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1.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 272-283, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001316

ABSTRACT

Sonazoid contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is a promising technique for the detection and diagnosis of focal liver lesions, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, a collaborative effort between the Korean Society of Radiology and Korean Society of Abdominal Radiology resulted in the publication of guidelines for diagnosing HCC using Sonazoid CEUS. These guidelines propose specific criteria for identifying HCC based on the imaging characteristics observed during Sonazoid CEUS. The suggested diagnostic criteria include nonrim arterial phase hyperenhancement, and the presence of late and mild washout, or Kupffer phase washout under the premise that the early or marked washout should not occur during the portal venous phase. These criteria aim to improve the accuracy of HCC diagnosis using Sonazoid CEUS. This review offers a comprehensive overview of Sonazoid CEUS in the context of HCC diagnosis. It covers the fundamental principles of Sonazoid CEUS and its clinical applications, and introduces the recently published guidelines. By providing a summary of this emerging technique, this review contributes to a better understanding of the potential role of Sonazoid CEUS for diagnosing HCC.

2.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 348-357, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999433

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study evaluated the clinical implication of hepatic venous territory mapping in living donor liver transplantation. @*Methods@#Living donor liver transplantations performed using right graft since 2017 were included. Hepatic venous volume mapping was started in 2019. Risk factors for graft failure and overall survival were analyzed. Analysis for factors related to occlusion of reconstructed vein was performed. @*Results@#Among 445 patients included, 213 underwent hepatic venous mapping. Hepatic venous mapping itself was not a significant factor for graft (hazard ratio [HR], 0.958; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.441–2.082; P = 0.913) and overall survival (HR, 0.627; 95% CI, 0.315–1.247; P = 0.183). Inferior hepatic vein occlusion was a significant risk factor for both graft survival (HR, 8.795; 95% CI, 1.628–47.523; P = 0.012) and overall survival (HR, 11.13; 95% CI, 2.460–50.300; P = 0.002). In a subgroup with middle hepatic vein reconstruction, occlusion was a significant risk factor for overall survival (HR, 3.289;95% CI, 1.304–8.296; P = 0.012). In patients with middle hepatic vein reconstruction whose venous territory volumes were measured, right anterior volume of ≥300 cm 3 was protective for vein occlusion (OR, 0.317; 95% CI, 0.152–0.662; P = 0.002). In patients with V5 reconstruction, V5 volume of ≥150 cm 3 was protective for vein occlusion (OR, 0.253; 95% CI, 0.087–0.734; P = 0.011). @*Conclusion@#Inferior and middle hepatic vein reconstruction has significant impact on clinical outcome. Hepatic venous territory mapping can provide an objective measure for successful reconstruction of venous branches.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 159-171, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918218

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate the impact of baseline values and temporal changes in body composition parameters, including skeletal muscle index (SMI) and visceral adipose tissue area (VAT), measured using serial computed tomography (CT) imaging on the prognosis of operable breast cancers in Asian patients. @*Materials and Methods@#This study retrospectively included 627 Asian female (mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 53.6 ± 8.3 years) who underwent surgery for stage I–III breast cancer between January 2011 and September 2012. Body composition parameters, including SMI and VAT, were semi-automatically calculated on baseline abdominal CT at the time of diagnosis and follow-up CT for post-treatment surveillance. Serial changes in SMI and VAT were calculated as the delta values. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of baseline and delta SMI and VAT values with disease-free survival. @*Results@#Among 627 patients, 56 patients (9.2%) had breast cancer recurrence after a median of 40.5 months. The mean value ± SD of the baseline SMI and baseline VAT were 43.7 ± 5.8 cm2 /m2 and 72.0 ± 46.0 cm2 , respectively. The mean value of the delta SMI was -0.9 cm2 /m2 and the delta VAT was 0.5 cm2 . The baseline SMI and VAT were not significantly associated with disease-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.983; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.937–1.031; p = 0.475 and adjusted HR, 1.001; 95% CI, 0.995–1.006; p = 0.751, respectively). The delta SMI and VAT were also not significantly associated with disease-free survival (adjusted HR, 0.894; 95% CI, 0.766–1.043; p = 0.155 and adjusted HR, 1.001; 95% CI, 0.989–1.014; p = 0.848, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Our study revealed that baseline and early temporal changes in SMI and VAT were not independent prognostic factors regarding disease-free survival in Asian patients undergoing surgery for breast cancer.

