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1.
The Ewha Medical Journal ; : e13-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002859

ABSTRACT

Elbow pain is a common symptom encountered in clinical practice. Pathology can arise from any component of the joint, including the bone, tendons, ligament, bursa, or nerves. This paper discusses how elbow pain can be differentiated according to its anatomic location and presents the corresponding causes, diagnosis, and treatment options.

2.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 269-273, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999443

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to assess the performance of ChatGPT, specifically the GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 models, in understanding complex surgical clinical information and its potential implications for surgical education and training. @*Methods@#The dataset comprised 280 questions from the Korean general surgery board exams conducted between 2020 and 2022. Both GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 models were evaluated, and their performances were compared using McNemar test. @*Results@#GPT-3.5 achieved an overall accuracy of 46.8%, while GPT-4 demonstrated a significant improvement with an overall accuracy of 76.4%, indicating a notable difference in performance between the models (P < 0.001). GPT-4 also exhibited consistent performance across all subspecialties, with accuracy rates ranging from 63.6% to 83.3%. @*Conclusion@#ChatGPT, particularly GPT-4, demonstrates a remarkable ability to understand complex surgical clinical information, achieving an accuracy rate of 76.4% on the Korean general surgery board exam. However, it is important to recognize the limitations of large language models and ensure that they are used in conjunction with human expertise and judgment.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 189-195, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966477

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The purpose of this phase II trial was to evaluate whether the addition of simvastatin, a synthetic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with capecitabine confers a clinical benefit to patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with LARC (defined by clinical stage T3/4 and/or lymph node positivity) received preoperative radiation (45-50.4 Gy in 25-28 daily fractions) with concomitant capecitabine (825 mg/m2 twice per day) and simvastatin (80 mg, daily). Curative surgery was planned 4-8 weeks after completion of the CRT regimen. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR). The secondary endpoints included sphincter-sparing surgery, R0 resection, disease-free survival, overall survival, the pattern of failure, and toxicity. @*Results@#Between October 2014 and July 2017, 61 patients were enrolled; 53 patients completed CRT regimen and underwent total mesorectal excision. The pCR rate was 18.9% (n=10) by per-protocol analysis. Sphincter-sparing surgery was performed in 51 patients (96.2%). R0 resection was achieved in 51 patients (96.2%). One patient experienced grade 3 liver enzyme elevation. No patient experienced additional toxicity caused by simvastatin. @*Conclusion@#The combination of 80 mg simvastatin with CRT and capecitabine did not improve pCR in patients with LARC, although it did not increase toxicity.

4.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 159-166, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925512

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We analyzed the learning curve of single-port robotic (SPR)-assisted rectal cancer surgery. @*Methods@#Fifty-seven consecutive SPR-assisted rectal cancer surgery cases performed by the same surgeon were considered in surgical interventions for rectal cancer. Total operation time (OT), docking time (DT), and surgeon console time (SCT) measured during surgery were used to parametrize the learning curve. The parameters representing the learning curve were evaluated using the cumulative sum (CUSUM). @*Results@#The mean value of total OT was 241.8 ± 91.7 minutes, the mean value of DT was 20.6 ± 19.1 minutes, and the mean value of SCT was 135.9 ± 66.7 minutes. The learning curve was divided into phase 1 (initial 16 cases), phase 2 (second 16 cases), and phase 3 (subsequent 25 cases). The peak on the CUSUM graph occurred in the 21st case. The longest OT among phases was in phase 2. Complications were most frequent in phase 2. However, complications of Clavien-Dindo (CD) grade IIIb were most frequent in phase 3 with 2 patients. The most common complications were fluid collection and urinary retention (7 patients each). Complications of CD grade IIIb required one stomal revision due to stoma obstruction and one irrigation and loop ileostomy due to anastomosis leakage. @*Conclusion@#Improvement in surgical performance of SPR assisted rectal cancer operation was achieved after 21 cases.The three phases identified in the cumulative sum analysis showed a significant decrease in operative time after the middle stage of the learning curve without an increase in the complication rate.

