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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 173-178, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919599

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#An adequate minimal surgical margin for partial nephrectomy (PN) has not yet been conclusively established. Therefore, we aimed to compare PN recurrence rates according to surgical margin status and to establish an adequate minimal surgical margin. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively studied patients with clinically localized renal cell carcinoma who underwent PN between 2005 and 2014. Surgical margin width (SMW) was assessed for all surgical tissues and divided into three groups: SMW <1 mm, SMW ≥1 mm, and positive surgical margin (PSM). The data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression models. @*Results@#Of 748 patients (median age, 55 years; interquartile range, 46–64 years; 220 female), 704 (94.2%) and 44 (5.8%) patients had negative and PSMs, respectively. Recurrence-free survival was significantly lower in patients with PSMs (p<0.001) and was not significantly different between SMW ≥1 mm and <1 mm groups (p=0.604). PSM was a significant predictor of recurrence (hazard ratio: 8.03, 95% confidence interval: 2.74–23.56, p<0.001), in contrast to SMW <1 mm (p=0.680). @*Conclusion@#A PSM after PN significantly increases the risk of recurrence. We discovered that even a submillimeter safety surgical margin may be enough to prevent recurrence. To maximize normal renal parenchyma preservation and to avoid cancer recurrence in renal parenchymal tumor patients, PN may be a safe treatment, except for those with a PSM in the final pathology.

2.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 569-576, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904245

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) has been performed to reduce locoregional failure (LRF) following radical cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer; however, its efficacy has not been well established. We analyzed the locoregional recurrence patterns of post-radical cystectomy to identify patients who could benefit from adjuvant RT and determine the optimal target volume. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 160 patients with stage ≥ pT3 bladder cancer who were treated with radical cystectomy between January 2006 and December 2015. The impact of pathologic findings, including the stage, lympho-vascular invasion, perineural invasion, margin status, nodal involvement, and the number of nodes removed on failure patterns, was assessed. @*Results@#Median follow-up period was 27.7 months. LRF was observed in 55 patients (34.3%), 12 of whom presented with synchronous local and regional failures as the first failure. The most common failure pattern was distant metastasis (40%). Among LRFs, the most common recurrence site was the cystectomy bed (15.6%). Patients with positive resection margins had a significantly higher recurrence rate compared to those without (28% vs. 10%, p=0.004). The pelvic nodal recurrence rate was < 5% in pN0 patients; the rate of recurrence in the external and common iliac nodes was 12.5% in pN+ patients. The rate of recurrence in the common iliac nodes was significantly higher in pN2–3 patients than in pN0–1 patients (15.2% vs. 4.4%, p=0.04). @*Conclusion@#Pelvic RT could be beneficial especially for those with positive resection margins or nodal involvement after radical cystectomy. Radiation fields should be optimized based on the patient-specific risk factors.

3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 569-576, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896541

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) has been performed to reduce locoregional failure (LRF) following radical cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer; however, its efficacy has not been well established. We analyzed the locoregional recurrence patterns of post-radical cystectomy to identify patients who could benefit from adjuvant RT and determine the optimal target volume. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 160 patients with stage ≥ pT3 bladder cancer who were treated with radical cystectomy between January 2006 and December 2015. The impact of pathologic findings, including the stage, lympho-vascular invasion, perineural invasion, margin status, nodal involvement, and the number of nodes removed on failure patterns, was assessed. @*Results@#Median follow-up period was 27.7 months. LRF was observed in 55 patients (34.3%), 12 of whom presented with synchronous local and regional failures as the first failure. The most common failure pattern was distant metastasis (40%). Among LRFs, the most common recurrence site was the cystectomy bed (15.6%). Patients with positive resection margins had a significantly higher recurrence rate compared to those without (28% vs. 10%, p=0.004). The pelvic nodal recurrence rate was < 5% in pN0 patients; the rate of recurrence in the external and common iliac nodes was 12.5% in pN+ patients. The rate of recurrence in the common iliac nodes was significantly higher in pN2–3 patients than in pN0–1 patients (15.2% vs. 4.4%, p=0.04). @*Conclusion@#Pelvic RT could be beneficial especially for those with positive resection margins or nodal involvement after radical cystectomy. Radiation fields should be optimized based on the patient-specific risk factors.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1174-1183, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913793

