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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892778

ABSTRACT

Although the understanding of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (AMNs) and their relationship with disseminated peritoneal mucinous disease have advanced, the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of AMNs are still confusing for pathologists and clinicians. The Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists (GPSG-KSP) proposed a multicenter study and held a workshop for the “Standardization of the Pathologic Diagnosis of the Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm” to overcome the controversy and potential conflicts. The present article is focused on the diagnostic criteria, terminologies, tumor grading, pathologic staging, biologic behavior, treatment, and prognosis of AMNs and disseminated peritoneal mucinous disease. In addition, GPSG-KSP proposes a checklist of standard data elements of appendiceal epithelial neoplasms to standardize pathologic diagnosis. We hope the present article will provide pathologists with updated knowledge on how to handle and diagnose AMNs and disseminated peritoneal mucinous disease.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903976

ABSTRACT

DA-9601 is an extract obtained from Artemisia asiatica, which has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects on gastrointestinal lesions; however, its possible anti-inflammatory effects on the small intestine have not been studied yet.Therefore, in this study, we investigated the protective effects of DA-9601 against the ACF-induced small intestinal inflammation. Inflammation of the small intestine was confirmed by histological studies and the changes in the CD4 + T cell fraction induced by the inflammation-related cytokines, and the inflammatory reactions were analyzed. Multifocal discrete small necrotic ulcers with intervening normal mucosa were frequently observed after treatment with ACF. The expression of IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α genes was increased in the ACF group; however, it was found to have been significantly decreased in the DA-9601 treated group. In addition, DA-9601 significantly decreased the levels of proinflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, GMCSF, IFN-γ, and TNF-α; the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, on the other hand, was observed to have increased. It is known that inflammatory mediators related to T cell imbalance and dysfunction continuously activate the inflammatory response, causing chronic tissue damage. The fractions of IFN-γ + Th1 cells, IL-4 + Th2 cells, IL-9 + Th9 cells, IL-17 + Th17 cells, and Foxp3 + Treg cells were significantly decreased upon DA-9601 treatment. These data suggest that the inflammatory response induced by ACF is reduced by DA-9601 via lowering of the expression of genes encoding the inflammatory cytokines and the concentration of inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, DA-9601 inhibited the acute inflammatory response mediated by T cells, resulting in an improvement in ACF-induced enteritis.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900482

ABSTRACT

Although the understanding of appendiceal mucinous neoplasms (AMNs) and their relationship with disseminated peritoneal mucinous disease have advanced, the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of AMNs are still confusing for pathologists and clinicians. The Gastrointestinal Pathology Study Group of the Korean Society of Pathologists (GPSG-KSP) proposed a multicenter study and held a workshop for the “Standardization of the Pathologic Diagnosis of the Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm” to overcome the controversy and potential conflicts. The present article is focused on the diagnostic criteria, terminologies, tumor grading, pathologic staging, biologic behavior, treatment, and prognosis of AMNs and disseminated peritoneal mucinous disease. In addition, GPSG-KSP proposes a checklist of standard data elements of appendiceal epithelial neoplasms to standardize pathologic diagnosis. We hope the present article will provide pathologists with updated knowledge on how to handle and diagnose AMNs and disseminated peritoneal mucinous disease.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896272

ABSTRACT

DA-9601 is an extract obtained from Artemisia asiatica, which has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects on gastrointestinal lesions; however, its possible anti-inflammatory effects on the small intestine have not been studied yet.Therefore, in this study, we investigated the protective effects of DA-9601 against the ACF-induced small intestinal inflammation. Inflammation of the small intestine was confirmed by histological studies and the changes in the CD4 + T cell fraction induced by the inflammation-related cytokines, and the inflammatory reactions were analyzed. Multifocal discrete small necrotic ulcers with intervening normal mucosa were frequently observed after treatment with ACF. The expression of IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α genes was increased in the ACF group; however, it was found to have been significantly decreased in the DA-9601 treated group. In addition, DA-9601 significantly decreased the levels of proinflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, GMCSF, IFN-γ, and TNF-α; the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, on the other hand, was observed to have increased. It is known that inflammatory mediators related to T cell imbalance and dysfunction continuously activate the inflammatory response, causing chronic tissue damage. The fractions of IFN-γ + Th1 cells, IL-4 + Th2 cells, IL-9 + Th9 cells, IL-17 + Th17 cells, and Foxp3 + Treg cells were significantly decreased upon DA-9601 treatment. These data suggest that the inflammatory response induced by ACF is reduced by DA-9601 via lowering of the expression of genes encoding the inflammatory cytokines and the concentration of inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, DA-9601 inhibited the acute inflammatory response mediated by T cells, resulting in an improvement in ACF-induced enteritis.

