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1.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890770

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 168-195, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874584

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Although the prevalence of H. pylori is gradually decreasing, approximately half of the world's population still becomes infected with this disease. H. pylori is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity worldwide, with a high disease burden. It is the most common cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. Since the revision of the H. pylori clinical practice guidelines in 2013 in Korea, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of a clarithromycin-based triple therapy for 7 days. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study conducted by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was mostly due to increased antimicrobial resistance, especially from clarithromycin. The clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of H. pylori were updated according to evidence-based medicine from a meta-analysis conducted on a target group receiving the latest level of eradication therapy. The draft recommendations developed based on the meta-analysis were finalized after an expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations for the treatment itself. These guidelines were designed to provide clinical evidence for the treatment (including primary care treatment) of H. pylori infection to patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians. These may differ from current medical insurance standards and will be revised if more evidence emerges in the future.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903666

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. H. pylori is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity with a high disease burden. Since the revision of the H. pylori Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2013 in Korea, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of a clarithromycin based triple therapy. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was mostly due to increased antimicrobial resistance to clarithromycin. The clinical practice guidelines for treatment of H. pylori were updated based on evidence-based medicine from a meta-analysis conducted on a target group receiving the latest level of eradication therapy. The draft recommendations developed based on the meta-analysis were finalized after expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations on the treatment itself. These guidelines were designed to provide clinical evidence for the treatment of H. pylori to patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians. These may differ from current medical insurance standards, and will be revised if more evidence emerges in the future.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903640

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#As antibiotic resistance increases and new first-line therapies emerge, salvage therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication failures are becoming more common and complicated. This study aimed to systematically review overall salvage regimens after previous failure of H. pylori eradication. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic review of randomized clinical trials evaluating salvage therapies after previous H. pylori eradication failure was performed. A meta-analysis was conducted when an adequate number of studies suitable for grouping was found. @*Results@#Overall, 36 studies with 77 treatment arms were identified, and they were highly heterogeneous regarding previously failed regimens and salvage regimens under comparison. Bismuth quadruple therapy after failure of standard triple therapy showed a pooled intention-to-treat (ITT) eradication rate of 75.5% (95% CI, 71.6~79.1%), and the rates were significantly higher with 14-day therapy than 7-day therapy by 9% (95% CI, 2~15%). Levofloxacin triple therapy after failure of standard triple therapy demonstrated a pooled ITT eradication rate of 73.3% (95% CI, 68.4~77.3%). In direct comparison, the two regimens were not significantly different in eradication rates. No study evaluated salvage regimens after the failure of bismuth or non-bismuth quadruple therapy. @*Conclusions@#The current studies regarding salvage regimens are highly heterogeneous. Bismuth quadruple therapy and levofloxacin triple therapy may be a reliable option after failure of standard triple therapy, but the regional profile of antibiotic resistance should be considered. Further studies are needed for salvage regimens after failure of non-bismuth or bismuth quadruple therapy.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903638

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The eradication rate of the first-line standard triple therapy (STT) for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has decreased since 2000; therefore, other first-line therapies are required. This study was aimed at investigating the efficacy of bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (PBMT) for first-line H. pylori eradication compared to STT, sequential therapy (SQT), and concomitant therapy (CT). @*Materials and Methods@#The Ovid-MEDLINE, Koreamed, EMBASE, KMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 2008 to July 2018. All identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PBMT and non-PBMT for first-line H. pylori eradication therapy were included in the final analysis. @*Results@#A total of 3,653 patients from seven RCTs were enrolled. The pooled eradication rates of PBMT by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were 82.1% (95% CI, 68.2~90.8%) and 88.8% (95% CI, 77.1~94.9%), respectively. However, no statistically significant difference was observed in eradication rates of the 10- or 14-day PBMT as compared to 14-day STT, 10-day SQT, and 10-day CT in ITT and PP analyses. PBMT was significantly higher in adverse events than in the other eradication regimens (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11~2.44). Considerable heterogeneity in adverse events was observed among studies (χ2=88.7; P<0.001, I2=93%). @*Conclusions@#PBMT can be the first-line treatment for H. pylori eradication in Korea when other first-line options, including STT, SQT, or CT, are unavailable due to their high adverse event rates.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903635