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Advanced stage clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) involves a poor prognosis. Several studies have reported that dysfunctions in iron metabolism‒related proteins may cause tumor progression and metastasis of this carcinoma. In this study, we investigated the impact of the expression of iron metabolism‒related proteins on patient prognoses in advanced stage ccRCCs. @*Materials and Methods@#All of 143 advanced stage ccRCC specimens were selected following validation with double blind reviews. Several clinicopathological parameters including nuclear grade, perirenal fat invasion, renal sinus fat invasion, vascular invasion, necrosis, and sarcomatoid/rhabdoid differentiation were compared with the expression of ferroportin (FPN), and F-Box and leucine rich repeat protein 5 (FBXL5), by immunohistochemistry. FPN and FBXL5 mRNA level of ccRCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas database were also analyzed for validation. @*Results@#FPN and FBXL5 immunohistochemistry showed membrane and cytoplasmic expression, respectively. Based on the H-score, cases were classified as low or high expression with a cutoff value of 20 for FPN and 15 for FBXL5, respectively. Low expression of FPN and FBXL5 were significantly associated with patient death (p=0.022 and p=0.005, respectively). In survival analyses, low expression of FPN and FBXL5 were significantly associated with shorter overall survival (p=0.003 and p=0.004, respectively). On multivariate analysis, low expression of FBXL5 (hazard ratio, 2.001; p=0.034) was significantly associated with shorter overall survival. @*Conclusion@#FPN and FBXL5 can be used as potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for advanced stage ccRCC.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836775

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To report an association between prostate cancer and vitamin D levels among different races in a single population in the United States. @*Materials and Methods@#We investigated whether there was an association between vitamin D level and prostate cancer in different races in the United States. We used data collected from 1,363 men during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2008. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent associations between vitamin D levels (not only 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], but also 25(OH)D2 and D3) and prostate cancer. Association between vitamin D levels and prostate specific antigen level was also analyzed in non-Hispanic white males without prostate cancer. @*Results@#Older age was significantly associated with prostate cancer in all races (p<0.05), whereas vitamin D (p=0.024), especially 25(OH)D2 (p=0.027) was significantly higher only in non-Hispanic white males. There was no difference in vitamin D levels between non-Hispanic white males with a prostate specific antigen concentration >3 ng/mL and ≤3 ng/mL. @*Conclusions@#This study revealed a positive association between vitamin D, especially 25(OH)D2, and prostate cancer only in non-Hispanic white males. And vitamin D was not associated with prostate specific antigen level causing detection bias. (Korean J Urol Oncol 2020;18:32-39)

6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1021-1027, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762058

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Computed tomography (CT) is the most useful diagnostic modality for staging renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, CT is limited in its ability to predict renal sinus fat invasion (SFI). Here, we aimed to evaluate whether preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) could predict pathological SFI in patients with RCC of ≤7 cm for whom preoperative imaging reveals potential renal SFI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 1311 patients who underwent extirpative renal surgery for non-metastatic RCC of ≤7 cm between November 2005 and December 2014. After excluding patients with no SFI in preoperative imaging, unavailable preoperative data, and morbidity affecting inflammatory markers, a total of 476 patients were included in this study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate predictors of pathological SFI. RESULTS: We implemented a cut-off value of 1.98, which was calculated by ROC analysis to obtain high (≥1.98) and low (<1.98) NLR groups. A total of 93 patients with pathological SFI had larger clinical tumor size, higher preoperative NLR, larger pathological tumor size, more frequent renal vein involvement, and higher Fuhrman nuclear grade. Multivariate analysis indicated that high NLR [odds ratio (OR) 2.032, p=0.004], clinical tumor size (OR 1.586, p<0.001), and collecting system involvement on preoperative imaging (OR 3.957, p=0.011) were significantly associated with pathological SFI in these tumors. CONCLUSION: Preoperative high NLR was associated with pathological SFI in patients with RCC of ≤7 cm and presumed SFI on preoperative imaging. Greater surgical attention is needed to obtain negative margins during partial nephrectomy in these patients.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Humans , Logistic Models , Lymphocytes , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Nephrectomy , Neutrophils , Renal Veins , ROC Curve
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Significant clinical heterogeneity within contemporary risk group is well known, particularly for those with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (IRPCa). Our study aimed to analyze the ability of the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) score to discern between favorable and non-favorable risk in patients with IRPCa. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 203 IRPCa patients who underwent extraperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) performed by a single surgeon. Pathologic favorable IRPCa was defined as a Gleason score ≤ 6 and organ-confined stage at surgical pathology. The CAPRA score was compared with two established criteria for the within-group discrimination ability. RESULTS: Overall, 38 patients (18.7% of the IRPCa cohort) had favorable pathologic features after RARP. The CAPRA score significantly correlated with established criteria I and II and was inversely associated with favorable pathology (all P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the discriminative ability between favorable and non-favorable pathology was 0.679 for the CAPRA score and 0.610 and 0.661 for established criteria I and II, respectively. During a median 37.8 (interquartile range, 24.6–60.2) months of follow-up, 66 patients (32.5%) experienced biochemical recurrence (BCR). Cox regression analysis revealed that the CAPRA score, as a continuous sum score model or 3-group risk model, was an independent predictor of BCR after RARP. CONCLUSION: The within-group discrimination ability of preoperative CAPRA score might help in patient counseling and selecting optimal treatments for those with IRPCa.