5.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 88-92, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925434

ABSTRACT

Recently, abdominoperineal resection (APR) using a robot has been demonstrated in other studies. However, there has been no report on APR for rectal cancer using the single-port robot (SPR) platform. In response to this research gap, we described the clinical experience of APR using a SPR. From April 2019 to March 2020, APR using a SPR platform was performed in a total of 4 patients. Three patients had a transumbilical approach, and 1 patient had a transstoma site approach. The average operation time was 307 minutes, and the patient docking time to the SPR platform was 133.5 minutes. There were no complications during the operation, and no laparoscopy or open conversion. No reoperation occurred within 30 days. Mild postoperative complications occurred in 2 patients. We found that APR has safety and feasibility in surgery using an SPR platform. There was no intraoperative event and severe postoperative complications.

6.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 60-68, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925429

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Identification of type I protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) substrates and their functional significance during tumorigenesis is becoming more important. The present study aimed to identify target substrates for type I PRMT using 2-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis (GE) and 2D Western blotting (WB). @*Methods@#Using immunoblot analysis, we compared the expression of type I PRMTs and endogenous levels of arginine methylation between the primary colorectal cancer (CRC) and adjacent noncancerous tissues paired from the same patient. To identify arginine-methylated proteins in HCT116 cells, we carried out 2D-GE and 2D-WB with a type I PRMT product-specific antibody (anti-dimethyl-arginine antibody, asymmetric [ASYM24]). Arginine-methylated protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry, and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels corresponding to the identified proteins were analyzed using National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) microarray datasets between the primary CRC and noncancerous tissues. @*Results@#Type I PRMTs and methylarginine-containing proteins were highly maintained in CRC tissues compared to noncancerous tissues. We matched 142 spots using spot analysis software between a Coomassie blue (CBB)-stained 2D gel and 2D-WB, and we successfully identified 7 proteins that reacted with the ASYM24 antibody: CACYBP, GLOD4, MAPRE1, CCT7, TKT, CK8, and HSPA8. Among these proteins, the levels of 4 mRNAs including MAPRE1, CCT7, TKT, and HSPA8 in CRC tissues showed a statistically significant increase compared to noncancerous tissues from patients using the NCBI microarray datasets. @*Conclusion@#Our results indicate that the method shown here is useful in identifying arginine-methylated proteins, and significance of arginine modification in the proteins identified here should be further identified during CRC development.

7.
Korean Journal of Clinical Oncology ; (2): 27-35, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938471

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Various clinical practice guidelines recommend at least 12 regional lymph nodes should be removed for resected colon cancer. According to a recent study, the lymph node yield (LNY) in colon cancer surgery in the last 20 years has tended to increase from 14.91 to 21.30. However, it is unclear whether these guidelines adequately reflect recent findings on the number of harvested lymph nodes in colon cancer surgery. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of an LNY of more than 25 on survival in right-sided colon cancer. @*Methods@#We included 285 patients who underwent a right hemicolectomy during the period from January 2010 through December 2015. Patients were divided into two groups (<25 nodes and ≥25 nodes). Primary endpoints included 5-year and 10-year survival including disease-free and overall. @*Results@#We found that survival outcomes of patients with a harvest of ≥25 nodes were not significantly different compared with a <25 group. Large tumor size (5 cm) is significantly associated with poor 5-year and 10-year overall survival. @*Conclusion@#Survival outcomes of patients with a harvest of ≥25 nodes were not significantly different compared with the <25 group in stage II colon cancer with no risk.

8.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 245-248, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918959

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis of the cystic duct lymph node is very rare. Only four cases have been reported in the literature. This paper presents the case of a young male patient with a tuberculous cystic duct lymph node and chronic cholecystitis, who was diagnosed with cystic duct stones and a gall bladder polyp preoperatively.

