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1.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 3-106, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967162

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in Korea and the world. Since 2004, this is the 4th gastric cancer guideline published in Korea which is the revised version of previous evidence-based approach in 2018. Current guideline is a collaborative work of the interdisciplinary working group including experts in the field of gastric surgery, gastroenterology, endoscopy, medical oncology, abdominal radiology, pathology, nuclear medicine, radiation oncology and guideline development methodology. Total of 33 key questions were updated or proposed after a collaborative review by the working group and 40 statements were developed according to the systematic review using the MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and KoreaMed database. The level of evidence and the grading of recommendations were categorized according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation proposition. Evidence level, benefit, harm, and clinical applicability was considered as the significant factors for recommendation. The working group reviewed recommendations and discussed for consensus. In the earlier part, general consideration discusses screening, diagnosis and staging of endoscopy, pathology, radiology, and nuclear medicine. Flowchart is depicted with statements which is supported by meta-analysis and references. Since clinical trial and systematic review was not suitable for postoperative oncologic and nutritional follow-up, working group agreed to conduct a nationwide survey investigating the clinical practice of all tertiary or general hospitals in Korea. The purpose of this survey was to provide baseline information on follow up. Herein we present a multidisciplinary-evidence based gastric cancer guideline.

2.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 76-82, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966526

ABSTRACT

While the guidelines for adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) for colon cancer are relatively standardized, those for early rectal cancer are still lacking. We therefore evaluated the role of AC in clinical stage II rectal cancer treatment after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Patients diagnosed with early rectal cancer (defined by clinical stage T3/4, N0) who completed CRT followed by surgery were enrolled in this retrospective study. To evaluate the role of AC, we analyzed the risk of recurrence and survival based on clinicopathologic parameters and adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the 112 patients, 11 patients (9.8%) experienced recurrence and five patients (4.8%) died. In a multivariate analysis, circumferential resection margin involvement (CRM+) on magnetic resonance imaging at diagnosis, CRM involvement following neoadjuvant therapy (ypCRM+), tumor regression grade (≤G1) and no-AC were considered poor prognostic factors for recurrence free survival (RFS). In addition, ypCRM+ and no-AC were associated with poor overall survival (OS) in the multivariate analysis. AC including 5-FU monotherapy demonstrated the benefits of reduced recurrence and prolonged survival in clinical stage II rectal cancer, even in pathologic stage following neoadjuvant therapy (ypStage) 0-I. Further prospective studies are needed to verify the benefit of each regimen of AC and the development of a method that can accurately predict CRM status before surgery, and a vigorous treatment that can induce CRM non-involvement (CRM−) should be considered even in early stages of rectal cancer.

3.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 29-36, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913901

ABSTRACT

Extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma is a rare and aggressive cancer. Although several biological and histological markers have been suggested as prognostic factors for this cancer, the prognostic importance of systemic inflammatory markers, including the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio, is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between systemic inflammatory markers and the prognosis of extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 85 patients with unresectable or metastatic extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma who received platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line chemotherapy from August 2007 to November 2019. We used time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to determine the cut-off values. The cut-off values for the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio were 3.0 and 158.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score, Ki-67 index, or response to chemotherapy between groups. The high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio group showed significantly worse overall survival (high vs. low, median 11.1 vs. 21.0 months, log-rank p=0.004) and shorter median progression-free survival, but the latter was not statistically significant. The high platelet-lymphocyte ratio group also showed significantly worse progression-free survival and overall survival than the low platelet-lymphocyte ratio group (high vs. low:median 5.6 vs. 9.8 months, log-rank p=0.047 and median 13.8 vs. 21.0 months, log-rank p=0.013, respectively). In multivariable analysis, a high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is a potent and readily available prognostic factor for extra-pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma.

