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1.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 890-902, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002440

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The clinical impact of artificial intelligence-based computer-aided detection (AI-CAD) beyond diagnostic accuracy remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate the influence of the clinical implementation of AI-CAD for chest radiograph (CR) interpretation in daily practice on the rate of referral for chest computed tomography (CT). @*Materials and Methods@#AI-CAD was implemented in clinical practice at the Seoul National University Hospital. CRs obtained from patients who visited the pulmonology outpatient clinics before (January–December 2019) and after (January–December 2020) implementation were included in this study. After implementation, the referring pulmonologist requested CRs with or without AI-CAD analysis. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to evaluate the associations between using AI-CAD and the following study outcomes: the rate of chest CT referral, defined as request and actual acquisition of chest CT within 30 days after CR acquisition, and the CT referral rates separately for subsequent positive and negative CT results.Multivariable analyses included various covariates such as patient age and sex, time of CR acquisition (before versus after AICAD implementation), referring pulmonologist, nature of the CR examination (baseline versus follow-up examination), and radiology reports presence at the time of the pulmonology visit. @*Results@#A total of 28546 CRs from 14565 patients (mean age: 67 years; 7130 males) and 25888 CRs from 12929 patients (mean age: 67 years; 6435 males) before and after AI-CAD implementation were included. The use of AI-CAD was independently associated with increased chest CT referrals (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; P = 0.008) and referrals with subsequent negative chest CT results (OR, 1.46; P = 0.005). Meanwhile, referrals with positive chest CT results were not significantly associated with AI-CAD use (OR, 1.08; P = 0.647). @*Conclusion@#The use of AI-CAD for CR interpretation in pulmonology outpatients was independently associated with an increased frequency of overall referrals for chest CT scans and referrals with subsequent negative results.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1203-1212, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902433

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the diagnostic accuracy and complications of cone-beam CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) of juxtaphrenic lesions and identify the risk factors for diagnostic failure and complications. @*Materials and Methods@#In total, 336 PTNB procedures for lung lesions (mean size ± standard deviation [SD], 4.3 ± 2.3 cm) abutting the diaphragm in 326 patients (189 male and 137 female; mean age ± SD, 65.2 ± 11.4 years) performed between January 2010 and December 2014 were included. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the PTNB procedures for the diagnosis of malignancy were measured based on the intentionto-diagnose principle. The risk factors for diagnostic failures and complications were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 92.7% (293/316), 91.3% (219/240), 91.4% (74/81), 96.9% (219/226), and 77.9% (74/95), respectively. There were 23 diagnostic failures (7.3%), and lesion sizes ≤ 2 cm (p = 0.045) were the only significant risk factors for diagnostic failure. Complications occurred in 98 cases (29.2%), including 89 cases of pneumothorax (26.5%) and 7 cases of hemoptysis (2.1%). The multivariable analysis showed that old age (> 65 years) (p = 0.002), lesion size of ≤ 2 cm (p = 0.003), emphysema (p = 0.006), and distance from the pleura to the target lesion (> 2 cm) (p = 0.010) were significant risk factors for complications. @*Conclusion@#The diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam CT-guided PTNB of juxtaphrenic lesions for malignancy was fairly high, and the target lesion size was the only significant predictor of diagnostic failure. Complications of cone-beam CT-guided PTNB of juxtaphrenic lesions occurred at a reasonable rate.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1203-1212, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894729

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the diagnostic accuracy and complications of cone-beam CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) of juxtaphrenic lesions and identify the risk factors for diagnostic failure and complications. @*Materials and Methods@#In total, 336 PTNB procedures for lung lesions (mean size ± standard deviation [SD], 4.3 ± 2.3 cm) abutting the diaphragm in 326 patients (189 male and 137 female; mean age ± SD, 65.2 ± 11.4 years) performed between January 2010 and December 2014 were included. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the PTNB procedures for the diagnosis of malignancy were measured based on the intentionto-diagnose principle. The risk factors for diagnostic failures and complications were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 92.7% (293/316), 91.3% (219/240), 91.4% (74/81), 96.9% (219/226), and 77.9% (74/95), respectively. There were 23 diagnostic failures (7.3%), and lesion sizes ≤ 2 cm (p = 0.045) were the only significant risk factors for diagnostic failure. Complications occurred in 98 cases (29.2%), including 89 cases of pneumothorax (26.5%) and 7 cases of hemoptysis (2.1%). The multivariable analysis showed that old age (> 65 years) (p = 0.002), lesion size of ≤ 2 cm (p = 0.003), emphysema (p = 0.006), and distance from the pleura to the target lesion (> 2 cm) (p = 0.010) were significant risk factors for complications. @*Conclusion@#The diagnostic accuracy of cone-beam CT-guided PTNB of juxtaphrenic lesions for malignancy was fairly high, and the target lesion size was the only significant predictor of diagnostic failure. Complications of cone-beam CT-guided PTNB of juxtaphrenic lesions occurred at a reasonable rate.