4.
Ultrasonography ; : 519-529, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939270

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the utility of second-line contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) using Sonazoid in Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System category 3 (LR-3) and 4 (LR-4) observations on gadoxetate-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). @*Methods@#This retrospective study included LR-3 or LR-4 observations on gadoxetate-enhanced MRI subsequently evaluated with CEUS from 2013 to 2017. The presence of MRI features, CEUSarterial phase hyperenhancement (CEUS-APHE), and Kupffer phase defect (KPD) was evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant imaging features associated with the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The optimal diagnostic criteria were investigated using the McNemar test. @*Results@#In total, 104 patients with 104 observations (63 HCCs) were included. The presence of both CEUS-APHE and KPD on CEUS enabled the additional detection of 42.3% (11/26) of LR-3 HCCs and 78.4% (29/37) of LR-4 HCCs. Transitional phase (TP) hypointensity (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 10.59; P<0.001), restricted diffusion (adjusted OR, 7.55; P=0.004), and KPD (adjusted OR, 7.16; P=0.003) were significant imaging features for HCC diagnosis. The presence of at least two significant imaging features was optimal for HCC diagnosis (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy: 88.9%, 78.1%, and 84.6%, respectively), with significantly higher sensitivity than the presence of both CEUS-APHE and KPD (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy: 63.5% [P=0.001], 92.7% [P=0.077], and 75.0% [P=0.089], respectively). @*Conclusion@#The combined interpretation of gadoxetate-enhanced MRI and second-line CEUS using Sonazoid, focusing on TP hypointensity, restricted diffusion, and KPD, may be optimal for further characterizing LR-3 and LR-4 observations.

5.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 776-782, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938373

ABSTRACT

Burnout among radiologists has recently emerged as an issue that poses a threat to patient safety. Burnout adversely effects the quality of patient care and may lead to health problems in physicians. Approximately 84% of board-certified radiologists working in large hospitals in Korea responded that they had experienced burnout at least once. To overcome this, the standardization of physicians’ workloads, as well as improvements in the professional workflow are necessary to ensure a healthy lifestyle balance.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 189-197, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875254

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Muscle depletion in patients undergoing liver transplantation affects the recipients’ prognosis and therefore cannot be overlooked. We aimed to evaluate whether changes in muscle and fat mass during the preoperative period are associated with prognosis after deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). @*Materials and Methods@#This study included 72 patients who underwent DDLT and serial computed tomography (CT) scans.Skeletal muscle index (SMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were calculated using the muscle and fat area in CT performed 1 year prior to surgery (1 yr Pre-LT), just before surgery (Pre-LT), and after transplantation (Post-LT). Simple aspects of serial changes in muscle and fat mass were analyzed during three measurement time points. The rate of preoperative changes in body composition parameters were calculated (preoperative ΔSMI [%] = [SMI at Pre-LT - SMI at 1 yr Pre-LT] / SMI at Pre-LT x 100;preoperative ΔFMI [%] = [FMI at Pre-LT - FMI at 1 yr Pre-LT] / FMI at Pre-LT x 100) and assessed for correlation with patient survival. @*Results@#SMI significantly decreased during the preoperative period (mean preoperative ΔSMI, -13.04%, p < 0.001). In the multivariable analysis, preoperative ΔSMI (p = 0.016) and model for end-stage liver disease score (p = 0.011) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. The mean survival time for patients with a threshold decrease in the preoperative ΔSMI (≤ -30%) was significantly shorter than for other patients (p = 0.007). Preoperative ΔFMI was not a prognostic factor but FMI increased during the postoperative period (p = 0.009) in all patients. @*Conclusion@#A large reduction in preoperative SMI was significantly associated with reduced survival after DDLT. Therefore, changes in muscle mass during the preoperative period can be considered as a prognostic factor for survival after DDLT.

7.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 335-346, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893622

ABSTRACT

Although primary tumors in the mesentery and omentum are relatively rare, it is often necessary to distinguish them from other non-tumorous diseases. Since the omentum and mesentery are major routes for the spread of various abdominal diseases, the anatomy, type, and pattern of the diseases affecting these organs should be known in detail for accurate differential diagnosis. In addition, it is important to detect and promptly treat hidden lesions in the mesentery and omentum. Therefore, careful observation of the area where the lesion occur should be emphasized when assessing mesentery and omentum in abdominal CT.