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Standard triple therapy, including a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, has been recommended as the first-line for Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the eradication rate of standard triple therapy has declined over the past years because of the increasing resistance to clarithromycin in Korea. We analyzed the eradication rates and the 10-year change in the eradication rates in Korea. @*Methods@#PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed were searched for studies published between January 2007 and June 2018. The pooled eradication rates and their 95% CIs were estimated using a random-effect logistic regression model. @*Results@#Twenty-six randomized controlled studies on standard triple therapy conducted in Korea were selected. The intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol analyses showed pooled eradication rates of standard triple therapy of 71.6% (95% CI, 69.9~73.3%) and 79.6% (95% CI, 76.6~82.2%), respectively. The eradication rate decreased with time. The ITT analysis showed that the 14-day therapy (78.1% [95% CI, 75.2~80.7%]) had significantly higher eradication rates than the 7-day therapy (70.0% [95% CI, 68.5~71.4%]) (P<0.01). @*Conclusions@#These results suggest that the eradication rate of standard triple therapy, as the first-line therapy, has shown an unacceptable decrease. The eradication rate increased when the duration of therapy was increased to 14 days, but it was not satisfactory. Therefore, other treatment regimens or therapies based on susceptibility tests should be considered for the first-line therapy.

7.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 160-189, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902272

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Although its incidence is gradually decreasing, about half of the world's population still get infected. H. pylori infection is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity worldwide. It is the most common cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as gastric cancer. Since the revision of the H. pylori Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2013, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of classical triple therapy, wherein amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and proton pump inhibitors are administered, for 7 days. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study conducted by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was due to increased antimicrobial resistance induced by the use of antibiotics, especially clarithromycin. The update of clinical practice guideline for treatment of H. pylori was developed based on evidence-based medicine by conducting a meta-analysis. The draft recommendations were finalized after expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations on the treatment itself. These guidelines are designed to provide patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians with clinical evidence to guide primary care and treatment of H. pylori infection. These may differ from current medical insurance standards and will be revised further, if necessary, based on research-based evidence.

8.
Gut and Liver ; : 723-731, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898474

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management. @*Methods@#From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46). @*Results@#No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality. @*Conclusions@#UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895962

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. H. pylori is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity with a high disease burden. Since the revision of the H. pylori Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2013 in Korea, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of a clarithromycin based triple therapy. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was mostly due to increased antimicrobial resistance to clarithromycin. The clinical practice guidelines for treatment of H. pylori were updated based on evidence-based medicine from a meta-analysis conducted on a target group receiving the latest level of eradication therapy. The draft recommendations developed based on the meta-analysis were finalized after expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations on the treatment itself. These guidelines were designed to provide clinical evidence for the treatment of H. pylori to patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians. These may differ from current medical insurance standards, and will be revised if more evidence emerges in the future.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895936

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#As antibiotic resistance increases and new first-line therapies emerge, salvage therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication failures are becoming more common and complicated. This study aimed to systematically review overall salvage regimens after previous failure of H. pylori eradication. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic review of randomized clinical trials evaluating salvage therapies after previous H. pylori eradication failure was performed. A meta-analysis was conducted when an adequate number of studies suitable for grouping was found. @*Results@#Overall, 36 studies with 77 treatment arms were identified, and they were highly heterogeneous regarding previously failed regimens and salvage regimens under comparison. Bismuth quadruple therapy after failure of standard triple therapy showed a pooled intention-to-treat (ITT) eradication rate of 75.5% (95% CI, 71.6~79.1%), and the rates were significantly higher with 14-day therapy than 7-day therapy by 9% (95% CI, 2~15%). Levofloxacin triple therapy after failure of standard triple therapy demonstrated a pooled ITT eradication rate of 73.3% (95% CI, 68.4~77.3%). In direct comparison, the two regimens were not significantly different in eradication rates. No study evaluated salvage regimens after the failure of bismuth or non-bismuth quadruple therapy. @*Conclusions@#The current studies regarding salvage regimens are highly heterogeneous. Bismuth quadruple therapy and levofloxacin triple therapy may be a reliable option after failure of standard triple therapy, but the regional profile of antibiotic resistance should be considered. Further studies are needed for salvage regimens after failure of non-bismuth or bismuth quadruple therapy.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895934