4.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 660-672, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927020

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite the increasing need for geriatric assessment prior to chemotherapy, the method for this assessment remains inadequate for older cancer patients. We aimed to propose a simple assessment method to predict the performance of adjuvant chemotherapy in older patients after colon cancer surgery. @*Methods@#This prospective study included patients over 65 years of age who were scheduled for adjuvant chemotherapy after colon cancer surgery. Before initiating chemotherapy, their functional status was assessed on the basis of activities of daily living (ADL)/instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). These parameters were analyzed with clinical characteristics and the patterns of adjuvant chemotherapy. The focus was on the completion rate of adjuvant chemotherapy. @*Results@#A total of 89 patients with a median age of 72 years were analyzed. Among them, 54 (61%) were non-impaired and 35 (39%) were impaired regarding their ADL/IADL classification. Low body mass index and impairment of ADL/IADLs were significantly associated with chemotherapy interruption. Among toxicities, fatigue and hand-foot syndrome were independent prognostic factors for chemotherapy interruption. Impairments of ADL/IADL were significantly associated with fatigue regardless of age. Based on age and ADL/IADL stratification, younger patients (≤ 72 years) and/or those who were ADL/IADL non-impaired were significantly more likely to complete adjuvant chemotherapy than older patients (> 72 years) and ADL/IADL impaired patients (p = 0.038). This was regardless of the chemotherapy regimen. @*Conclusions@#Functional assessment using ADL/IADL is a convenient method to predict chemotherapy toxicity and performance. These results suggested that routine screening for ADL/IADLs could guide appropriate patient selection for the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy and predict expected outcomes.

5.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 491-514, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895992

ABSTRACT

In 2017, Korean Society of Medical Oncology (KSMO) published the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. This paper is the 2nd edition of the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. We updated recent many changes of management in metastatic prostate cancer in this 2nd edition guideline. The present guideline consists of the three categories: management of metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer; management of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer; and clinical consideration for treating patients with metastatic prostate cancer. In category 1 and 2, levels of evidence (LEs) have been mentioned according to the general principles of evidence-based medicine. And grades of recommendation (GR) was taken into account the quality of evidence, the balance between desirable and undesirable effects, the values and preferences, and the use of resources and GR were divided into strong recommendations (SR) and weak recommendations (WR). A total of 16 key questions are selected. And we proposed recommendations and described key evidence for each recommendation. The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer is changing very rapid and many trials are ongoing. To verify the results of the future trials is necessary and should be applied to the treatment for metastatic prostate cancer patients in the clinical practice. Especially, many prostate cancer patients are old age, have multiple underlying medical comorbidities, clinicians should be aware of the significance of medical management as well as clinical efficacy of systemic treatment.

6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 491-514, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903696

ABSTRACT

In 2017, Korean Society of Medical Oncology (KSMO) published the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. This paper is the 2nd edition of the Korean management guideline of metastatic prostate cancer. We updated recent many changes of management in metastatic prostate cancer in this 2nd edition guideline. The present guideline consists of the three categories: management of metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer; management of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer; and clinical consideration for treating patients with metastatic prostate cancer. In category 1 and 2, levels of evidence (LEs) have been mentioned according to the general principles of evidence-based medicine. And grades of recommendation (GR) was taken into account the quality of evidence, the balance between desirable and undesirable effects, the values and preferences, and the use of resources and GR were divided into strong recommendations (SR) and weak recommendations (WR). A total of 16 key questions are selected. And we proposed recommendations and described key evidence for each recommendation. The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer is changing very rapid and many trials are ongoing. To verify the results of the future trials is necessary and should be applied to the treatment for metastatic prostate cancer patients in the clinical practice. Especially, many prostate cancer patients are old age, have multiple underlying medical comorbidities, clinicians should be aware of the significance of medical management as well as clinical efficacy of systemic treatment.

7.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 291-300, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897418

ABSTRACT

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a group of malignancies arising from neuroendocrine cells and frequently originate in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Although curative resection is the main treatment for localized disease, systemic therapy is needed for relapsed or metastatic/unresectable gastroenteropancreatic NETs (GEP-NETs). Although there are several NET treatment guidelines from various countries, the geographical discrepancies between patient clinical characteristics, the regulatory approval status for therapeutic agents, and medical practices necessitate specific guidelines for Korean patients. We here provide a consensus review of the diagnosis, staging and systemic treatment of Korean GEP-NET patients. Systemic therapy options and the current Korean expert consensus on these treatments, including somatostatin analogs, targeted therapies such as everolimus and sunitinib, peptide receptor radionuclide treatments, and cytotoxic chemotherapies are addressed.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 291-300, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889714

