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1.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 185-193, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966375

ABSTRACT

Methods@#Seven human lumbopelvic spines were used, each affixed to six-degrees-of-freedom testing apparatus; 8.5-Nm pure unconstrained bending moments applied in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. The ROM of left and right SIJ was measured using a motion analysis system. Each specimen tested as (1) intact, (2) injury (left), (3) L5–S1 fixation, (4) unilateral stabilization (left), (5) unilateral stabilization+L5–S1 fixation, (6) bilateral stabilization, and (7) bilateral stabilization+L5–S1 fixation. Both left-sided iliosacral and posterior ligaments were cut for injury condition to model SIJ instability before surgery. @*Results@#There were no statistical differences between fixated and contralateral nonfixated SIJ ROM following unilateral stabilization with/without L5–S1 fixation for all loading directions (p>0.930). Injured condition and L5–S1 fixation provided the largest motion increases across both joints; no significant differences were recorded between SIJs in any loading direction (p>0.850). Unilateral and bilateral stabilization with/without L5–S1 fixation reduced ROM compared with the injured condition for both SIJs, with bilateral stabilization providing maximum stability. @*Conclusions@#In the cadaveric model, unilateral SIJ stabilization with/without lumbosacral fixation did not lead to significant contralateral SIJ hypermobility; long-term changes and in vivo response may differ.

2.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 440-450, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937228

ABSTRACT

Proximal junctional problems are among the potential complications of surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD) and are associated with higher morbidity and increased rates of revision surgery. The diverse manifestations of proximal junctional problems range from proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) to proximal junctional failure (PJF). Although there is no universally accepted definition for PJK, the most common is a proximal junctional angle greater than 10° that is at least 10° greater than the preoperative measurement. PJF represents a progression from PJK and is characterized by pain, gait disturbances, and neurological deficits. The risk factors for PJK can be classified according to patient-related, radiological, and surgical factors. Based on an understanding of the modifiable factors that contribute to reducing the risk of PJK, prevention strategies are critical for patients with ASD.

3.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 105-111, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914108

ABSTRACT

Background@#The use of translaminar screws may serve as a viable salvage method for complicated cases. To our understanding, the study of the feasibility of translaminar screw insertion in the actual entire subaxial cervical spine has not been carried out yet. The purpose of this study was to report the feasibility of translaminar screw insertion in the entire subaxial cervical spine. @*Methods@#Eighteen cadaveric spines were harvested from C3 to C7 and 1-mm computed tomography (CT) scans and three-dimensional reconstructions were created to exclude any bony anomaly. Thirty anatomically intact segments were collected (C3, 2; C4, 3; C5, 3; C6, 8; and C7, 14), and randomly arranged. Twenty-one segments were physically separated at each vertebral level (group S), while 9 segments were not separated from the vertebral column and left in situ (group N–S). CT measurement of lamina thickness was done for both group S and group N–S, and manual measurement of various length and angle was done for group S only. Using the trajectory proposed by the previous studies, translaminar screws were placed at each level. Screw diameter was the same or 0.5 mm larger than the proposed diameter based on CT measurement. Post-insertion CT was performed. Cortical breakage was checked either visually or by CT. @*Results@#When 1° and 2° screws of the same size were used, medial cortex breakage was found 13% and 33% of the time, respectively. C7 was relatively safer than the other levels. With larger-sized screws, medial cortex breakage was found in 47% and 46% of 1° and 2° screws, respectively. There were no facet injuries due to the screws in group N–S. @*Conclusions@#Translaminar screw insertion in the subaxial cervical spine is feasible only when the lamina is thick enough to avoid any breakage that could lead to further complications. The authors do not recommend inserting translaminar screws in the subaxial cervical spine except in some salvage cases in the presence of a thick lamina.