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The eradication rate of the first-line standard triple therapy (STT) for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has decreased since 2000; therefore, other first-line therapies are required. This study was aimed at investigating the efficacy of bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (PBMT) for first-line H. pylori eradication compared to STT, sequential therapy (SQT), and concomitant therapy (CT). @*Materials and Methods@#The Ovid-MEDLINE, Koreamed, EMBASE, KMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 2008 to July 2018. All identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PBMT and non-PBMT for first-line H. pylori eradication therapy were included in the final analysis. @*Results@#A total of 3,653 patients from seven RCTs were enrolled. The pooled eradication rates of PBMT by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were 82.1% (95% CI, 68.2~90.8%) and 88.8% (95% CI, 77.1~94.9%), respectively. However, no statistically significant difference was observed in eradication rates of the 10- or 14-day PBMT as compared to 14-day STT, 10-day SQT, and 10-day CT in ITT and PP analyses. PBMT was significantly higher in adverse events than in the other eradication regimens (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11~2.44). Considerable heterogeneity in adverse events was observed among studies (χ2=88.7; P<0.001, I2=93%). @*Conclusions@#PBMT can be the first-line treatment for H. pylori eradication in Korea when other first-line options, including STT, SQT, or CT, are unavailable due to their high adverse event rates.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895931

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Standard triple therapy, including a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, has been recommended as the first-line for Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the eradication rate of standard triple therapy has declined over the past years because of the increasing resistance to clarithromycin in Korea. We analyzed the eradication rates and the 10-year change in the eradication rates in Korea. @*Methods@#PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed were searched for studies published between January 2007 and June 2018. The pooled eradication rates and their 95% CIs were estimated using a random-effect logistic regression model. @*Results@#Twenty-six randomized controlled studies on standard triple therapy conducted in Korea were selected. The intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol analyses showed pooled eradication rates of standard triple therapy of 71.6% (95% CI, 69.9~73.3%) and 79.6% (95% CI, 76.6~82.2%), respectively. The eradication rate decreased with time. The ITT analysis showed that the 14-day therapy (78.1% [95% CI, 75.2~80.7%]) had significantly higher eradication rates than the 7-day therapy (70.0% [95% CI, 68.5~71.4%]) (P<0.01). @*Conclusions@#These results suggest that the eradication rate of standard triple therapy, as the first-line therapy, has shown an unacceptable decrease. The eradication rate increased when the duration of therapy was increased to 14 days, but it was not satisfactory. Therefore, other treatment regimens or therapies based on susceptibility tests should be considered for the first-line therapy.

13.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 160-189, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894568

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Although its incidence is gradually decreasing, about half of the world's population still get infected. H. pylori infection is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity worldwide. It is the most common cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as gastric cancer. Since the revision of the H. pylori Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2013, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of classical triple therapy, wherein amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and proton pump inhibitors are administered, for 7 days. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study conducted by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was due to increased antimicrobial resistance induced by the use of antibiotics, especially clarithromycin. The update of clinical practice guideline for treatment of H. pylori was developed based on evidence-based medicine by conducting a meta-analysis. The draft recommendations were finalized after expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations on the treatment itself. These guidelines are designed to provide patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians with clinical evidence to guide primary care and treatment of H. pylori infection. These may differ from current medical insurance standards and will be revised further, if necessary, based on research-based evidence.