ABSTRACT

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a group of malignancies arising from neuroendocrine cells and frequently originate in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Although curative resection is the main treatment for localized disease, systemic therapy is needed for relapsed or metastatic/unresectable gastroenteropancreatic NETs (GEP-NETs). Although there are several NET treatment guidelines from various countries, the geographical discrepancies between patient clinical characteristics, the regulatory approval status for therapeutic agents, and medical practices necessitate specific guidelines for Korean patients. We here provide a consensus review of the diagnosis, staging and systemic treatment of Korean GEP-NET patients. Systemic therapy options and the current Korean expert consensus on these treatments, including somatostatin analogs, targeted therapies such as everolimus and sunitinib, peptide receptor radionuclide treatments, and cytotoxic chemotherapies are addressed.

9.
Electrolytes & Blood Pressure ; : 49-52, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898121

ABSTRACT

Chemotherapeutic drugs can cause cardiac toxicities such as cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, and cardiovascular disease. The well-known side effects of cisplatin are nephrotoxicity, nausea, vomiting, and electrolyte imbalance. Cardiotoxicity induced by cisplatin is rare, and its pathophysiology is unknown. Here, we present two cases of complete and high-degree atrioventricular (AV) block that occurred during cisplatin-based chemotherapy and required pacemaker placement. A 64-year-old woman and a 75-year-old man, who had no underlying heart disease, developed dyspnea without chest pain and bradycardia during cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, there were no significant differences in their serum electrolyte levels, cardiac enzyme levels, and echocardiography results before and after drug administration. The ECGs were confirmed with complete AV block and highdegree AV block, which requiring pacemaker placement. We assume that cisplatin directly caused the complete, high-degree AV block, which required a pacemaker placement in our cases. In such cases, a cumulative dose of cisplatin over 240 mg/m 2 is a risk factor for early symptoms of AV block. If patients complain of dyspnea without chest pain during cisplatin-based chemotherapy, arrhythmic complications should be considered. This information may be helpful for clinicians treating patients with cisplatin chemotherapy.

10.
Electrolytes & Blood Pressure ; : 49-52, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890417

ABSTRACT

Chemotherapeutic drugs can cause cardiac toxicities such as cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, and cardiovascular disease. The well-known side effects of cisplatin are nephrotoxicity, nausea, vomiting, and electrolyte imbalance. Cardiotoxicity induced by cisplatin is rare, and its pathophysiology is unknown. Here, we present two cases of complete and high-degree atrioventricular (AV) block that occurred during cisplatin-based chemotherapy and required pacemaker placement. A 64-year-old woman and a 75-year-old man, who had no underlying heart disease, developed dyspnea without chest pain and bradycardia during cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, there were no significant differences in their serum electrolyte levels, cardiac enzyme levels, and echocardiography results before and after drug administration. The ECGs were confirmed with complete AV block and highdegree AV block, which requiring pacemaker placement. We assume that cisplatin directly caused the complete, high-degree AV block, which required a pacemaker placement in our cases. In such cases, a cumulative dose of cisplatin over 240 mg/m 2 is a risk factor for early symptoms of AV block. If patients complain of dyspnea without chest pain during cisplatin-based chemotherapy, arrhythmic complications should be considered. This information may be helpful for clinicians treating patients with cisplatin chemotherapy.

11.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 185-193, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831774