Subject(s)
Counseling , Discrimination, Psychological , Follow-Up Studies , Goats , Humans , Male , Neoplasm Grading , Pathology , Pathology, Surgical , Population Characteristics , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , ROC Curve
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 975-981, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717931

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of robotic procedures performed using the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System at a single institute. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed all robotic procedures performed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University Health System (Seoul, Korea). Reliability and mortality rates of the robotic surgeries were also investigated. RESULTS: From July 2005 to December 2013, 10267 da Vinci robotic procedures were performed in seven different departments by 47 surgeons at our institute. There were 5641 cases (54.9%) of general surgery, including endocrine (38.0%), upper (7.7%) and lower gastrointestinal tract (7.5%), hepato-biliary and pancreatic (1.2%), and pediatric (0.6%) surgeries. Urologic surgery (33.0%) was the second most common, followed by otorhinolaryngologic (7.0%), obstetric and gynecologic (3.2%), thoracic (1.5%), cardiac (0.3%), and neurosurgery (0.1%). Thyroid (40.8%) and prostate (27.4%) procedures accounted for more than half of all surgeries, followed by stomach (7.6%), colorectal (7.5%), kidney and ureter (5.1%), head and neck (4.0%), uterus (3.2%), thoracic (1.5%), and other (2.9%) surgeries. Most surgeries (94.5%) were performed for malignancies. General and urologic surgeries rapidly increased after 2005, whereas others increased slowly. Thyroid and prostate surgeries increased rapidly after 2007. Surgeries for benign conditions accounted for a small portion of all procedures, although the numbers thereof have been steadily increasing. System malfunctions and failures were reported in 185 (1.8%) cases. Mortality related to robotic surgery was observed for 12 (0.12%) cases. CONCLUSION: Robotic surgeries have increased steadily at our institution. The da Vinci Robotic Surgical System is effective and safe for use during surgery.


Subject(s)
Head , Kidney , Korea , Lower Gastrointestinal Tract , Mortality , Neck , Neurosurgery , Prostate , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Stomach , Surgeons , Thyroid Gland , Ureter , Uterus
9.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 580-587, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715905

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is used as a salvage treatment for men with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer (PCa) following initial radical prostatectomy (RP). The optimal time at which to begin salvage ADT (sADT) remains controversial. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the efficacy of initiating sADT in patients before prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values met the clinical definition of BCR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 484 PCa patients who received sADT for BCR after RP. Median follow-up was 82 months. Propensity score matching was performed based on preoperative PSA level, pathologic T stage, and Gleason score. Patients were assigned to two groups of 169 patients each, based on PSA levels at the time of sADT: Group A (without meeting of the definition of BCR) and Group B (after BCR). Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: The median PSA level at sADT initiation was 0.12 ng/mL in group A and 0.42 ng/mL in group B. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that group A had favorable disease progression-free survival (DPFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), but did not have better cancer-specific survival (CSS) than group B. In subgroup analyses, group A showed better CSS rates in the non-organ confined PCa group. In Cox regression analyses, early sADT was associated significantly with DPFS and DMFS rates, however, did not correlate with CSS (p=0.107). CONCLUSION: Early sADT after RP improved DPFS and DMFS. Furthermore, early sADT patients demonstrated better CSS in non-organ confined PCa.