14.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 276-285, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832169

ABSTRACT

The area of endoscopic application has been continuously expanded since its introduction in the last century and the frequency of its use also increased stiffly in the last decades. Because gastrointestinal endoscopy is naturally exposed to diseased internal organs and contact with pathogenic materials, endoscopy mediated infection or disease transmission becomes a major concern in this field. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is not for single use and the proper reprocessing process is a critical factor for safe and reliable endoscopy procedures. What needed in these circumstances is a practical guideline for reprocessing the endoscope and its accessories which is feasible in the real clinical field to guarantee acceptable prevention of pathogen transmission. This guideline contains principles and instructions of the reprocessing procedure according to the step by step. And it newly includes general information and updated knowledge about endoscopy-mediated infection and disinfection. Multiple societies and working groups participated to revise; Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, the Korean Society of Gastroenterology, Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer, Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Nurses and Associates and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Through this cooperation, we enhanced communication and established a better concordance. We still need more researches in this field and fill up the unproven area. And our guidelines will be renewed accordingly.

15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903609

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Although its incidence is gradually decreasing, about half of the world's population still get infected. H. pylori infection is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity worldwide. It is the most common cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as gastric cancer. Since the revision of the H. pylori Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2013, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of classical triple therapy, wherein amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and proton pump inhibitors are administered, for 7 days. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study conducted by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was due to increased antimicrobial resistance induced by the use of antibiotics, especially clarithromycin. The update of clinical practice guideline for treatment of H. pylori was developed based on evidence-based medicine by conducting a meta-analysis. The draft recommendations were finalized after expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations on the treatment itself. These guidelines are designed to provide patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians with clinical evidence to guide primary care and treatment of H. pylori infection. These may differ from current medical insurance standards and will be revised further, if necessary, based on research-based evidence.