9.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 150-157, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900909

ABSTRACT

Background@#Wallenberg’s syndrome (WS) is caused by dorsal lateral medulla infarction. Clinical symptoms include hoarseness, dysphagia, sensory disturbance, vertigo, ataxia, and Horner’s syndrome. Recently, lateral difference of body surface temperature (BST) has been reported as a symptom of WS, resulting from the disturbances of the sympathetic nerve tract. Although sensory dysfunction is the major symptoms of WS, there is no evidence that BST influences these symptoms. We sought to evaluate the relationship between BST and sensory symptoms in WS using infrared thermography. @*Methods@#Patients with WS within 7 days of symptom onset from June 2018 to December 2020 were enrolled. Infrared thermography was conducted at 7±30 days and 90±30 days after the onset of stroke. Laterality of BST was defined as being positive when macroscopically different and discrepancy >0.5°C in thermography. @*Results@#The final analyses included 12 patients with a mean age of 59.9±11.85 years. Sensory symptoms in nine patients were most often described as numbness (56%), cold (44%), burning (33%), and heaviness (11%). Of these, burning symptoms lasted at 100%, cold 75%, and numbness 50% during 3 months follow-up. All patients with sensory dysfunction showed lateral BST differences. The BST laterality persisted in patients with remaining sensory dysfunction at 3 months follow-up. @*Conclusions@#All patients with sensory dysfunction in WS showed lateral BST differences which was detected with thermography. Laterality of BST and sensory dysfunction in WS might be associated with the disturbance of the connecting pathway of skin blood flow descending from the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

10.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e132-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899999

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread around the globe, and it is important to determine the risk factors of death in the general population. Our study aimed to determine the risk factors of death and severe illness requiring supplemental oxygen therapy based on the demographic and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients in Korea. @*Methods@#In this study, we used data provided by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA) and analyzed a total of 5,068 patients with COVID-19, excluding 19 pregnant women and 544 individuals with missing data. We performed logistic regression analysis to determine the impact of early symptoms on survival and severe disease. Logistic regression models included sex, age, number of comorbidities, symptoms on admission, blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature as explanatory variables, and death and oxygen therapy as outcome variables. @*Results@#Logistic regression analyses revealed that the male sex, older age (≥ 60 years), higher number of comorbidities, presence of symptoms on admission, heart rate ≥ 120 bpm, and body temperature ≥ 37.5°C presented with higher risk of in-hospital death and oxygen therapy requirement. Conversely, rhinorrhea and headache were associated with a low risk of death and oxygen therapy requirement. The findings showed that cough, sputum, and fever were the most common symptoms on admission, while 25.3% of patients with COVID-19 were asymptomatic. @*Conclusion@#COVID-19 patients with high-risk early symptoms on admission, such as dyspnea and altered mental status, and those without low-risk symptoms of rhinorrhea and headache should be included in priority treatment groups.

11.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 293-300, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890254

ABSTRACT

Background@#The best treatment for isolated greater tuberosity (GT) fractures is still controversial. Although previous studies have suggested surgical options, they are either unable to provide firm fixation or present with a variety of complications. @*Methods@#We retrospectively studied the records of patients with isolated GT fractures who underwent open reduction and internal fixation using a 3.5-mm locking hook plate between January 2016 and January 2018. The surgical indication was an at least 5-mm displacement of the GT as observed in either simple radiography or three-dimensional computed tomography. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the following five parameters shortly before implant removal and at the final follow-up: visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Shoulder Rating Scale of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Constant-Murley score, and range of motion. @*Results@#Twenty-one patients with a mean age of 64 years were included. Bone union was achieved within 12–20 weeks of the first surgery in all patients. Implant removal was performed between 13 and 22 weeks after surgery. At the final follow-up, the mean VAS pain score, forward flexion, abduction, external rotation, internal rotation, ASES score, UCLA score, and ConstantMurley score were significantly better when compared to outcomes shortly before implant removal (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.008, p = 0.003, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). @*Conclusions@#The 3.5-mm locking hook plate provided sufficient stability and led to satisfactory clinical and radiological outcomes for isolated GT fractures. However, the hook plate may irritate the rotator cuff, and postoperative stiffness may be inevitable.Therefore, second surgery for implant removal is necessary after bone union is achieved.