4.
Ultrasonography ; : 661-669, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969206

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of additional radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment for benign thyroid nodules. @*Methods@#Electronic medical records at a single institution from September 2008 to August 2016 were searched, and consecutive patients treated with RFA due to benign thyroid nodules with cosmetic or symptomatic problems were enrolled. All patients were followed up for at least 30 months. The nodules were divided into three groups: group 1 included nodules that met the criteria for additional treatment and underwent additional treatment, group 2 included nodules that met the criteria but did not undergo additional treatment, and group 3 included nodules that did not meet the criteria. The ablation results were compared among the three groups in terms of the initial ablation ratio (IAR) and volume reduction ratio (VRR). @*Results@#Ninety nodules from 88 patients were included in the study. At the last follow-up, group 1 showed a significantly smaller nodule volume and larger VRR (2.5 mL and 84.6%, respectively) than group 2 (8.1 mL and 39.8%, respectively, P<0.001), but did not present a significant difference from group 3 (0.9 mL, P=0.347, and 92.8%, P=0.238). The IAR was significantly higher in group 3 (94.5%) than in the other two groups (group 1, 81.1%; group 2, 82.8%; P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Multiple treatment sessions achieve greater VRR. Therefore, additional treatment could be considered for patients who meet the corresponding criteria.

5.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 127-134, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897942

ABSTRACT

Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is an underrecognized and prevalent condition among the U.S. population, with effects varying depending on the cause and size of the discrepancy. LLD occurs when the paired lower extremities are unequal in length and can be etiologically classified as functional or structural. Length differences are typically less than 10 mm and asymptomatic or easily compensated for by the patient through self-lengthening or shortening of the lower extremities. Literature review of the etiology, diagnostic modalities, clinical complications, and treatment option for patients with LLD. LLD can be assessed directly through tape measurements or indirectly through palpation of bony landmarks. Imaging modalities, specifically radiography, are more precise and help identify coexistent deformity. Once LLD has been diagnosed, evaluation for potential adverse complications is necessary. Discrepancies greater than 20 mm can alter biomechanics and loading patterns with resultant functional limitations and musculoskeletal disorders, such as functional scoliosis. Functional scoliosis is nonprogressive and involves a structurally normal spine with an apparent lateral curvature, which regresses fully or partially when the LLD is corrected. Long-standing LLD and functional scoliosis often result in permanent degenerative changes in the facet joints and intervertebral discs of the spine. Further understanding of the contribution of LLD in the development of scoliosis and degenerative spine disease will allow for more effective preventative treatment strategies and hasten return to function.

6.
Ultrasonography ; : 417-427, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919519

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ethanol ablation (EA) in the treatment of cystic thyroid nodules using low-dose ethanol regardless of the initial volume of the nodule or properties of the aspirate. @*Methods@#Sixty-one nodules in 60 patients were treated with EA from October 2013 to January 2020. In each patient, EA was performed only once, using less than 5 mL of ethanol (99.5%) instilled and removed completely after a few minutes of retention. Nodule volume, the symptom score, the cosmetic score, and complications were evaluated before and after treatment. The therapeutic success rate (TSR) and volume reduction rate (VRR) according to nodule volume and properties of the aspirate were evaluated. Therapeutic success was defined as the absence of any residual fluid or sufficient volume reduction (≥50%) with improvement of nodule-related symptoms. @*Results@#The 61 nodules comprised 38 pure cysts and 23 predominantly cystic nodules. The initial nodule volume was 21.9±15.2 mL (range, 4.4 to 77.2 mL). The TSR was 88.5% (100% in pure cysts and 69.6% in predominantly cystic nodules, P<0.001). The TSR of pure cysts was 100% regardless of nodule volume and properties of the aspirate. In predominantly cystic nodules, the TSR and VRR gradually decreased as volume increased. One patient experienced arrhythmia during the procedure, but completely recovered without sequelae. @*Conclusion@#Single-session EA using low-dose ethanol might be effective for the treatment of symptomatic cystic thyroid nodules regardless of the initial cyst volume and properties of the aspirate, especially in pure cysts.