16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895905

ABSTRACT

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Although its incidence is gradually decreasing, about half of the world's population still get infected. H. pylori infection is responsible for substantial gastrointestinal morbidity worldwide. It is the most common cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as gastric cancer. Since the revision of the H. pylori Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2013, the eradication rate of H. pylori has gradually decreased with the use of classical triple therapy, wherein amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and proton pump inhibitors are administered, for 7 days. According to a nationwide randomized controlled study conducted by the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research released in 2018, the intention-to-treat eradication rate was only 63.9%, which was due to increased antimicrobial resistance induced by the use of antibiotics, especially clarithromycin. The update of clinical practice guideline for treatment of H. pylori was developed based on evidence-based medicine by conducting a meta-analysis. The draft recommendations were finalized after expert consensus on three recommendations regarding the indication for treatment and eight recommendations on the treatment itself. These guidelines are designed to provide patients, nurses, medical school students, policymakers, and clinicians with clinical evidence to guide primary care and treatment of H. pylori infection. These may differ from current medical insurance standards and will be revised further, if necessary, based on research-based evidence.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The association between Helicobacter pylori infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or low-dose aspirin therapy as a risk factor for peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) remains unclear. This study investigated the risk of PUB associated with H. pylori infection and NSAID or low-dose aspirin therapy in patients with PUD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This case-control study investigated 340 patients with PUB between 2012 and 2016. The control group comprised age and sex-matched patients with endoscopically documented non-bleeding ulcers. Using logistic regression analysis, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was calculated for the risk of PUB. RESULTS: Of the patients investigated, 57.9% in the study group and 51.8% in the control group were diagnosed with H. pylori infection (P=0.106). Logistic regression analysis showed synergistic interaction between H. pylori infection and low-dose aspirin therapy. Multivariate analysis showed that low-dose aspirin (AOR 3.92, P < 0.001), NSAIDs (AOR 2.98, P=0.001), warfarin (AOR 14.57, P=0.011), gastric ulcer (compared with duodenal ulcer) (AOR 1.65, P=0.01), and smoking (AOR 1.97, P=0.004) increased the risk of PUB compared with the risk of PUD. CONCLUSIONS: Both NSAIDs and aspirin are independent risk factors for bleeding in patients with PUD. Additionally, low-dose aspirin therapy concomitant with H. pylori infection produced a synergistic effect. Therefore, H. pylori eradication may be crucial in aspirin users. Moreover, a proton pump inhibitor should be prescribed in patients with a history of bleeding ulcers who need long-term NSAID treatment.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Aspirin , Case-Control Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Hemorrhage , Humans , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Peptic Ulcer , Proton Pumps , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Stomach Ulcer , Ulcer , Warfarin
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Selecting patients with an urgent need for endoscopic hemostasis is difficult based only on simple parameters of presumed acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study assessed easily applicable factors to predict cases in need of urgent endoscopic hemostasis due to acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.@*METHODS@#The consecutively included patients were divided into the endoscopic hemostasis and nonendoscopic hemostasis groups. We reviewed the enrolled patients’ medical records and analyzed various variables and parameters for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding outcomes such as demographic factors, comorbidities, symptoms, signs, laboratory findings, rebleeding rate, and mortality to evaluate simple predictive factors for endoscopic treatment.@*RESULTS@#A total of 613 patients were analyzed, including 329 patients in the endoscopic hemostasis and 284 patients in the non-endoscopic hemostasis groups. In the multivariate analysis, a bloody nasogastric lavage (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.786; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.990 to 11.543; p < 0.0001) and a hemoglobin level less than 8.6 g/dL (AOR, 1.768; 95% CI, 1.028 to 3.039; p = 0.039) were independent predictors for endoscopic hemostasis. Significant differences in the morbidity rates of endoscopic hemostasis were detected between the group with no predictive factors and the group with one or more predictive factors (OR, 2.677; 95% CI, 1.920 to 3.733; p < 0.0001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#A bloody nasogastric lavage and hemoglobin < 8.6 g/dL were independent predictors of endoscopic hemostasis in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is required for primary intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to respond to natural mucopeptides secreted by gram-negative bacteria. Infection of human IECs with invasive bacteria up-regulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. However, the role of NOD family members in host defense has been largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a functional role for NOD1 in the up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression in invasive bacteria-infected IECs.@*METHODS@#ICAM-1 mRNA expression was compared between controls, Caco-2 or HT29 cells transfected with an empty vector, and IECs stably transfected with a dominant-negative (DN) NOD1. Expression was compared using qualitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time RT-PCR, and flow cytometry after infection with enteroinvasive Escherichia coli O29:NM or Shigella flexneri. Nuclear factor kB (NF-κB) activation was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays.@*RESULTS@#DN NOD1 significantly inhibited the up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression in response to an enteroinvasive bacterial infection. The Caco-2 cells transfected with DN NOD1 manifested marked inhibition of NF-kB activation in response to E. coli O29:NM infection.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Signaling through NOD1 may play an essential role in neutrophil trafficking following infection with enteroinvasive bacteria.

20.
Gut and Liver ; : 226-231, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The resistance rate of Helicobacter pylori is gradually increasing. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication in peptic ulcer disease. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2014, 110 patients in 14 medical centers received levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication therapy for peptic ulcer disease. Of these, 88 were included in the study; 21 were excluded because of lack of follow-up and one was excluded for poor compliance. Their eradication rates, treatment regimens and durations, and types of peptic ulcers were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall eradiation rate was 71.6%. The adherence rate was 80.0%. All except one received a proton-pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, and levofloxacin. One received a proton-pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, levofloxacin, and clarithromycin, and the eradication was successful. Thirty-one were administered the therapy for 7 days, 25 for 10 days, and 32 for 14 days. No significant differences were observed in the eradication rates between the three groups (7-days, 80.6% vs 10-days, 64.0% vs 14-days, 68.8%, p=0.353). Additionally, no differences were found in the eradiation rates according to the type of peptic ulcer (gastric ulcer, 73.2% vs duodenal/gastroduodenal ulcer, 68.8%, p=0.655). CONCLUSIONS: Levofloxacin-based third-line H. pylori eradication showed efficacy similar to that of previously reported first/second-line therapies.


Subject(s)
Amoxicillin , Clarithromycin , Compliance , Follow-Up Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Levofloxacin , Peptic Ulcer , Ulcer
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