8.
Ultrasonography ; : 486-498, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919548

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features using Sonazoid for liver nodules with Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) categories and to identify the usefulness of Kupffer-phase images. @*Methods@#This retrospective study was conducted in 203 patients at high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent CEUS with Sonazoid from 2013 to 2016. Nodule enhancement in the arterial, portal venous, late, and Kupffer phases; CEUS LI-RADS major features; and Kupffer-phase defects were evaluated. According to the computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) LI-RADS v2018, all nodules were assigned an LR category (n=4/33/99/67 for LR-M/3/4/5) and comparisons across LR categories were made. We defined modified CEUS LI-RADS as using Kupffer-phase defects as an alternative to late and mild washout in CEUS LI-RADS and compared the diagnostic performance for HCC. @*Results@#On CEUS of 203 nodules, 89.6% of CT/MRI LR-5 and 85.9% of LR-4 nodules showed hyperenhancement in the arterial phase, while 57.6% of LR-3 nodules showed hyperenhancement. Among the CT/MRI LR-5 nodules that showed arterial phase hyperenhancement or isoenhancement, 59.7% showed hypoenhancing changes from the portal venous phase, 23.9% from the late phase, and 13.4% additionally in the Kupffer phase. The modified CEUS LI-RADS showed higher sensitivity than CEUS LI-RADS (83.2% vs. 74.2%, P=0.008) without compromising specificity (63.6% vs. 69.7%, P=0.500). @*Conclusion@#The Kupffer phase best shows hypoenhancing changes in LR-5 lesions and is expected to improve the sensitivity for HCC in high-risk patients.

9.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 261-267, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918955

ABSTRACT

There are various causes of hepatocellular carcinoma, including viral hepatitis, and treatment strategies are often established based on the radiology diagnosis, unlike other carcinomas. The liver imaging reporting and data system (LI-RADS) is a diagnostic system developed by the American College of Radiologists for clear communication and standardized reports of the liver imaging findings. It was recently included in the clinical guidance of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. In addition, the radiologic findings of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) enable a prediction of the prognosis after treatment and a diagnosis of diseases because the use of gadoxetic acid MRI has become more common. Thus, the role of radiology for the diagnosis and treatment of HCC is expected to be developed further.

10.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 335-346, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901326

ABSTRACT

Although primary tumors in the mesentery and omentum are relatively rare, it is often necessary to distinguish them from other non-tumorous diseases. Since the omentum and mesentery are major routes for the spread of various abdominal diseases, the anatomy, type, and pattern of the diseases affecting these organs should be known in detail for accurate differential diagnosis. In addition, it is important to detect and promptly treat hidden lesions in the mesentery and omentum. Therefore, careful observation of the area where the lesion occur should be emphasized when assessing mesentery and omentum in abdominal CT.

11.
Ultrasonography ; : 272-280, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835337

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the impact of liver stiffness measurements (LSM) made using 2-dimensional (2D) shear wave elastography (SWE) on the diagnosis and grading of hepatic fibrosis and liver cirrhosis (LC) using grayscale ultrasonography (US). @*Methods@#This retrospective study included 46 patients who underwent liver biopsy for chronic liver disease and 33 non-biopsied subjects with no or mild fibrosis (an aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index <0.50 and a Forns score <4.21). Two abdominal radiologists reviewed randomized grayscale hepatic sonogram sets with and without LSM, separated by a 4-week interval. They graded the features of echogenicity, echotexture, surface nodularity, and edge blunting and classified patients by fibrosis grade. Interobserver agreement and correlations with the fibrosis grades were compared before and after the reviewers were informed regarding LSM, and the impact of LSM on diagnostic performance was evaluated. @*Results@#The standard diagnoses were no or mild fibrosis (F0-1, n=39), moderate to advanced fibrosis (F2-3, n=23), or LC (n=17). The correlations between US and the diagnostic reference standard increased significantly with LSM incorporation (0.499 and 0.312 to 0.782 and 0.804, P<0.01 for both reviewers), as did interobserver agreement (0.318 to 0.753, P<0.01). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis increased when LSM was included (0.682 and 0.591 to 0.855 and 0.907, P<0.01 for both reviewers), while the AUCs for the diagnosis of LC did not change significantly (0.891 and 0.783 to 0.904 and 0.900, P=0.849 and P=0.166). @*Conclusion@#Incorporating LSM values obtained by 2D-SWE improved the diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement of grayscale US for hepatic fibrosis.