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#For metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), various prognostic scoring systems have been developed. However, owing to the low prevalence of nonclear cell RCC, the three most commonly used tools were mainly developed based on patients with clear cell histology. Accordingly, this study applied three prognostic models to Korean non-clear cell RCC patients treated with first-line temsirolimus. @*Methods@#This study analyzed data for 74 patients with non-clear cell RCC who were treated with temsirolimus as the first-line therapy at eight medical centers between 2011 and 2016. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the different prognostic models were analyzed. @*Results@#Twenty-seven (36.5%), 24 (32.4%), and 44 patients (59.5%) were assigned to the poor prognosis groups of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC), and Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma (ARCC) risk stratification models, respectively. All three prognostic models reliably discriminated the risk groups to predict progression-free survival and overall survival (p < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for progression and survival was highest for the ARCC model (0.777; 0.734), followed by the IMDC (0.756; 0.724) and the MSKCC (0.742; 0.712) models. Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity for predicting progression were highest with the ARCC model (sensitivity 63.6%, specificity 85.7%), followed by the MSKCC (sensitivity 58.2%, specificity 86.5%) and the IMDC models (sensitivity 56.4%, specificity 85.7%). @*Conclusions@#All three prognostic models accurately predicted the survival of the non-clear cell RCC patients treated with temsirolimus as the first-line therapy. Furthermore, the ARCC risk model performed better than the other risk models in predicting survival.

12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 246-253, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831073

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Pneumococcal vaccination (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV13]) is recommended to cancer patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy. However, the optimal time interval between vaccine administration and initiation of chemotherapy has been little studied in adult patients with solid malignancies. @*Materials and Methods@#We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether administering PCV13 on the first day of chemotherapy is non-inferior to vaccinating 2 weeks prior to chemotherapy initiation. Patients were randomly assigned to two study arms, and serum samples were collected at baseline and 4 weeks after vaccination to analyze the serologic response against Streptococcus pneumoniae using a multiplexed opsonophagocytic killingassay. @*Results@#Of the 92 patients who underwent randomization, 43 patients in arm A (vaccination 2 weeks before chemotherapy) and 44 patients in arm B (vaccination on the first day of chemotherapy) were analyzed. Immunogenicity was assessed by geometric mean and fold-increase of post-vaccination titers, seroprotection rates (percentage of patients with post-vaccination titers > 1:64), and seroconversion rates (percentage of patients with > 4-fold increase in post-vaccination titers). Serologic responses to PCV13 did not differ significantly between the two study arms according to all three types of assessments. @*Conclusion@#The overall antibody response to PCV13 is adequate in patients with gastric and colorectal cancer during adjuvant chemotherapy, and no significant difference was found when patients were vaccinated two weeks before or on the day of chemotherapy initiation.

13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 277-283, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831070

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics and treatment pattern of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) in Korea and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in earlystage. @*Materials and Methods@#Medical records of 308 cases of from 21 institutions were reviewed and data including age, performance status, endometriosis, thromboembolism, stage, cancer antigen 125, treatment, recurrence, and death were collected. @*Results@#Regarding stage of OCCC, it was stage I in 194 (63.6%), stage II in 34 (11.1%), stage III in 66 (21.6%), and stage IV in 11 (3.6%) patients. All patients underwent surgery. Optimal surgery (residual disease ≤ 1 cm) was achieved in 89.3%. Majority of patients (80.5%) received postoperative chemotherapy. The most common regimen was taxane-platinum combination (96%). Median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 138.5 months for stage I, 33.4 for stage II, 19.3 for stage III, and 9.7 for stage IV. Median overall survival (OS) were not reached, 112.4, 48.7, and 18.3 months for stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Early-stage (stage I), endometriosis, and optimal debulking were identified as favorable prognostic factors for RFS. Early-stage and optimal debulking were also favorable prognostic factors for OS. Majority of patients with early-stage received adjuvant chemotherapy. However, additional survival benefit was not found in terms of recurrence. @*Conclusion@#Majority of patients had early-stage and received postoperative chemotherapy regardless of stage. Early-stage and optimal debulking were identified as favorable prognostic factors. In stage IA or IB, adding adjuvant chemotherapy did not show difference in survival. Further study focusing on OCCC is required.