Subject(s)
Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Neoplasm Grading , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Propensity Score , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Salvage Therapy
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39528

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (MTURP) and photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) in order to provide the most up-to-date and reliable recommendations possible. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant RCTs were identified from electronic databases for meta-analysis of the surgical outcomes and complications of MTURP and PVP. Meta-analytical comparisons were made using qualitative and quantitative syntheses. The outcome variables are presented as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: In total, 11 articles were included in this comparative analysis of PVP versus MTURP. Most of the recently published studies exhibited low risk in terms of quality assessment. MTURP was superior to PVP regarding operative time; however, with regard to catheterization and hospitalization time, the mean differences were -1.39 (95% CI=-1.83~-0.95, p<0.001) and -2.21 (95% CI=-2.73~-1.69, p<0.001), respectively, in favor of PVP. PVP was superior to MTURP with regard to transfusion rate and clot retention, but no statistically significant differences were found with regard to acute urinary retention and urinary tract infection. The long-term complications of bladder neck contracture and urethral stricture showed no statistically significant differences between PVP and MTURP. Long-term functional outcomes, including the International Prostate Symptom Score and maximum flow rate, likewise did not display statistically significant differences between PVP and MTURP. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, we believe that PVP should be considered as an alternative surgical procedure for treating male lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia.


Subject(s)
Catheterization , Catheters , Contracture , Hospitalization , Humans , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Male , Neck , Odds Ratio , Operative Time , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Transurethral Resection of Prostate , Urethral Stricture , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Retention , Urinary Tract Infections , Volatilization
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34605

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine the trend, and investigated the possibilities as a prediction tool by choosing the trend score about male and urologic cancers have the high incidence rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected 5 major male and 3 major urologic cancers for past 3 years (from 2010 to 2012) and examined the incidence rate, and using Naver and Google trend, the rate of cancer incidence was compared with the trend score during the same period. RESULTS: From 2010 to 2012, the greatest occurrence of the cancer to males was the stomach cancer, followed by colon, lung, liver, and prostate cancer. In the urologic field, the prostate cancer was the first one, followed by kidney and bladder cancer. In 2010 to 2012, the Naver trend score was 32 for stomach and colon cancers, 31 for lung cancers, 20 for liver cancers, and 19 for prostate cancers, which index were corresponded with the order of incidence rate. Though the Google trend score for prostate cancer was not found, the average was 9 for stomach cancer, 8 for colon cancer, 6 for lung cancer, 4 for liver cancer, which index were corresponded with the order of incidence rate. In 2013 and 2014, the figure of prostate cancer was grown and exceeded liver cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In the trend score, the index of the prostate cancer shows continuing increase, and, from the results, urologists should recognize the importance of the study on the prostate cancer such as management, prevention, and treatment of the prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Humans , Incidence , Kidney , Liver , Liver Neoplasms , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms , Stomach , Stomach Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urologic Neoplasms , Urology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210691

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine whether contemporary active surveillance (AS) protocols could sufficiently discriminate significant from indolent tumors in men with low-risk prostate cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 312 patients with low-risk prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy. After exclusion of patients with fewer than 10 cores taken at biopsy and those who received neo-adjuvant treatment, 205 subjects satisfied the final inclusion criteria. Five widely accepted AS protocols were employed in this study. A total of 82.0% of the patients met the inclusion criteria of at least one protocol, and 18% did not meet any criteria of published AS protocols. A significant proportion of patients had non-organ-confined disease (8.6% to 10.6%) or a Gleason score of 7 or greater (18.6% to 23.9%) between the different AS criteria. Among patients who did not meet any AS criteria, 32.4% of patients had a pathologically insignificant cancer. Our results indicated a significant adverse pathology in patients who met the contemporary AS protocols. On the other hand, some patients in whom expectant management would be appropriate did not meet any criteria of published AS protocols. None of the clinical or histological criteria reported to date is able to sufficiently discriminate aggressive tumors from indolent ones.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Kallikreins/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Grading , Prostate/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome , Watchful Waiting
13.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 574-580, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129058

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate prognostic factors and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in a cohort of 41 patients with urachal carcinoma by use of a Bayesian model-averaging approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our cohort included 41 patients with urachal carcinoma who underwent extended partial cystectomy, total cystectomy, transurethral resection, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy at a single institute. All patients were classified by both the Sheldon and the Mayo staging systems according to histopathologic reports and preoperative radiologic findings. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression models were carried out to investigate prognostic factors, and a Bayesian model-averaging approach was performed to confirm the significance of each variable by using posterior probabilities. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 49.88+/-13.80 years and the male-to-female ratio was 24:17. The median follow-up was 5.42 years (interquartile range, 2.8-8.4 years). Five- and 10-year CSS rates were 55.9% and 43.4%, respectively. Lower Sheldon (p=0.004) and Mayo (p<0.001) stage, mucinous adenocarcinoma (p=0.005), and larger tumor size (p=0.023) were significant predictors of high survival probability on the basis of a log-rank test. By use of the Bayesian model-averaging approach, higher Mayo stage and larger tumor size were significant predictors of cancer-specific mortality in urachal carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Mayo staging system might be more effective than the Sheldon staging system. In addition, the multivariate analyses suggested that tumor size may be a prognostic factor for urachal carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bayes Theorem , Carcinoma/pathology , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology
14.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 574-580, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129043