7.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 127-134, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890238

ABSTRACT

Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is an underrecognized and prevalent condition among the U.S. population, with effects varying depending on the cause and size of the discrepancy. LLD occurs when the paired lower extremities are unequal in length and can be etiologically classified as functional or structural. Length differences are typically less than 10 mm and asymptomatic or easily compensated for by the patient through self-lengthening or shortening of the lower extremities. Literature review of the etiology, diagnostic modalities, clinical complications, and treatment option for patients with LLD. LLD can be assessed directly through tape measurements or indirectly through palpation of bony landmarks. Imaging modalities, specifically radiography, are more precise and help identify coexistent deformity. Once LLD has been diagnosed, evaluation for potential adverse complications is necessary. Discrepancies greater than 20 mm can alter biomechanics and loading patterns with resultant functional limitations and musculoskeletal disorders, such as functional scoliosis. Functional scoliosis is nonprogressive and involves a structurally normal spine with an apparent lateral curvature, which regresses fully or partially when the LLD is corrected. Long-standing LLD and functional scoliosis often result in permanent degenerative changes in the facet joints and intervertebral discs of the spine. Further understanding of the contribution of LLD in the development of scoliosis and degenerative spine disease will allow for more effective preventative treatment strategies and hasten return to function.

8.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 914-922, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901313

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) after > 10 years of follow-up. @*Materials and Methods@#This study included five patients who underwent RFA to treat PTMCs (five lesions, mean diameter 0.5 cm, range 0.4–0.7 cm) between November 2006 and December 2009. The inclusion criteria were histopathologically confirmed PTMCs, a single PTMC lesion without extrathyroidal extension, no metastasis, and ineligibility or refusal to undergo surgery. RFA was performed by a single radiologist using a radiofrequency generator and an internally cooled electrode. We retrospectively analyzed the procedure-induced complications, serial changes in ablated tumors, recurrence, and local as well as lymph node metastasis based on data obtained from medical records and radiological images. @*Results@#The mean follow-up period was 130.6 months (range 121–159 months). Three patients underwent a single RFA session, and two patients underwent two RFA sessions. We observed no procedure-induced complications. Three tumors completely disappeared after ablation, and ablation of the other two tumors resulted in the formation of a small scar that showed long-term stability (mean duration 16.8 months, range 12–27 months). At the last follow-up, no patient showed recurrence or lymph node metastasis, and serum thyroglobulin levels were within normal limits in all patients. @*Conclusion@#RFA may be effective and safe to treat low-risk PTMC in patients who refuse or are ineligible for surgery.

9.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 914-922, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893609

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) after > 10 years of follow-up. @*Materials and Methods@#This study included five patients who underwent RFA to treat PTMCs (five lesions, mean diameter 0.5 cm, range 0.4–0.7 cm) between November 2006 and December 2009. The inclusion criteria were histopathologically confirmed PTMCs, a single PTMC lesion without extrathyroidal extension, no metastasis, and ineligibility or refusal to undergo surgery. RFA was performed by a single radiologist using a radiofrequency generator and an internally cooled electrode. We retrospectively analyzed the procedure-induced complications, serial changes in ablated tumors, recurrence, and local as well as lymph node metastasis based on data obtained from medical records and radiological images. @*Results@#The mean follow-up period was 130.6 months (range 121–159 months). Three patients underwent a single RFA session, and two patients underwent two RFA sessions. We observed no procedure-induced complications. Three tumors completely disappeared after ablation, and ablation of the other two tumors resulted in the formation of a small scar that showed long-term stability (mean duration 16.8 months, range 12–27 months). At the last follow-up, no patient showed recurrence or lymph node metastasis, and serum thyroglobulin levels were within normal limits in all patients. @*Conclusion@#RFA may be effective and safe to treat low-risk PTMC in patients who refuse or are ineligible for surgery.

10.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 886-897, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897232

ABSTRACT

Adult spinal deformity (ASD) is characterized by three-dimensional abnormalities of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine that exerts significant impacts on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). With the important effects that deformity of the sagittal plane exerts on the HRQoL, there have been paradigm shifts in ASD evaluation and management. Loss of lumbar lordosis is recognized as a key driver of ASD followed by reducing kyphosis, pelvic retroversion, and knee flexion. The Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)– Schwab classification reflects the sagittal spinopelvic parameters that correlate pain and disability in ASD patients. Although the SRS–Schwab classification provides a realignment target framework for surgeons, a structured patient-specific systemic approach is crucial for the process of decision-making. ASD management should be focused on restoring age-specific harmonious alignment and should consider the comorbidities and risk factors of each patient to prevent catastrophic complications and enhance the HRQoL.