12.
Ultrasonography ; : 191-220, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835332

ABSTRACT

The first edition of the guidelines for the use of ultrasound contrast agents was published in 2004, dealing with liver applications. The second edition of the guidelines in 2008 reflected changes in the available contrast agents and updated the guidelines for the liver, as well as implementing some nonliver applications. The third edition of the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) guidelines was the joint World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (WFUMB-EFSUMB) venture in conjunction with other regional US societies such as Asian Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, resulting in a simultaneous duplicate on liver CEUS in the official journals of both WFUMB and EFSUMB in 2013. However, no guidelines were described mainly for Sonazoid due to limited clinical experience only in Japan and Korea. The new proposed consensus statements and recommendations provide general advice on the use of Sonazoid and are intended to create standard protocols for the use and administration of Sonazoid in hepatic and pancreatobiliary applications in Asian patients and to improve patient management.

13.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 356-361, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787221

ABSTRACT

Biliary adenofibroma is a rare tumor with a bile duct origin characterized by a complex tubulocystic non-mucin secreting biliary epithelium with abundant fibrous stroma. The MRI features of biliary adenofibroma are not well established. The authors encountered two patients with biliary adenofibroma and reviewed the literature focusing on the MRI findings. A well-circumscribed multicystic tumor with septal enhancement and no intrahepatic bile duct communication may be the characteristic MRI findings of biliary adenofibroma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenofibroma , Bile Ducts , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic , Epithelium , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
14.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1616-1626, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786370

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic computed tomography (CT) and gadoxetate-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for characterization of hepatic lesions by using the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) in a multicenter, off-site evaluation.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective multicenter study, we evaluated 231 hepatic lesions (114 hepatocellular carcinomas [HCCs], 58 non-HCC malignancies, and 59 benign lesions) confirmed histologically in 217 patients with chronic liver disease who underwent both gadoxetate-enhanced MRI and dynamic CT at one of five tertiary hospitals. Four radiologists at different institutes independently reviewed all MR images first and the CT images 4 weeks later. They evaluated the major and ancillary imaging features and categorized each hepatic lesion according to the LI-RADS v2014. Diagnostic performance was calculated and compared using generalized estimating equations.RESULTS: MRI showed higher sensitivity and accuracy than CT for diagnosing hepatic malignancies; the pooled sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies for categorizing LR-5/5V/M were 59.0% vs. 72.4% (CT vs. MRI; p < 0.001), 83.5% vs. 83.9% (p = 0.906), and 65.3% vs. 75.3% (p < 0.001), respectively. CT and MRI showed comparable capabilities for differentiating between HCC and other malignancies, with pooled accuracies of 79.9% and 82.4% for categorizing LR-M, respectively (p = 0.139).CONCLUSION: Gadoxetate-enhanced MRI showed superior accuracy for categorizing LR-5/5V/M in hepatic malignancies in comparison with dynamic CT. Both modalities had comparable accuracies for distinguishing other malignancies from HCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Academies and Institutes , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Contrast Media , Information Systems , Liver , Liver Diseases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
15.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 21-29, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763382

ABSTRACT

Concurrent advancements in imaging and genomic biomarkers have created opportunities to identify non-invasive imaging surrogates of molecular phenotypes. In order to develop such imaging surrogates radiomics and radiogenomics/imaging genomics will be necessary; there has been consistent progress in these fields for primary liver cancers. In this article we evaluate the current status of the field specifically with regards to hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, highlighting some of the up and coming results that were presented at the annual Radiological Society of North America Conference in 2017. There are an increasing number of studies in this area with a bias towards quantitative feature measurement, which is expected to benefit reproducibility of the findings and portends well for the future development of biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response assessment. We review some of the advancements and look forward to some of the exciting future applications that are anticipated as the field develops.