12.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 216-222, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890228

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study was to compare the histologic outcomes of rotator cuff (RC) repair with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) augmentation and those without DBM augmentation and to evaluate the role of DBM for tendon-to-bone (TB) healing in a rabbit model. @*Methods@#Twenty-six adult male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly allocated to the control group (n = 13) or the DBM group (n = 13). Repair was performed 8 weeks after complete transection of the right supraspinatus tendon of all rabbits. In the control group, RC repair was achieved by a standard transosseous technique. In the DBM group, RC repair was achieved using the same technique, and DBM was interposed between the cuff and bone. After 8 weeks, the RC tendon entheses from all rabbits were processed for gross and histologic examination. @*Results@#On gross TB healing, 2 of 11 specimens in the control group were unhealed and no specimen was grossly unhealed in the DBM group (p = 0.421). In the control group, the tendon midsubstance was disorganized with randomly and loosely arranged collagen fibers and rounded fibroblastic nuclei. The TB interface was predominantly fibrous with small regions of fibrocartilage, especially mineralized fibrocartilage. In the DBM group, the tendon midsubstance appeared normal and comprised densely arranged collagen fibers, with orientated crimped collagen fibers running in the longitudinal direction of the tendon. These fibers were interspersed with elongated fibroblast nuclei. The TB interface consisted of organized collagen fibers with large quantities of fibrocartilage and mineralized fibrocartilage. @*Conclusions@#The use of DBM for TB interface healing in rabbit experiments showed good results in gross and histologic analysis. However, it is difficult to draw a solid conclusion because the sample size is small. Further evaluation in the in vivo setting is necessary to determine clinical recommendations.

13.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 244-252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889037

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The survival benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) prior to surgical resection in colorectal cancer with liver metastases (CRCLM) patients remains controversial. The aim of this study was to compare overall outcome of CRCLM patients who underwent NAC followed by surgical resection versus surgical treatment first. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 429 patients with stage IV colorectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases who underwent simultaneous liver resection between January 2008 and December 2016. Using propensity score matching, overall outcome between 60 patients who underwent NAC before surgical treatment and 60 patients who underwent surgical treatment first was compared. @*Results@#Before propensity score matching, metastatic cancer tended to involve a larger number of liver segments and the primary tumor size was bigger in the NAC group than in the primary resection group, so that a larger percentage of patients in the NAC group underwent major hepatectomy (P<0.001). After propensity score matching, demographic features and pathologic outcomes showed no significant differences between the 2 groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in short-term recovery outcomes such as postoperative morbidity (P=0.603) and oncologic outcome, including 3-year overall survival rate (P=0.285) and disease-free survival rate (P=0.730), between the 2 groups. @*Conclusion@#NAC prior to surgical treatment in CRCLM is considered a safe treatment that does not increase postoperative morbidity, and its impact on oncologic outcome was not inferior.

14.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 253-258, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889034

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected many parts of daily life and healthcare, including cancer screening and diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was an upshift in the colorectal cancer stage at diagnosis due to delays related to the COVID-19 outbreak. @*Methods@#From January to June of each year from 2017 to 2020, a total of 3,229 patients who were first diagnosed with colorectal cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Those enrolled from 2017 to 2019 were classified as the ‘pre-COVID’ group, and those enrolled in 2020 were classified as the ‘COVID’ group. The primary outcome was the rate of stage IV disease at the time of diagnosis. @*Results@#There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of stage IV patients between the pre-COVID and COVID groups (P=0.19). The median preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level in the COVID group was higher than in the pre-COVID group in all stages (all P<0.05). In stage I, II patients who underwent radical surgery, the lymphatic invasion was more presented in COVID patients (P=0.009). @*Conclusion@#We did not find significant stage upshifting in colorectal cancer during the COVID-19 outbreak. However, there were more initially unresectable stage IV colorectal cancer patients with a low conversion rate to resectable status, and more patients had factors related to poor prognosis. These results may become more apparent over time, so it is vital not to neglect cancer screening to not delay the diagnosis during the COVID-19 epidemic.