11.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 886-897, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889528

ABSTRACT

Adult spinal deformity (ASD) is characterized by three-dimensional abnormalities of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine that exerts significant impacts on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL). With the important effects that deformity of the sagittal plane exerts on the HRQoL, there have been paradigm shifts in ASD evaluation and management. Loss of lumbar lordosis is recognized as a key driver of ASD followed by reducing kyphosis, pelvic retroversion, and knee flexion. The Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)– Schwab classification reflects the sagittal spinopelvic parameters that correlate pain and disability in ASD patients. Although the SRS–Schwab classification provides a realignment target framework for surgeons, a structured patient-specific systemic approach is crucial for the process of decision-making. ASD management should be focused on restoring age-specific harmonious alignment and should consider the comorbidities and risk factors of each patient to prevent catastrophic complications and enhance the HRQoL.

12.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 417-422, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762950

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Case control study. PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and degree of asymptomatic cervical and lumbar facet joint arthritis. We retrospectively reviewed 500 computed tomography (CT) scans of cervical facet joints obtained from 50 subjects. Moreover, 500 lumbar facet joints obtained from an additional 50 subjects were reviewed. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Numerous reports in the literature indicate that joint arthritis is a major source of axial neck and low back pain. However, the diagnostic value of this condition, based on degenerative changes seen on radiological studies, remains controversial because significant imaging findings may not correlate with corresponding symptoms. The CT scan is a sensitive method for facet joint evaluation and may reveal degenerative abnormalities. Previous studies have described the prevalence of facet arthropathy in symptomatic patients, according to radiological findings; however, no study to date has assessed its prevalence in asymptomatic patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the neck and abdominal CT scans of patients had been examined for non-spinal pathologies (i.e., thyroid disease, rule out cancer, ascites). Electronic medical records were reviewed to exclude patients with histories of either neck or back pain. Arthritis severity was graded using a previously published four-point CT scale. RESULTS: The prevalence of asymptomatic cervical facet arthritis (grade 1–3) was 33% (grade 1, 19%; grade 2, 11%; and grade 3, 3%). Among asymptomatic patients, 37% had scalable lumbar facet join arthritis (grade 1, 24%; grade 2, 9%; and grade 3, 4%). There was a statistically significant difference (chi-square test, p<0.0001) in the number of older individuals with arthritic degeneration at the cervical and lumbar levels compared with that of younger individuals. The C6–C7 and L5–S1 levels were the most likely to show arthritic changes. CONCLUSIONS: Arthritic changes to the cervical and lumbar facet joints are prevalent among patients, and in some cases are asymptomatic. These findings were more common in older patients and at lower spinal levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis , Back Pain , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Imaging , Electronic Health Records , Joints , Low Back Pain , Methods , Neck , Pathology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Diseases , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Zygapophyseal Joint
13.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 519-526, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762938

ABSTRACT

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the peripubertal development of spinal curvature of a minimum of 10°. AIS is thought to be attributable to genetic factors, nutrition, early exposure to toxins, and hormonal dysregulation. Recent literature suggests these factors may compound to determine both disease onset and severity. Currently, treatment is limited to observation, bracing, and surgical intervention. Intervention is presently determined by severity and risk of curve progression. As they emerge, new therapies may target specific etiologies of AIS.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Braces , Scoliosis , Spinal Curvatures
14.
Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology Phoniatrics and Logopedics ; : 19-23, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758499

ABSTRACT

Ultrasonography has increasingly moved from being a modality confined to the radiology department to an active diagnostic and therapeutic aid available to the head and neck at the point of patient care. However, the application of ultrasonography to the laryngeal disorder is very rare due to progressive age-related ossification of laryngeal cartilage and the presence of air in the lumen, which contribute to difficult conditions for transmission of the ultrasonic waves. The observation about the movements of larynx or surrounding structures is important to understand the physiology of phonation or swallowing and to diagnose the disease. Ultrasonography is a noninvasive and safe imaging technique that can be used to investigate the anatomic structures of the head and neck. Recently, the development of high-frequency ultrasonography makes it possible to apply the ultrasound in the evaluation of larynx.


