ICM) injection using XperCT-guided stereotactic system. The molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of STZ-induced AD pathology were analyzed two weeks after the final injection. The monkeys subjected to XperCT-based STZ injection via the ICM route showed features of AD pathology, including markedly enhanced neuronal loss, synaptic impairment, and tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus. These findings suggest a new approach for the construction of neurodegenerative disease models and development of therapeutic strategies.

5.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 466-473, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937376

ABSTRACT

Background@#To date, few studies have investigated the feasibility of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for identifying pathogens in tissue samples. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of LAMP for the rapid detection of methicillin-susceptible or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA or MRSA) in tissue samples, using a bead-beating DNA extraction method. @*Methods@#Twenty tissue samples infected with either MSSA (n = 10) or MRSA (n = 10) were obtained from patients who underwent orthopedic surgery for suspected musculoskeletal infection between December 2019 and September 2020. DNA was extracted from the infected tissue samples using the bead-beating method. A multiplex LAMP assay was conducted to identify MSSA and MRSA infections. To recognize the Staphylococcus genus, S. aureus, and methicillin resistance, 3 sets of 6 primers for the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) and the femA and mecA genes were used, respectively. The limit of detection and sensitivity (detection rate) of the LAMP assay for diagnosing MSSA and MRSA infection were analyzed. @*Results@#The LAMP result was positive for samples containing 10 3 colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL for 16S rRNA, 10 4 CFU/mL for femA, and 10 5 CFU/mL formecA. The limits of detection for 16S rRNA and femA were not different between MSSA and MRSA. For the 10 MSSA-positive samples, the LAMP assay showed 100% positive reactions for 16S rRNA and femA and a 100% negative reaction for mecA. For the 10 MRSA-positive samples, the LAMP assay showed 100% positive reactions for 16S rRNA and mecA but only 90% positive reactions for femA. The sensitivity (detection rate) of the LAMP assay for identifying MSSA and MRSA in infected tissue samples was 100% and 90%, respectively. @*Conclusions@#The results of this study suggest that the LAMP assay performed with tissue DNA samples can be a useful diagnostic method for the rapid detection of musculoskeletal infections caused by MSSA and MRSA.

6.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 348-359, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937230

ABSTRACT

Gastric adenocarcinoma is among the top causes of cancer-related death and is one of the most commonly diagnosed carcinomas worldwide. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) has been reported to inhibit the gastric cancer metastasis. In our previous study, BITC induced apoptosis in AGS cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of BITC on autophagy mechanism in AGS cells. First, the AGS cells were treated with 5, 10, or 15 μM BITC for 24 h, followed by an analysis of the autophagy mechanism. The expression level of autophagy proteins involved in different steps of autophagy, such as LC3B, p62/SQSTM1, Atg5-Atg12, Beclin1, p-mTOR/mTOR ratio, and class III PI3K was measured in the BITC-treated cells. Lysosomal function was investigated using cathepsin activity and Bafilomycin A1, an autophagy degradation stage inhibitor. Methods including qPCR, western blotting, and immunocytochemistry were employed to detect the protein expression levels. Acridine orange staining and omnicathepsin assay were conducted to analyze the lysosomal function. siRNA transfection was performed to knock down the LC3B gene. BITC reduced the level of autophagy protein such as Beclin 1, class III PI3K, and Atg5-Atg12. BITC also induced lysosomal dysfunction which was shown as reducing cathepsin activity, protein level of cathepsin, and enlargement of acidic vesicle. Overall, the results showed that the BITC-induced AGS cell death mechanism also comprises the inhibition of the cytoprotective autophagy at both initiation and degradation steps.

7.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 507-515, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919333

ABSTRACT

Postoperative ileus (POI), a symptom that occurs after abdominal surgery, reduces gastrointestinal motility. Although its mechanism is unclear, POI symptoms are known to be caused by inflammation 6 to 72 h after surgery. As proton pump inhibitors exhibit protective effect against acute inflammation, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ilaprazole on a POI rat model. POI was induced in rats by abdominal surgery. Rats were divided into six groups: control: normal rat + 0.5% CMC-Na, vehicle: POI rat + 0.5% CMC-Na, mosapride: POI rat + mosapride 2 mg/kg, ilaprazole 1 mg/kg: POI rat + ilaprazole 1 mg/kg, ilaprazole 3 mg/kg: POI rat + ilaprazole 3 mg/kg, and ilaprazole 10 mg/kg: POI rat + ilaprazole 10 mg/kg. Gastrointestinal motility was confirmed by measuring gastric emptying (GE) and gastrointestinal transit (GIT). In the small intestine, inflammation was confirmed by measuring TNF-α and IL-1β; oxidative stress was confirmed by SOD, GSH, and MDA levels; and histological changes were observed by H&E staining. Based on the findings, GE and GIT were decreased in the vehicle group and improved in the ilaprazole 10 mg/kg group. In the ilaprazole 10 mg/kg group, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were decreased, SOD and GSH levels were increased, and MDA levels were decreased. Histological damage was also reduced in the ilaprazole-treated groups. These findings suggest that ilaprazole prevents the decrease in gastrointestinal motility, a major symptom of postoperative ileus, and reduces inflammation and oxidative stress.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 742-750, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902473