Subject(s)
Bias , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cholangiocarcinoma , Diagnosis , Genomics , Liver Neoplasms , Liver , North America , Phenotype , Prognosis
16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e223-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the prognostic role of the categorized hemodynamic stage (HS) based on the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) in patients with portal hypertension. METHODS: Of 1,025 cirrhotic patients who underwent HVPG measurement, data on 572 non-critically-ill patients were collected retrospectively between 2008 and 2013. The following two HS categorizations were used: HS-1 (6–9, 10–12, 13–16, 17–20, and > 20 mmHg; designated as groups 1–5, respectively) and HS-2 (6–12, 13–20, and > 20 mmHg). Clinical characteristics, mortality rates, and prognostic predictors were analyzed according to the categorized HS. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up period of 25 months, 86 (15.0%) patients died. The numbers of deaths in HS-1 groups were 7 (6.3%), 7 (6.9%), 30 (18.0%), 20 (15.6%), and 22 (34.4%), respectively (P 20 mmHg; HR, 5.45) and intermediate model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (HVPG, 13–20 mmHg; HR, 3.86 and HVPG > 20 mmHg; HR, 8.77; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Categorizing HVPG values according to HS-2 is a useful prognostic modality in patients with portal hypertension and can play an independent role in predicting the prognosis in patients with hypoalbuminemia and an intermediate MELD score.


Subject(s)
Humans , Discrimination, Psychological , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hemodynamics , Hypertension, Portal , Hypoalbuminemia , Liver Diseases , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Venous Pressure
17.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 247-253, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916694

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to summarize the results of a survey for physicians with specialties other than radiology about imaging studies of patients referred from other institutions. The survey was promoted through individual contacts or social network service and physicians who voluntarily responded to the survey were the subjects of the study. The questionnaire consisted of 11 questions about basic information and referrals about medical imaging. A total of 160 physicians from 30 specialties participated in the survey and 95.6% of the respondents worked in tertiary care center or general hospital. Patients were frequently referred with outside medical images. The most frequently referred imaging modalities were computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, radiological reports from outside institutions were rarely referred. Most physicians thought that reinterpretation for outside imaging is necessary to acquire a secondary opinion. In conclusion, considering that outside radiological reports are frequently missing and there are high demands on reinterpretation for outside imaging, guidelines for referral of radiological reports with medical imaging, basic elements of radiological reports, and reinterpretation need to be developed.

18.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 254-258, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916693

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Establishment of an appropriate protocol for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the study of image quality standards to enhance the effectiveness of medical image information exchange, which is part of the construction and activation of clinical information exchange for healthcare informatization.@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#The recommended protocols of breast and MRI scans were reviewed and the questionnaire was prepared by a responsible researcher. Then, a panel of 9 breast dedicated radiologists was set up in Korea. The expert panel conducted a total of three Delphi agreements to draw up a consensus on the breast MRI protocol.@*RESULTS@#The agreed breast MRI recommendation protocol is a 1.5 Tesla or higher device that acquires images with prone position using a breast dedicated coil and includes T2-weighted and pre-contrast T1-weighted images. Contrast enhancement images are acquired at least two times, and include 60–120 seconds between images and after 4 minutes. The contrast enhancement T1-weighted image should be less than 3 mm in thickness, less than 120 seconds in temporal resolution, and less than 1.5 mm² in-plane pixel resolution.@*CONCLUSION@#The Delphi agreement of the domestic breast imaging specialist group has established the recommendation protocol of the effective breast MRI.

19.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 51-53, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713312

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Living Donors
20.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 208-216, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208824

ABSTRACT

This paper is a summary of the methodology including protocol used to develop evidence-based clinical imaging guidelines (CIGs) in Korea, led by the Korean Society of Radiology and the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency. This is the first protocol to reflect the process of developing diagnostic guidelines in Korea. The development protocol is largely divided into the following sections: set-up, process of adaptation, and finalization. The working group is composed of clinical imaging experts, and the developmental committee is composed of multidisciplinary experts to validate the methodology. The Korean CIGs will continue to develop based on this protocol, and these guidelines will act for decision supporting tools for clinicians as well as reduce medical radiation exposure.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Imaging , Evidence-Based Practice , Joints , Korea , Methods , Radiation Exposure
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