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate prognostic factors and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in a cohort of 41 patients with urachal carcinoma by use of a Bayesian model-averaging approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our cohort included 41 patients with urachal carcinoma who underwent extended partial cystectomy, total cystectomy, transurethral resection, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy at a single institute. All patients were classified by both the Sheldon and the Mayo staging systems according to histopathologic reports and preoperative radiologic findings. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression models were carried out to investigate prognostic factors, and a Bayesian model-averaging approach was performed to confirm the significance of each variable by using posterior probabilities. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 49.88+/-13.80 years and the male-to-female ratio was 24:17. The median follow-up was 5.42 years (interquartile range, 2.8-8.4 years). Five- and 10-year CSS rates were 55.9% and 43.4%, respectively. Lower Sheldon (p=0.004) and Mayo (p<0.001) stage, mucinous adenocarcinoma (p=0.005), and larger tumor size (p=0.023) were significant predictors of high survival probability on the basis of a log-rank test. By use of the Bayesian model-averaging approach, higher Mayo stage and larger tumor size were significant predictors of cancer-specific mortality in urachal carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Mayo staging system might be more effective than the Sheldon staging system. In addition, the multivariate analyses suggested that tumor size may be a prognostic factor for urachal carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bayes Theorem , Carcinoma/pathology , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/pathology
15.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 624-627, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129042

ABSTRACT

A 61-year-old man presented with a right renal mass with a vena caval thrombus on computed tomography that was consistent with renal cell carcinoma. The results of routine laboratory examinations and urinalysis were within normal limits. Preoperative planning was critical owing to the presence of the vena caval thrombus. A radical nephrectomy, vena caval thrombectomy, and regional lymphadenectomy were done. The pathologic report was consistent with a high-grade, invasive urothelial carcinoma, with sarcomatoid differentiation involving the renal vein and inferior vena cava (Stage IV, T4N0M0). Thus, this was a rare case of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy with the methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, cisplatinum regimen is scheduled. To our knowledge, this is the first report in Korea of upper tract urothelial carcinoma of the sarcomatoid type with a vena caval thrombus.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrectomy/methods , Renal Veins/diagnostic imaging , Thrombectomy/methods , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging
16.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 624-627, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129027

ABSTRACT

A 61-year-old man presented with a right renal mass with a vena caval thrombus on computed tomography that was consistent with renal cell carcinoma. The results of routine laboratory examinations and urinalysis were within normal limits. Preoperative planning was critical owing to the presence of the vena caval thrombus. A radical nephrectomy, vena caval thrombectomy, and regional lymphadenectomy were done. The pathologic report was consistent with a high-grade, invasive urothelial carcinoma, with sarcomatoid differentiation involving the renal vein and inferior vena cava (Stage IV, T4N0M0). Thus, this was a rare case of upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy with the methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, cisplatinum regimen is scheduled. To our knowledge, this is the first report in Korea of upper tract urothelial carcinoma of the sarcomatoid type with a vena caval thrombus.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Renal Cell/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrectomy/methods , Renal Veins/diagnostic imaging , Thrombectomy/methods , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 197-203, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66221

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome of transmesocolic (TMC) laparoscopic pyeloplasty compared with conventional laterocolic procedure for surgeons with limited experience. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We started laparoscopic pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction in 2009. Since then, 21 patients of left side disease have undergone this surgery in our institution. To access the left ureteropelvic junction, we used the conventional laterocolic approach in 9 patients, while the transmesocolic approach was used in the remaining 12 patients, and perioperative results and follow-up data were then compared. RESULTS: The mean operative time using the transmesocolic approach was significantly shorter than the conventional laterocolic approach (242 vs. 308 min, p=0.022). Furthermore, there was no complication or open conversion. Postoperative pain was significantly decreased in the TMC group (2.8 vs. 4.0 points, measured using the visual analogue scale on the first postoperative day, p=0.009). Postoperative complications were encountered in two patients. All patients were symptom-free after 1 year of follow-up, and radiologic success rates for each group were 92 and 89%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Direct exposure of the ureteropelvic junction via the mesocolon saves time during the colon mobilization procedure. The approach is safe and feasible even for surgeons with limited experience, and has success rates similar to those of the conventional laterocolic approach.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Colon/surgery , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Infant , Kidney/surgery , Kidney Pelvis/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pain, Postoperative , Postoperative Period , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Time Factors , Ureter/surgery , Ureteral Obstruction/surgery , Urologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Young Adult
18.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 244-248, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187107