Subject(s)
Deglutition , Diagnosis , Head , Laryngeal Cartilages , Larynx , Neck , Patient Care , Phonation , Physiology , Ultrasonic Waves , Ultrasonography
15.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 171-177, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739238

ABSTRACT

Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a transformative technology with a potentially wide range of applications in the field of orthopaedic spine surgery. This article aims to review the current applications, limitations, and future developments of 3D printing technology in orthopaedic spine surgery. Current preoperative applications of 3D printing include construction of complex 3D anatomic models for improved visual understanding, preoperative surgical planning, and surgical simulations for resident education. Intraoperatively, 3D printers have been successfully used in surgical guidance systems and in the creation of patient specific implantable devices. Furthermore, 3D printing is revolutionizing the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, allowing construction of biocompatible scaffolds suitable for cell growth and vasculature. Advances in printing technology and evidence of positive clinical outcomes are needed before there is an expansion of 3D printing applied to the clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Education , Models, Anatomic , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Regenerative Medicine , Spine , Tissue Engineering
16.
Journal of Rheumatic Diseases ; : 131-137, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116475

ABSTRACT

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a broad spectrum of disease defined by the presence of arthritis of unknown etiology, lasting more than six weeks duration, and occurring in children less than 16 years of age. JIA encompasses several disease categories, each with distinct clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, genetic backgrounds, and pathogenesis. JIA is classified into seven subtypes by the International League of Associations for Rheumatology: systemic, oligoarticular, polyarticular with and without rheumatoid factor, enthesitis-related arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and undifferentiated arthritis. Diagnosis of the precise subtype is an important requirement for management and research. JIA is a common chronic rheumatic disease in children and is an important cause of acute and chronic disability. Arthritis or arthritis-like symptoms may be present in many other conditions. Therefore, it is important to consider differential diagnoses for JIA that include infections, other connective tissue diseases, and malignancies. Leukemia and septic arthritis are the most important diseases that can be mistaken for JIA. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the subtypes and differential diagnoses of JIA.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Arthritis , Arthritis, Infectious , Arthritis, Juvenile , Arthritis, Psoriatic , Connective Tissue Diseases , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Genetic Background , Leukemia , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatoid Factor , Rheumatology
17.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 49-54, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88118

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anterior interbody fusion has previously been demonstrated to increase neuroforaminal height in a cadaveric model using cages. No prior study has prospectively assessed the relative change in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated neuroforaminal dimensions at the index and supradjacent levels, after anterior interbody fusion with a corticocancellous allograft in a series of patients without posterior decompression. The objective of this study was to determine how much foraminal dimension can be increased with indirect foraminal decompression alone via anterior interbody fusion, and to determine the effect of anterior lumbar interbody fusion on the dimensions of the supradjacent neuroforamina. METHODS: A prospective study comparing pre- and postoperative neuroforaminal dimensions on MRI scan among 26 consecutive patients undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion without posterior decompression was performed. We studies 26 consecutive patients (50 index levels) that had undergone anterior interbody fusion followed by posterior pedicle screw fixation without distraction or foraminotomy. We used preoperative and postoperative MRI imaging to assess the foraminal dimensions at each operated level on which the lumbar spine had been operated. The relative indirect foraminal decompression achieved was calculated. The foraminal dimension of the 26 supradjacent untreated levels was measured pre- and postoperatively to serve as a control and to determine any effects after anterior interbody fusion. RESULTS: In this study, 8 patients underwent 1 level fusion (L5-S1), 12 patients had 2 levels (L4-S1) and 6 patients had 3 levels (L3-S1). The average increase in foraminal dimension was 43.3% (p 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Anterior interbody fusion with a coriticocancellous allograft can significantly increase neuroforaminal dimension even in the absence of formal posterior distraction or foraminotomy; anterior interbody fusion with a coriticocancellous allograft has little effect on supradjacent neuroforaminal dimensions.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/diagnosis , Lumbar Vertebrae , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prospective Studies , Spinal Fusion
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