15.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 81-95, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874064

ABSTRACT

Background@#Prolotherapy, which stimulates the healing of loosened ligaments and tendons, is a cost-effective and safe treatment modality for chronic musculoskeletal pain. Its benefits may be affected by injection protocols, comparative regimens, and evaluation scales. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of dextrose prolotherapy as a long-term treatment for chronic musculoskeletal pain. @*Methods@#Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central, KoreaMed, and KMbase databases were searched for studies published up to March 2019. We included randomized controlled trials which compared the effect of dextrose prolotherapy with that of other therapies such as exercise, saline, platelet-rich plasma, and steroid injection. The primary outcome was pain score change during daily life. @*Results@#Ten studies involving 750 participants were included in the final analysis. Pain scores from 6 months to 1 year after dextrose prolotherapy were significantly reduced compared to saline injection (standardized mean difference [SMD] –0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] –0.76 to –0.11, P = 0.008) and exercise (SMD –0.42; 95% CI –0.77 to –0.07, P = 0.02). Prolotherapy yielded results similar to platelet-rich plasma or steroid injection, that it showed no significant difference in pain score. @*Conclusions@# Dextrose prolotherapy is more effective in the treatment of chronic pain compared to saline injection or exercise. Its effect was comparable to that of platelet-rich plasma or steroid injection. Adequately powered, homogeneous, and longer-term trials are needed to better elucidate the efficacy of prolotherapy.

16.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 293-300, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897958

ABSTRACT

Background@#The best treatment for isolated greater tuberosity (GT) fractures is still controversial. Although previous studies have suggested surgical options, they are either unable to provide firm fixation or present with a variety of complications. @*Methods@#We retrospectively studied the records of patients with isolated GT fractures who underwent open reduction and internal fixation using a 3.5-mm locking hook plate between January 2016 and January 2018. The surgical indication was an at least 5-mm displacement of the GT as observed in either simple radiography or three-dimensional computed tomography. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the following five parameters shortly before implant removal and at the final follow-up: visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Shoulder Rating Scale of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Constant-Murley score, and range of motion. @*Results@#Twenty-one patients with a mean age of 64 years were included. Bone union was achieved within 12–20 weeks of the first surgery in all patients. Implant removal was performed between 13 and 22 weeks after surgery. At the final follow-up, the mean VAS pain score, forward flexion, abduction, external rotation, internal rotation, ASES score, UCLA score, and ConstantMurley score were significantly better when compared to outcomes shortly before implant removal (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.008, p = 0.003, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). @*Conclusions@#The 3.5-mm locking hook plate provided sufficient stability and led to satisfactory clinical and radiological outcomes for isolated GT fractures. However, the hook plate may irritate the rotator cuff, and postoperative stiffness may be inevitable.Therefore, second surgery for implant removal is necessary after bone union is achieved.

17.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 216-222, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897932

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study was to compare the histologic outcomes of rotator cuff (RC) repair with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) augmentation and those without DBM augmentation and to evaluate the role of DBM for tendon-to-bone (TB) healing in a rabbit model. @*Methods@#Twenty-six adult male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly allocated to the control group (n = 13) or the DBM group (n = 13). Repair was performed 8 weeks after complete transection of the right supraspinatus tendon of all rabbits. In the control group, RC repair was achieved by a standard transosseous technique. In the DBM group, RC repair was achieved using the same technique, and DBM was interposed between the cuff and bone. After 8 weeks, the RC tendon entheses from all rabbits were processed for gross and histologic examination. @*Results@#On gross TB healing, 2 of 11 specimens in the control group were unhealed and no specimen was grossly unhealed in the DBM group (p = 0.421). In the control group, the tendon midsubstance was disorganized with randomly and loosely arranged collagen fibers and rounded fibroblastic nuclei. The TB interface was predominantly fibrous with small regions of fibrocartilage, especially mineralized fibrocartilage. In the DBM group, the tendon midsubstance appeared normal and comprised densely arranged collagen fibers, with orientated crimped collagen fibers running in the longitudinal direction of the tendon. These fibers were interspersed with elongated fibroblast nuclei. The TB interface consisted of organized collagen fibers with large quantities of fibrocartilage and mineralized fibrocartilage. @*Conclusions@#The use of DBM for TB interface healing in rabbit experiments showed good results in gross and histologic analysis. However, it is difficult to draw a solid conclusion because the sample size is small. Further evaluation in the in vivo setting is necessary to determine clinical recommendations.