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To assess the safety and clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic enteral stent placement for recurrent malignant obstruction in patients with surgically altered bowel anatomy. @*Materials and Methods@#Between July 2009 and May 2019, 36 patients (27 men and 9 women; mean age, 62.7 ± 12.0 years) underwent percutaneous transhepatic stent placement for recurrent malignant bowel obstruction after surgery. In all patients, conventional endoscopic peroral stent placement failed due to altered bowel anatomy. The stent was placed with a transhepatic approach for an afferent loop obstruction (n = 27) with a combined transhepatic and peroral approach for simultaneous stent placement in afferent and efferent loop obstruction (n = 9). Technical and clinical success, complications, stent patency, and patient survival were retrospectively evaluated. @*Results@#The stent placement was technically successful in all patients. Clinical success was achieved in 30 patients (83.3%). Three patients required re-intervention (balloon dilatation [n = 1] and additional stent placement [n = 2] for insufficient stent expansion). Major complications included transhepatic access-related perihepatic biloma (n = 2), hepatic artery bleeding (n = 2), bowel perforation (n = 1), and sepsis (n = 1). The 3- and 12-months stent patency and patient survival rates were 91.2%, 66.5% and 78.9%, 47.9%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Percutaneous enteral stent placement using transhepatic access for recurrent malignant obstruction in patients with surgically altered bowel anatomy is safe and clinically efficacious. Transhepatic access is a good alternative route for afferent loop obstruction and can be combined with a peroral approach for simultaneous afferent and efferent loop obstruction.

9.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 461-481, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

10.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 419-426, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897306

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of treatment with a combination of evogliptin and leucine, a branchedchain amino acid, in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Treatment with evogliptin alone or in combination with leucine reduced the body weight of the mice, compared to the case for those from the HFD control group. Long-term treatment with evogliptin alone or in combination with leucine resulted in a significant reduction in glucose intolerance; however, leucine alone did not affect postprandial glucose control, compared to the case for the mice from the HFD control group. Furthermore, the combination of evogliptin and leucine prevented HFD-induced insulin resistance, which was associated with improved homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, accompanied by markedly reduced liver fat deposition, hepatic triglyceride content, and plasma alanine aminotransferase levels. The combination of evogliptin and leucine increased the gene expression levels of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, whereas those of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 were not altered, compared to the case in the HFD-fed mice (p<0.05). Thus, our results suggest that the combination of evogliptin and leucine may be beneficial for treating patients with type 2 diabetes and hepatic steatosis; however, further studies are needed to delineate the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of this combination.

11.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 353-364, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897299

ABSTRACT

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a series of hollow organs that is responsible for the digestion and absorption of ingested foods and the excretion of waste. Any changes in the GI tract can lead to GI disorders. GI disorders are highly prevalent in the population and account for substantial morbidity, mortality, and healthcare utilization. GI disorders can be functional, or organic with structural changes. Functional GI disorders include functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Organic GI disorders include inflammation of the GI tract due to chronic infection, drugs, trauma, and other causes. Recent studies have highlighted a new explanatory mechanism for GI disorders. It has been suggested that autophagy, an intracellular homeostatic mechanism, also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GI disorders. Autophagy has three primary forms: macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy. It may affect intestinal homeostasis, host defense against intestinal pathogens, regulation of the gut microbiota, and innate and adaptive immunity. Drugs targeting autophagy could, therefore, have therapeutic potential for treating GI disorders. In this review, we provide an overview of current understanding regarding the evidence for autophagy in GI diseases and updates on potential treatments, including drugs and complementary and alternative medicines.