14.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 301-314, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764499

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Peritoneal carcinomatosis in gastric cancer (GC) patients results in extremely poor prognosis. Malignant ascites samples are the most appropriate biological material to use to evaluate biomarkers for peritoneal carcinomatosis. This study identified exosomal MicroRNAs (miRNAs) differently expressed between benign liver cirrhosis-associated ascites (LC-ascites) and malignant gastric cancer-associated ascites (GC-ascites), and validated their role as diagnostic biomarkers for GC-ascites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from exosomes isolated from 165 ascites samples (73 LC-ascites and 92 GC-ascites). Initially, microarrays were used to screen the expression levels of 2,006 miRNAs in the discovery cohort (n=22). Subsequently, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses were performed to validate the expression levels of selected exosomal miRNAs in the training (n=70) and validation (n=73) cohorts. Furthermore, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels were determined in ascites samples. RESULTS: The miR-574-3p, miR-181b-5p, miR-4481, and miR-181d were significantly downregulated in the GC-ascites samples compared to the LC-ascites samples, and miR-181b-5p showed the best diagnostic performance for GC-ascites (area under the curve [AUC]=0.798 and 0.846 for the training and validation cohorts, respectively). The diagnostic performance of CEA for GC-ascites was improved by the combined analysis of miR-181b-5p and CEA (AUC=0.981 and 0.946 for the training and validation cohorts, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We identified exosomal miRNAs capable of distinguishing between non-malignant and GC-ascites, showing that the combined use of miR-181b-5p and CEA could improve diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascites , Biomarkers , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Carcinoma , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Down-Regulation , Exosomes , Liver , MicroRNAs , Prognosis , RNA , Stomach Neoplasms
15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 851-860, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763193

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to explore the current awareness and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as well as attitudes toward CAM, in patients with cancer and their family members in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between September 21 and October 31, 2017, a 25-item questionnaire regarding CAM experiences among cancer patients and their family members was conducted in 10 oncology clinics in South Korea after institutional review board approval at each institution. RESULTS: In total, 283/310 patients were analyzed. The median age was 60 years, and 60% were male. Most of the patients were actively receiving anticancer treatment at the time of the survey. A total of 106 patients (37%) had experienced a median of two types (interquartile range, 1 to 3) of CAM. Belief in CAM (odds ratio [OR], 3.015; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.611 to 5.640) and duration of disease (OR, 1.012; 95% CI, 1.004 to 1.020) were independent factors for using CAM in multivariable analysis. Belief in CAM was significantly associated with current use of CAM (OR, 3.633; 95% CI, 1.567 to 8.424). Lay referral was the most common reason for deciding to use CAM, and only 25% of patients (72/283) discussed CAM with their physicians. CONCLUSION: Patient attitudes toward and confidence in CAM modalities were strongly associated with their CAM experiences, and only a small number of patients had an open discussion about CAM with their physicians. A patient education program for CAM is needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Complementary Therapies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethics Committees, Research , Korea , Patient Education as Topic , Referral and Consultation
16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e272-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) has been well studied as a treatment for cancer. However, the therapeutic outcome of PTT is often hindered by the penetration depth of laser light. In the tumor margin beyond the laser penetration limit, tumor recurrence often occurs, bypassing the immune response of the host. Accumulating evidence suggests the prominent role of tumor microenvironment (TME) and its interactions with the immune components contribute to an immunosuppressive milieu during the post-therapy period. Here, we explored the immunosuppressive cascade generated after PTT, which is responsible for tumor recurrence, and identified the potential targets to achieve an effective PTT period. METHODS: Here, we investigated the immunosuppressive cascade generated after PTT in a CT26 tumor bearing mouse. The liposomal system loaded with the indocyanine green (ICG) was utilized for the generation of PTT with high efficiency. Immunological factors such as cytokines and protein expressions post-therapy were investigated through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. RESULTS: Our results suggested that PTT with ICG-loaded liposomes (Lipo-ICG) was effective for the first 5 days after treatment, resulting in tumor suppression. However, an immunosuppressive and pro-inflammatory environment developed thereafter, causing the recruitment and upregulation of the immune evasion factors of heat shock protein 70, programmed death ligand 1, indoleamine-dioxygenase, interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-β, regulatory T-cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, to develop immunotolerance. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these findings have determined potential therapeutic targets to modulate the TME during PTT and achieve tumor ablation without remission.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Blotting, Western , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Immune Evasion , Immunologic Factors , Immunosuppression Therapy , Indocyanine Green , Interleukin-6 , Liposomes , Recurrence , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Tumor Microenvironment , Up-Regulation
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 90-97, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719715