5.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 606-611, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785663

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic esophagitis is a rare disease in Asian countries, but its incidence is growing rapidly in Western countries. The main pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis is esophageal epithelial barrier dysfunction; disruption of the esophageal epithelial barrier easily induces antigen sensitization to foods and aeroallergens, which leads to subsequent esophageal inflammation as a result of eosinophil recruitment. Here we report a case of an 11-year-old Korean boy who suffered from fever, odynophagia, dysphagia, and chest pain. His upper endoscopic findings showed longitudinal ulcers with a volcano-like appearance at the distal esophagus. Polymerase chain reaction test results and biopsy specimens were positive for herpes simplex virus type 1. He was treated with acyclovir and a proton pump inhibitor, but his follow-up endoscopy showed typical patterns of eosinophilic esophagitis, and the biopsy specimens were compatible with the diagnostic criteria for eosinophilic esophagitis. Therefore, we report a very rare case of eosinophilic esophagitis after herpes esophagitis in a Korean child with normal immunity.


Subject(s)
Acyclovir , Asians , Biopsy , Chest Pain , Child , Deglutition Disorders , Endoscopy , Eosinophilic Esophagitis , Eosinophils , Esophagitis , Esophagus , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Humans , Incidence , Inflammation , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Proton Pumps , Rare Diseases , Simplexvirus , Ulcer
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740367

ABSTRACT

Synovial chondromatosis is a rare metaplastic disease affecting the joints, including the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Since its symptoms are similar to those of temporomandibular disorders, a careful differential diagnosis is essential. A 50-year-old male patient was referred with the chief complaint of pain and radiopaque masses around the left TMJ on panoramic radiography. Clinically, pre-auricular swelling and resting pain was found, without limitation of mouth opening. On cone-beam computed tomographic images, multiple calcified nodules adjacent to the TMJ and bone proliferation with sclerosis at the articular fossa and eminence were found. T2-weighted magnetic resonance images showed multiple signal-void nodules with high signal effusion in the superior joint space and thickened cortical bone at the articular fossa and eminence. The calcified nodules were removed by surgical excision, but the hypertrophic articular fossa and eminence remained. A histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was followed up few months later without recurrence.


Subject(s)
Chondromatosis, Synovial , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Joints , Male , Middle Aged , Mouth , Radiography, Panoramic , Recurrence , Sclerosis , Temporal Bone , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Temporomandibular Joint
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80760

ABSTRACT

Anaplastic transformation of differentiated thyroid cancer at distant metastatic sites is extremely rare and has a poor prognosis. It usually occurs in the thyroid gland or cervical lymph nodes. Here we report a case of anaplastic transformation arising at multiple distant metastatic sites including the lung, liver, adrenal gland, bone, and lymph nodes in a patient 3 years after total thyroidectomy for follicular thyroid cancer.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands , Humans , Liver , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Prognosis , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The invasiveness of a liver biopsy and its inconsistent results have prompted efforts to develop noninvasive tools to evaluate the severity of chronic hepatitis. This study was intended to assess the performance of serum biomarkers for predicting liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. METHODS: A total of 302 patients with chronic hepatitis B or C, who had undergone liver biopsy, were retrospectively enrolled. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of several clinical factors for predicting advanced fibrosis (F≥3). RESULTS: The study population included 227 patients with chronic hepatitis B, 73 patients with chronic hepatitis C, and 2 patients with co-infection (hepatitis B and C). Histological cirrhosis was identified in 16.2% of the study population. The grade of porto-periportal activity was more correlated with the stage of chronic hepatitis compared with that of lobular activity (r=0.640 vs. r=0.171). Fibrosis stage was correlated with platelet count (r=-0.520), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) (r=0.390), prothrombin time (r=0.376), and albumin (r=-0.357). For the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis, platelet count and APRI were the most predictive variables (AUROC=0.752, and 0.713, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In a hepatitis B endemic region, platelet count and APRI could be considered as reliable non-invasive markers for predicting fibrosis of chronic viral hepatitis. However, it is necessary to validate the diagnostic accuracy of these markers in another population.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases , Biomarkers , Biopsy , Blood Platelets , Coinfection , Diagnosis , Fibrosis , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis , Hepatitis, Chronic , Humans , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Platelet Count , Prothrombin Time , Retrospective Studies
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-157865