4.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 63-71, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875277

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To identify the CT findings associated with treatment failure after antibiotic therapy for acute appendicitis. @*Materials and Methods@#Altogether, 198 patients who received antibiotic therapy for appendicitis were identified by searching the hospital’s surgery database. Selection criteria for antibiotic therapy were uncomplicated appendicitis with an appendiceal diameter equal to or less than 11 mm. The 86 patients included in the study were divided into a treatment success group and a treatment failure group. Treatment failure was defined as a resistance to antibiotic therapy or recurrent appendicitis during a 1-year follow-up period. Two radiologists independently evaluated the following CT findings: appendix–location, involved extent, maximal diameter, thickness, wall enhancement, focal wall defect, periappendiceal fat infiltration, and so on. For the quantitative analysis, two readers independently measured the CT values at the least attenuated wall of the appendix by drawing a round region of interest on the enhanced CT (HUpost) and non-enhanced CT (HUpre). The degree of appendiceal wall enhancement (HUsub) was calculated as the subtracted value between HUpost and HU pre. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify the CT findings associated with treatment failure. @*Results@#Sixty-four of 86 (74.4%) patients were successfully treated with antibiotic therapy, with treatment failure occurring in the remaining 22 (25.5%). The treatment failure group showed a higher frequency of hypoenhancement of the appendiceal wall than the success group (31.8% vs. 7.8%; p = 0.005). Upon quantitative analysis, both HU post (46.7 ± 21.3 HU vs. 58.9 ± 22.0 HU; p = 0.027) and HUsub (26.9 ± 17.3 HU vs. 35.4 ± 16.6 HU; p = 0.042) values were significantly lower in the treatment failure group than in the success group. @*Conclusion@#Hypoenhancement of the appendiceal wall was significantly associated with treatment failure after antibiotic therapy for acute appendicitis.

5.
Ultrasonography ; : 288-297, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835335

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to assess the technical performance of ElastQ Imaging compared with ElastPQ and to investigate the correlation between liver stiffness (LS) values obtained using these two techniques. @*Methods@#This retrospective study included 249 patients who underwent LS measurements using both ElastPQ and ElastQ Imaging equipped on the same machine. The applicability, repeatability (coefficient of variation [CV]), acquisition time, and LS values were compared using the chi-square or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. In the development group, the correlation between the LS values obtained by the two techniques was assessed with Spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression analysis. In the validation group, the agreement between the estimated and real LS values was evaluated using a Bland-Altman plot. @*Results@#ElastQ Imaging had higher applicability (94.0% vs. 78.3%, P<0.001) and higher repeatability, with a lower median CV (0.127 vs. 0.164, P<0.001) than did ElastPQ. The median acquisition time of ElastQ Imaging was significantly shorter than that of ElastPQ (45.5 seconds vs. 96.5 seconds, P<0.001). The median LS value obtained using ElastQ Imaging was significantly higher than that obtained using ElastPQ (5.60 kPa vs. 5.23 kPa, P<0.001). The LS values between the two techniques exhibited a strong positive correlation (r=0.851, P<0.001) in the development group. The mean difference and 95% limits of agreement were 0.0 kPa (-3.9 to 3.9 kPa) in the validation group. @*Conclusion@#ElastQ Imaging may be more reliable and faster than ElastPQ, with strongly correlated LS measurements.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 599-608, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741440

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of computed tomography (CT) Hounsfield unit histogram analysis (HUHA) in postoperative pancreatic fistula (PF) prediction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients (33 males and 21 females; mean age, 65.6 years; age range, 37–89 years) who had undergone preoperative CT and pancreaticoduodenectomy were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists measured mean CT Hounsfield unit (CTHU) values by drawing regions of interest (ROIs) at the level of the pancreaticojejunostomy site on preoperative pre-contrast images. The HUHA values were arbitrarily divided into three categories, comprising HUHA-A ≤ 0 HU, 0 HU < HUHA-B < 30 HU, and HUHA-C ≥ 30 HU. Each HUHA value within the ROI was calculated as a percentage of the entire area using commercial 3-dimensional analysis software. Pancreas texture was evaluated as soft or hard by manual palpation. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (27.8%) had clinically relevant PFs. The PF group had significantly higher HUHA-A (p < 0.01) and significantly lower mean CTHU (p < 0.01) values than those of the non-PF group. The HUHA-A value had a moderately strong correlation with PF occurrence (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), whereas the mean CTHU had a weak negative correlation with PF occurrence (r = −0.27, p < 0.01). The HUHA-A and mean CTHU areas under the curve (AUCs) for predicting PF occurrence were 0.86 and 0.65, respectively, with significant difference (p < 0.01). The HUHA-A and mean CTHU AUCs for predicting pancreatic softness were 0.86 and 0.64, respectively, with significant difference (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The HUHA-A values on preoperative pre-contrast CT images demonstrate a strong correlation with PF occurrence.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Area Under Curve , Palpation , Pancreas , Pancreatic Fistula , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Pancreaticojejunostomy , Retrospective Studies
7.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 11-17, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916654

ABSTRACT

Spinal meningiomas account for 12% of all the meningiomas and are usually located in the intradural extramedullary space. In some cases, they are associated with some extradural extensions. However, purely extradural spinal meningiomas are rare. Additionally, it is difficult to make an accurate preoperative diagnosis. We report a case of pathologically confirmed atypical meningioma, presented as a posterior epidural mass on the thoracic spine. We review the case, clinical symptoms, radiologic findings and the histologic features.

8.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 332-336, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916622

ABSTRACT

Renal artery injury is a rare complication in blunt trauma, but can cause devascularization of the kidney, leading to renal failure. It requires early diagnosis and management. The treatment of renal artery injury still remains controversial, but recent studies have reported the successful treatment outcome with endovascular stent placement. Nevertheless, there is no standard treatment strategy in cases of pediatric patients. We report a case of a 16-year-old girl with right renal artery occlusion associated with a grade IV liver laceration. She was treated with only balloon angioplasty, and the kidney showed marked improvement of parenchymal perfusion with normalized renal function. Treatment with only balloon angioplasty can be a treatment option in pediatric patients with renal artery injury.

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