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Data on the efficacy of olanzapine in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) are limited. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of olanzapine versus placebo in controlling nausea and vomiting in patients receiving MEC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to determine whether olanzapine can reduce the frequency of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and improve the quality of life (QOL) in patients receiving palonosetron and dexamethasone as prophylaxis for MEC-induced nausea and vomiting. The primary end point was complete response for the acute phase (0-24 hours after chemotherapy). The secondary end points were complete response for the delayed (24-120 hours) and overall phase (0-120 hours), proportion of significant nausea (visual analogue scale ≥ 25 mm), use ofrescue medications, and effect on QOL. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were randomized to the olanzapine (n=29) and placebo (n=27) groups. Complete response rates were not significantly different between the olanzapine and placebo groups in the acute (96.5% vs. 88.0%, p=0.326), delayed (69.0% vs. 48.0%, p=0.118), and overall phases (69.0% vs. 48.0%, p=0.118). However, the percentage of patients with significant nausea (17.2% vs. 44.0%, p=0.032) and the use of rescue medications (0.03±0.19 vs. 1.88±2.88, p=0.002) were lower in the olanzapine group than in the placebo. Furthermore, the olanzapine group demonstrated better QOL (p=0.015). CONCLUSION: Olanzapine combined with palonosetron and dexamethasone significantly improved QOL and vomiting control among previously untreated patients receiving MEC, although the efficacy was limited to the reduction of the frequency of CINV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiemetics , Dexamethasone , Drug Therapy , Nausea , Quality of Life , Vomiting
18.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e325-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate survival outcomes and prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who received sunitinib (SU) and pazopanib (PZ) as first-line therapy in real-world Korean clinical practice. METHODS: Data of 554 patients with mRCC who received SU or PZ at eight institutions between 2012 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the targeted therapy, the patients were divided into SU (n = 293) or PZ (n = 261) groups, and the clinicopathological variables and survival rates of the two groups were compared. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the prognostic factors for OS. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 16.4 months (interquartile range, 8.3–31.3). Patients in the PZ group were older, and no significant difference was observed in the performance status (PS) between the two groups. In the SU group, the dose reduction rate was higher and the incidence of grade 3 toxicity was more frequent. The objective response rates were comparable between the two groups (SU, 32.1% vs. PZ, 36.4%). OS did not differ significantly between the two groups (SU, 36.5 months vs. PZ, 40.2 months; log-rank, P = 0.955). Body mass index, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS > 2, synchronous metastasis, poor Heng risk criteria, and liver and bone metastases were associated with a shorter OS. CONCLUSION: Our real-world data of Korean patients with mRCC suggested that SU and PZ had similar efficacies as first-line therapy for mRCC. However, PZ was better tolerated than SU in Korean patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Body Mass Index , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Liver , Neoplasm Metastasis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
19.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1258-1259, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718004

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Hyperparathyroidism
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 766-777, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129233

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) plays an important role in cancer progression during tumor proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. This study evaluated the prognostic role of FGFR4 polymorphism in patients with resected colon cancer, including the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FGFR4 polymorphism was characterized in patientswho received curative resection for stage III colon cancer. FGFR4-dependent signal pathways involving cell proliferation, invasion, and migration according to genotypes were also evaluated in transfected colon cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Among a total of 273 patients, the GG of FGFR4 showed significantly better overall survival than the AG or AA, regardless of adjuvant treatment. In the group of AG or AA, combination of folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) resulted in better survival than fluorouracil/leucovorin or no adjuvant chemotherapy. However, in GG, there was no difference among treatment regimens. Using multivariate analyses, the Arg388 carriers, together with age, N stage, poor differentiation, absence of a lymphocyte response, and no adjuvant chemotherapy, had a significantly worse OS than patients with the Gly388 allele. In transfected colon cancer cells, overexpression of Arg388 significantly increased cell proliferation and changes in epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers compared with cells overexpressing the Gly388 allele. CONCLUSION: The Arg388 allele of FGFR4 may be a biomarker and a candidate target for adjuvant treatment of patients with resected colon cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Biomarkers , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Fluorouracil , Genotype , Leucovorin , Lymphocytes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4 , Signal Transduction
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