12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 742-750, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894769

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To assess the safety and clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic enteral stent placement for recurrent malignant obstruction in patients with surgically altered bowel anatomy. @*Materials and Methods@#Between July 2009 and May 2019, 36 patients (27 men and 9 women; mean age, 62.7 ± 12.0 years) underwent percutaneous transhepatic stent placement for recurrent malignant bowel obstruction after surgery. In all patients, conventional endoscopic peroral stent placement failed due to altered bowel anatomy. The stent was placed with a transhepatic approach for an afferent loop obstruction (n = 27) with a combined transhepatic and peroral approach for simultaneous stent placement in afferent and efferent loop obstruction (n = 9). Technical and clinical success, complications, stent patency, and patient survival were retrospectively evaluated. @*Results@#The stent placement was technically successful in all patients. Clinical success was achieved in 30 patients (83.3%). Three patients required re-intervention (balloon dilatation [n = 1] and additional stent placement [n = 2] for insufficient stent expansion). Major complications included transhepatic access-related perihepatic biloma (n = 2), hepatic artery bleeding (n = 2), bowel perforation (n = 1), and sepsis (n = 1). The 3- and 12-months stent patency and patient survival rates were 91.2%, 66.5% and 78.9%, 47.9%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Percutaneous enteral stent placement using transhepatic access for recurrent malignant obstruction in patients with surgically altered bowel anatomy is safe and clinically efficacious. Transhepatic access is a good alternative route for afferent loop obstruction and can be combined with a peroral approach for simultaneous afferent and efferent loop obstruction.

13.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 461-481, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890348

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

14.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 419-426, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889602

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of treatment with a combination of evogliptin and leucine, a branchedchain amino acid, in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Treatment with evogliptin alone or in combination with leucine reduced the body weight of the mice, compared to the case for those from the HFD control group. Long-term treatment with evogliptin alone or in combination with leucine resulted in a significant reduction in glucose intolerance; however, leucine alone did not affect postprandial glucose control, compared to the case for the mice from the HFD control group. Furthermore, the combination of evogliptin and leucine prevented HFD-induced insulin resistance, which was associated with improved homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, accompanied by markedly reduced liver fat deposition, hepatic triglyceride content, and plasma alanine aminotransferase levels. The combination of evogliptin and leucine increased the gene expression levels of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, whereas those of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 were not altered, compared to the case in the HFD-fed mice (p<0.05). Thus, our results suggest that the combination of evogliptin and leucine may be beneficial for treating patients with type 2 diabetes and hepatic steatosis; however, further studies are needed to delineate the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of this combination.

15.
Biomolecules & Therapeutics ; : 353-364, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889595

ABSTRACT

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a series of hollow organs that is responsible for the digestion and absorption of ingested foods and the excretion of waste. Any changes in the GI tract can lead to GI disorders. GI disorders are highly prevalent in the population and account for substantial morbidity, mortality, and healthcare utilization. GI disorders can be functional, or organic with structural changes. Functional GI disorders include functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Organic GI disorders include inflammation of the GI tract due to chronic infection, drugs, trauma, and other causes. Recent studies have highlighted a new explanatory mechanism for GI disorders. It has been suggested that autophagy, an intracellular homeostatic mechanism, also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of GI disorders. Autophagy has three primary forms: macroautophagy, microautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy. It may affect intestinal homeostasis, host defense against intestinal pathogens, regulation of the gut microbiota, and innate and adaptive immunity. Drugs targeting autophagy could, therefore, have therapeutic potential for treating GI disorders. In this review, we provide an overview of current understanding regarding the evidence for autophagy in GI diseases and updates on potential treatments, including drugs and complementary and alternative medicines.

16.
Mood and Emotion ; (2): 57-64, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918499

ABSTRACT

Background@#Children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression present with different clinical characteristics compared to those without other psychiatric comorbidities (i.e., ADHD alone). This study aimed to determine the differences in clinical characteristics, complaints, and referral routes between patients with ADHD with and without depression. @*Methods@#The study included 1,231 children and adolescents in Korea. The demographic characteristics, referral routes, and chief complaints were identified and analyzed using the subjects’ electronic medical records of their first outpatient visit. @*Results@#The mean age and proportion of female subjects with depression and ADHD (ADHD-D, n=120) were significantly higher than those of patients with ADHD alone (ADHD-O, n=1,111). Furthermore, referral requests by the caregiver (p=0.037) and patient (p=0.006) were significantly higher in the ADHD-D group. In contrast, referrals via schools (p=0.009) and other medical institutions (p<0.001) were significantly higher in the ADHD-O group. There were more complaints of depression, anxiety, mood dysregulation, suicidal ideation, and self-harm behaviors among the patients in the ADHD-D group. However, complaints of inattention were more common among the patients in the ADHD-O group compared to those in the ADHD-D group (p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#This study revealed several differences in the demographic characteristics, referral routes, and chief complaints of the patients and caregivers between patients with ADHD with and without coexisting depression. Further investigations using structured psychiatric diagnostic tools are warranted.

