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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927073

ABSTRACT

The infection nature of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) in freshwater fish hosts is closely related to the transmission of human clonorchiasis. This article reviewed the infection characteristics of CsMc in freshwater fish in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The status of CsMc infection was examined in a total of 17,792 cyprinid fish of 49 species in 9 water systems, which included Hantan-/Imjin-gang, Han-gang, Geum-gang, Mangyeong-gang, Yeongsan-gang, Tamjin-gang, Seomjin-gang, Nakdong-gang, and streams in the east coastal areas from 2010 to 2020. The infection status of CsMc was examined according to cyprinid fish species and water systems, after which analyzed by endemicity and susceptibility index. The high endemicity was shown in the cyprinid fish from 3 regions (6.1%) in the upper reaches of Nakdong-gang, such as Banbyeon-cheon (stream), Yongjeon-cheon, and Wi-cheon. The moderate levels were observed in fishes from 8 regions (16.3%), and low endemicity was shown in fishes from 20 regions (40.8%). No CsMc were detected in fish from 18 regions (36.7%). The susceptibility of CsMc in index fish, Puntungia herzi, was found to be a reliable index without examination of other fish species. CsMc infection rates were closely related to subfamily groups in the cyprinid fish hosts in a highly endemic area. In Korea, a total of 58 fish species in 10 families has been listed as the second intermediate hosts for C. sinensis. This review provides several novel features of CsMc infection and clarifies the species of second intermediate freshwater fish host in Korea.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875530

ABSTRACT

The infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae (ZTM) was surveyed in freshwater fishes from the water systems of Geum-gang (River) in the Republic of Korea (Korea). A total of 1,161 freshwater fishes from 6 local sites of Geum-gang were examined with the artificial digestion method for 4 years (2012-2015). Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae were detected in 122 (37.2%) out of 328 fishes in the positive fish species from 4 surveyed areas, and their mean intensity was 43 per fish infected. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae were found in 432 (51.7%) out of 835 fishes in the positive fish species from all 6 surveyed areas, and their mean intensity was 30 per fish infected. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were detected in 285 (75.0%) out of 380 fishes in the positive fish species from 6 surveyed areas, and their mean intensity was 2,100 per fish infected. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were found in 56 (19.7%) out of 284 fishes in the positive fish species from 5 surveyed areas, and their mean intensity was 10 per fish infected. Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae were detected in 98 (57.3%) out of 171 fishes in the positive fish species from only 2 surveyed areas, and their mean intensity was 11 per fish infected. Conclusively, the endemicity of ZTM is not so high in fishes from water systems of Geum-gang in Korea although it is more or less different by fish species, surveyed areas and ZTM species.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875528

ABSTRACT

Echinostoma mekongi was reported as a new species in 2020 based on specimens collected from humans in Kratie and Takeo Province, Cambodia. In the present study, its metacercarial stage has been discovered in Filopaludina martensi cambodjensis snails purchased from a local market nearby the Tonle Sap Lake, Pursat Province, Cambodia. The metacercariae were fed orally to an experimental hamster, and adult flukes were recovered at day 20 post-infection. They were morphologically examined using light and scanning electron microscopes and molecularly analyzed by sequencing of their mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 genes. A total of 115 metacercariae (1-8 per snail) were detected in 60 (60.0%) out of 100 Filopaludina snails examined. The metacercariae were round, 174 µm in average diameter (163-190 µm in range), having a thin cyst wall, a head collar armed with 37 collar spines, and characteristic excretory granules. The adult flukes were elongated, ventrally curved, 7.3 (6.4-8.2)×1.4 (1.1-1.7) mm in size, and equipped with 37 collar spines on the head collar (dorsal spines in 2 alternating rows), being consistent with E. mekongi. In phylogenetic analyses, the adult flukes showed 99.0-100% homology based on cox1 sequences and 98.9-99.7% homology based on nad1 sequences with E. mekongi. The results evidenced that F. martensi cambodjensis snails act as the second intermediate host of E. mekongi, and hamsters can be used as a suitable experimental definitive host. As local people favor to eat undercooked snails, these snails seem to be an important source of human infection with E. mekongi in Cambodia.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875521

ABSTRACT

The infection status with Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) was examined in freshwater fishes from Yongjeon-cheon (a branch of Nakdong-gang) located in Cheongsong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, the Republic of Korea (Korea). A total of 750 fishes in 19 species were examined by the artificial digestion method for 2 years (2019 and 2020). CsMc were detected in 378 (51.4%) out of 735 fishes in 14 species (73.7%), and the infection intensity was 666 per fish infected. In 2019, CsMc were found in 172 (68.0%) out of 253 fishes in 10 species, and the infection intensity was 565 per fish infected. In 2020, CsMc were detected in 206 (62.2%) out of 331 fishes in 10 species, and the infection intensity was 751 per fish infected. The other zoonotic trematode, ie. Metagonimus spp., Centrocestus armatus, Echinostoma spp. and Clinostomum complanatum, metacercariae were also detected in fishes from the survey streams, but their endemicities were relatively low. Conclusively, it was first confirmed that CsMc are highly endemic in fishes from Yongjeon-cheon in Cheongsong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903883