18.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 244-252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896741

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The survival benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) prior to surgical resection in colorectal cancer with liver metastases (CRCLM) patients remains controversial. The aim of this study was to compare overall outcome of CRCLM patients who underwent NAC followed by surgical resection versus surgical treatment first. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed 429 patients with stage IV colorectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases who underwent simultaneous liver resection between January 2008 and December 2016. Using propensity score matching, overall outcome between 60 patients who underwent NAC before surgical treatment and 60 patients who underwent surgical treatment first was compared. @*Results@#Before propensity score matching, metastatic cancer tended to involve a larger number of liver segments and the primary tumor size was bigger in the NAC group than in the primary resection group, so that a larger percentage of patients in the NAC group underwent major hepatectomy (P<0.001). After propensity score matching, demographic features and pathologic outcomes showed no significant differences between the 2 groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in short-term recovery outcomes such as postoperative morbidity (P=0.603) and oncologic outcome, including 3-year overall survival rate (P=0.285) and disease-free survival rate (P=0.730), between the 2 groups. @*Conclusion@#NAC prior to surgical treatment in CRCLM is considered a safe treatment that does not increase postoperative morbidity, and its impact on oncologic outcome was not inferior.

19.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 253-258, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896738

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected many parts of daily life and healthcare, including cancer screening and diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was an upshift in the colorectal cancer stage at diagnosis due to delays related to the COVID-19 outbreak. @*Methods@#From January to June of each year from 2017 to 2020, a total of 3,229 patients who were first diagnosed with colorectal cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Those enrolled from 2017 to 2019 were classified as the ‘pre-COVID’ group, and those enrolled in 2020 were classified as the ‘COVID’ group. The primary outcome was the rate of stage IV disease at the time of diagnosis. @*Results@#There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of stage IV patients between the pre-COVID and COVID groups (P=0.19). The median preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level in the COVID group was higher than in the pre-COVID group in all stages (all P<0.05). In stage I, II patients who underwent radical surgery, the lymphatic invasion was more presented in COVID patients (P=0.009). @*Conclusion@#We did not find significant stage upshifting in colorectal cancer during the COVID-19 outbreak. However, there were more initially unresectable stage IV colorectal cancer patients with a low conversion rate to resectable status, and more patients had factors related to poor prognosis. These results may become more apparent over time, so it is vital not to neglect cancer screening to not delay the diagnosis during the COVID-19 epidemic.

20.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 150-157, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893205

ABSTRACT

Background@#Wallenberg’s syndrome (WS) is caused by dorsal lateral medulla infarction. Clinical symptoms include hoarseness, dysphagia, sensory disturbance, vertigo, ataxia, and Horner’s syndrome. Recently, lateral difference of body surface temperature (BST) has been reported as a symptom of WS, resulting from the disturbances of the sympathetic nerve tract. Although sensory dysfunction is the major symptoms of WS, there is no evidence that BST influences these symptoms. We sought to evaluate the relationship between BST and sensory symptoms in WS using infrared thermography. @*Methods@#Patients with WS within 7 days of symptom onset from June 2018 to December 2020 were enrolled. Infrared thermography was conducted at 7±30 days and 90±30 days after the onset of stroke. Laterality of BST was defined as being positive when macroscopically different and discrepancy >0.5°C in thermography. @*Results@#The final analyses included 12 patients with a mean age of 59.9±11.85 years. Sensory symptoms in nine patients were most often described as numbness (56%), cold (44%), burning (33%), and heaviness (11%). Of these, burning symptoms lasted at 100%, cold 75%, and numbness 50% during 3 months follow-up. All patients with sensory dysfunction showed lateral BST differences. The BST laterality persisted in patients with remaining sensory dysfunction at 3 months follow-up. @*Conclusions@#All patients with sensory dysfunction in WS showed lateral BST differences which was detected with thermography. Laterality of BST and sensory dysfunction in WS might be associated with the disturbance of the connecting pathway of skin blood flow descending from the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

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