ABSTRACT

Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is usually caused by extrinsic compression or invasion of the superior vena cava (SVC) by malignant tumors involving mediastinal structures. Although thymomas are well-known causes of SVCS, cases of SVCS caused by malignant thymomas protruding into adjacent vessels draining the SVC with thrombosis have been very rarely reported worldwide. We experienced a 39-year-old female patient with SVCS that developed after the direct invasion of the left brachiocephalic vein (LBCV) and SVC by an anterior mediastinal mass with a high maximum standardized uptake value on the chest computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-CT. Based on these results, she underwent en bloc resection of the tumor, including removal of the involved vessels, and was eventually diagnosed as having a type B2 thymoma permeating into the LBCV and SVC. We present this case as a very rare form of SVCS caused by an invasive thymoma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brachiocephalic Veins , Electrons , Female , Humans , Positron-Emission Tomography , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome , Thorax , Thrombosis , Thymoma , Vena Cava, Superior
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although Kikuchi's lymphadenitis (KL) has been known to have characteristic cytological features, pathologists encounter difficulties in making a diagnosis with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic pitfalls of KL with FNAC, particularly with emphasis on differential diagnosis with tuberculosis. METHODS: FNAC of 10 patients with a histological diagnosis of KL and tuberculosis was reviewed. RESULTS: Acidophilic cells were observed in all the 10 KL cases, even if the smears were insufficient. Crescentic histiocytes were seen in 8, granular background in 7, and karyorrhectic debris in 3 cases. Epithelioid histiocytes or neutrophils were not seen in any of the KL cases. Of the 10 cases of tuberculosis, acidophilic cells were observed in 6 cases, crescentic histiocytes in none of them, cheese-like background in 9, karyorrhectic debris in 8, epithelioid histiocytes in 4, and neutrophils in 8 cases. CONCLUSIONS: The acidophilic cell could be the most sensitive but not the specific marker of KL with FNAC. The crescentic histiocytes might be the sensitive and considerably specific marker of KL. The cytological features distinguishing tuberculosis from KL may be cheese-like necrosis admixed with neutrophils and epithelioid histiocytes.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis, Differential , Histiocytes , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis , Humans , Lymphadenitis , Necrosis , Neutrophils , Tuberculosis
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80785

ABSTRACT

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an uncommon aggressive malignant tumor, and the osteoclastic variant of ATC is extremely rare. We report here on the fine needle aspiration cytology of the osteoclastic variant of ATC in an 83-year-old woman. The smear was composed of many oval to slightly elongated undifferentiated mononuclear cells admixed with multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells. The mononuclear tumor cells revealed inconspicuous nuclear pleomorphism and the nuclei were characterized by vesicular chromatin and an indented or lobulated nuclear membrane with conspicuous nuclear grooves. A few epithelial clusters suggestive of a papillary carcinoma component were also observed. Making the proper cytological diagnosis of the osteoclastic variant of ATC is helpful to determine the proper treatment modality for these patients.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Anaplasia , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Carcinoma, Papillary , Chromatin , Female , Giant Cells , Humans , Nuclear Envelope , Osteoclasts , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
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