17.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 385-394, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903931

ABSTRACT

Eupatilin is known to possess anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative, and antiinflammatoryproperties. We report here that eupatilin has a protective effect onthe ethanol-induced injury in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups:control, vehicle, silymarin, eupatilin 10 mg/kg, eupatilin 30 mg/kg, and eupatilin 100mg/kg. Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) were analyzed to determine the extent of liver damage. Total cholesterol(TC) and triglycerides (TG) were analyzed to determine the level of liver steatosis.Malondialdehyde level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione (GSH)level were analyzed to determine the extent of oxidative stress. Tumor necrosis factor(TNF)- and interleukin (IL)-1 were quantified to verify the degree of inflammation.Based on our findings, chronic alcohol treatment significantly changed the serumindexes and liver indicators of the model rats, which were significantly improved byeupatilin treatment. Rats in the eupatilin-treatment group showed reduced levelsof AST, ALT, TG, TC, TNF-, and IL-1, increased SOD activity and GSH levels, and improvedoverall physiology compared to the alcoholic liver disease model rats. H&Estaining also verified the eupatilin-mediated improvement in liver injury. In conclusion,eupatilin inhibits alcohol-induced liver injury via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

18.
The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology ; : 385-394, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896227

ABSTRACT

Eupatilin is known to possess anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative, and antiinflammatoryproperties. We report here that eupatilin has a protective effect onthe ethanol-induced injury in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups:control, vehicle, silymarin, eupatilin 10 mg/kg, eupatilin 30 mg/kg, and eupatilin 100mg/kg. Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) were analyzed to determine the extent of liver damage. Total cholesterol(TC) and triglycerides (TG) were analyzed to determine the level of liver steatosis.Malondialdehyde level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione (GSH)level were analyzed to determine the extent of oxidative stress. Tumor necrosis factor(TNF)- and interleukin (IL)-1 were quantified to verify the degree of inflammation.Based on our findings, chronic alcohol treatment significantly changed the serumindexes and liver indicators of the model rats, which were significantly improved byeupatilin treatment. Rats in the eupatilin-treatment group showed reduced levelsof AST, ALT, TG, TC, TNF-, and IL-1, increased SOD activity and GSH levels, and improvedoverall physiology compared to the alcoholic liver disease model rats. H&Estaining also verified the eupatilin-mediated improvement in liver injury. In conclusion,eupatilin inhibits alcohol-induced liver injury via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatoryeffects.

19.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 899-911, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832828

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the newly designed open-cell type self-expandable nitinol stent (NiTi-stent) for peripheral arteries. @*Materials and Methods@#Twenty-eight limbs of 14 minipigs were randomly assigned to the NiTistent group or conventional nitinol stent group. Stents were symmetrically implanted into the iliac arteries of each animal using carotid artery approach and were observed for 1 month (n = 5) and 6 months (n = 9). The angiographic lumen diameter (ALD), late lumen loss, angiographic stenosis, histomorphometric lumen area, neointimal area, and area stenosis were analyzed and compared between the groups. @*Results@#Stent migration, stent fracture, or thrombus formation were not observed in either group. At the 1-month follow-up, the neointimal area (p = 0.008) and area stenosis (p = 0.016) were significantly smaller in the NiTi-stent group than in the control group. At the 6-months followup, the NiTi-stent group showed significantly larger ALD (p = 0.014), less late lumen loss (p = 0.019), less angiographic stenosis (p = 0.014), larger lumen area (p = 0.040), and smaller neointimal area and area stenosis (p = 0.004 and p= 0.014, respectively) compared with the control group. @*Conclusion@#The NiTi-stent is as safe and effective as the conventional nitinol stent and induces less neointimal hyperplasia in a minipig iliac artery model.

20.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 376-388, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832464

ABSTRACT

ymptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons are accompanied by movement disorders, including tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, and akinesia. Non-human primate (NHP) models with PD play an essential role in the analysis of PD pathophysiology and behavior symptoms. As impairments of hand dexterity function can affect activities of daily living in patients with PD, research on hand dexterity function in NHP models with chronic PD is essential. Traditional rating scales previously used in the evaluation of animal spontaneous behavior were insufficient due to factors related to subjectivity and passivity. Thus, experimentally designed applications for an appropriate apparatus are necessary. In this study, we aimed to longitudinally assess hand dexterity function using hand dexterity task (HDT) in NHP-PD models. To validate this assessment, we analyzed the alteration in Parkinsonian tremor signs and the functionality of presynaptic dopaminergic neuron using positron emission tomography imaging of dopamine transporters in these models. In addition, a significant inverse correlation between HDT and DAT level was identified, but no local bias was found. The correlation with intention tremor signs was lower than the resting tremor. In conclusion, the evaluation of HDT may reflect behavioral symptoms of NHP-PD models. Furthermore, HDT was effectively used to experimentally distinguish intention tremors from other tremors.

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