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The proper indication for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) in urology is still under debate, especially for malignant diseases. We compared the perioperative outcomes between LESS and conventional laparoscopy (CL) for upper urinary tract malignancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 75 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy, nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision, or partial nephrectomy with the LESS or CL approach between December 2008 and December 2010. We compared characteristics and perioperative outcomes between patients who underwent LESS or CL. All operations were performed by three surgeons using the transperitoneal approach. RESULTS: For all three surgery types, no differences in patient characteristics, estimated blood losses, transfusion rates, or durations of hospital stay were found between the two groups. No complications were found between the two groups in those who underwent nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision; however, significantly more complications were found in the LESS group than in the CL group in those who underwent radical nephrectomy or partial nephrectomy. Most of the complications with LESS radical nephrectomy occurred in the early introduction period of the technique. CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences in perioperative outcomes were found between the LESS and CL groups in those who underwent radical nephrectomy or nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision. Therefore, the use of LESS in these cases is expected to expand as surgeons gain more experience with this technique and as other technical advances in laparoscopic instruments occur. However, partial nephrectomy with LESS should be performed restrictively considering the current level of surgical skill.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Humans , Laparoscopy , Length of Stay , Nephrectomy , Ureteral Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder , Urinary Tract , Urology
19.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 386-390, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79101

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the clinical reliability of the Bosniak IIF category and to determine the proper radiologic follow-up duration and intervals for category IIF complex renal cysts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 201 patients with category IIF renal cysts from January 1996 to January 2011. Renal cyst progression to category III was defined as an increase in complexity of the cyst in follow-up radiologic studies. We monitored radiologic changes and progression of renal cysts during the follow-up period and analyzed the pathologic results of those patients who were treated surgically. RESULTS: At a mean follow-up of 20 months, only 14 cases (7%) showed evidence of progression to stage III, with a mean time to progression of 11 months (range, 3 to 65 months). There were no significant differences in age, gender, cyst size, or change in cyst size between the progressive and non-progressive groups. Of 12 cases treated surgically, 10 cases (83.3%) showed renal cell carcinoma with pT1 stage, and there was no recurrence during postoperative follow-up of 23 months. Of the 187 patients without radiologic progression, 23 cases were treated surgically, and all of them showed benign cysts. CONCLUSIONS: The IIF category showed significant clinical reliability by a low rate of radiologic progression and a high rate of malignancy in the radiologic progressive group but a low rate of malignancy in the non-progressive group. Although it is hard to decide on a proper follow-up duration because of the variable time to progression, too frequent follow-up study seems to be unnecessary considering that most malignant cases were of a low stage.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Disease Progression , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Kidney , Recurrence
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 45-50, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146147

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We report herein 119 patients with pheochromocytoma at our institute over the last 23 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1986 and 2009, 119 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma at our institute. We reviewed the medical records of these patients. RESULTS: Of 119 patients, 45 were male and 74 were female, and mean age was 43.83 +/- 13.49 years. Forty-three patients (36.1%) were diagnosed incidentally, and 8 patients (6.7%) were found to have familial pheochromocytoma. The mean dimension of the tumors was 5.89 +/- 3.18 cm. 4 patients had bilateral tumors; three of these patients were found to have familial pheochromocytoma and 1 patient was diagnosed with malignant pheochromocytoma. A total of eight patients (6.7%) were found to have malignant pheochromocytoma. In 1 patient, metastasis to a lymph node was found at the time of diagnosis. Metastases were found at a mean of 49 +/- 25.83 (6-75) months after surgery in the other seven patients. 6 patients died of malignant pheochromocytoma at a mean of 31 +/- 28.71 months (1-81) after diagnosis, and the other 2 patients survived for 15 and 24 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: Approximately 35% of patients with pheochromocytoma are diagnosed incidentally, and the number of detected cases is increasing. Although familial pheochromocytoma was found only in 6.7% of the patients, genetic testing should be considered in all patients, especially in patients with a family history, young age, or multifocal, bilateral, extra-adrenal, or malignant tumors. Given that malignant pheochromocytomas are frequently diagnosed during the follow-up period, long-term follow-up is necessary to confirm the absence of recurrence or metastasis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pheochromocytoma/diagnosis , Young Adult
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