ABSTRACT

We surveyed on the infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae (ZTM) in freshwater fishes from Soyang-cheon (a branch stream of Mangyeong-gang) in Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do, the Republic of Korea. A total of 927 fishes were individually examined with the artificial digestion method during 2013-2015 (462 fish in 15 spp.) and 2018-2019 (465 fish in 25 spp.). Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae were detected in 207 (31.4%) out of 659 fishes in 14 positive fish species (PFS), and their mean intensity was 114 per fish infected (PFI). Metagonimus spp. metacercariae were found in 302 (37.4%) out of 808 fishes in 21 PFS, and their mean intensity was 12 PFI. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were detected in 222 (59.0%) out of 376 fishes in 12 PFS, and their mean intensity was 383 PFI. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were found in 139 (22.1%) out of 628 fishes in 10 PFS, and their mean intensity was 7 PFI. Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae were detected in 14 (6.5%) out of 214 fishes in 4 PFS, and their mean intensity was 2.4 PFI. Metorchis orientalis metacercariae were detected in 36 (13.5%) out of 267 fishes in 5 PFS, and their mean intensity was 4.3 PFI. Conclusively, the prevalence and infection intensity of ZTM is generally not so high in fishes from Soyang-cheon. However, those of C. sinensis metacercariae are more or less higher in 2 fish species, Pungtungia herzi and Sarcocheilichthys variegatus wakiyae.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903863

ABSTRACT

The infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae (ZTM) was investigated in total 568 freshwater fishes (19 species) from the irrigation canal of Togyo-jeosuji (Reservoir) in Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, the Republic of Korea for 3 years (2018-2020). All fishes were examined using the artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis (CsMc) were detected in 180 (43.8%) out of 411 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 38 per fish infected (PFI). Especially, in 2 fish species, i.e., Pseudorasbora parva and Puntungia herzi, the prevalence was 82.1% and 31.3%, and the infection intensity with CsMc was 88 and 290 PFI, respectively. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae (MsMc) were found in 403 (74.1%) out of 544 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 62 PFI. In the pale chub, Zacco platypus, the prevalence of MsMc was 98.6%, and their infection intensity was 144 PFI. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were detected in 171 (38.9%) out of 440 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 1,844 PFI. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were found in 94 (19.6%) out of 479 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 3 PFI. Metorchis orientalis metacercariae were detected in 43 (29.3%) out of 147 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 4 PFI. By the present study, it has been confirmed that some species of ZTM, including CsMc and MsMc, are prevalent in fishes from the irrigation canal of Togyo-jeosuji in Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903853

ABSTRACT

Human infection with Taenia asiatica or a hybrid between Taenia saginata and T. asiatica has not been reported in Cambodia. We detected for the first time a hybrid form between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia. An adult tapeworm specimen, i.e., 75 cm long strobila without scolex, was expelled from a 27-year-old man after praziquantel medication and purging. It was morphologically indistinguishable between T. saginata and T. asiatica. Several proglottids were molecularly analyzed to confirm the tapeworm species. The mitochondrial gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear genes encoding elongation factor-1α (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp) were sequenced, and a single-allele analysis was performed to confirm the haploid genotype. The results revealed that our sample showed a discrepancy between the mitochondrial and 2 nuclear genes. It possessed homozygous sequences typical of T. saginata at cox1 and ef1 loci. However, it was heterozygous at the elp locus, with 1 allele in T. asiatica (elpA) and 1 in T. saginata (elpC), which indicates that it is a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica. The present results confirmed the presence of a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Cambodia and strongly suggest the existence of also ‘pure’ T. asiatica in Cambodia.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896179

ABSTRACT

We surveyed on the infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae (ZTM) in freshwater fishes from Soyang-cheon (a branch stream of Mangyeong-gang) in Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do, the Republic of Korea. A total of 927 fishes were individually examined with the artificial digestion method during 2013-2015 (462 fish in 15 spp.) and 2018-2019 (465 fish in 25 spp.). Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae were detected in 207 (31.4%) out of 659 fishes in 14 positive fish species (PFS), and their mean intensity was 114 per fish infected (PFI). Metagonimus spp. metacercariae were found in 302 (37.4%) out of 808 fishes in 21 PFS, and their mean intensity was 12 PFI. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were detected in 222 (59.0%) out of 376 fishes in 12 PFS, and their mean intensity was 383 PFI. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were found in 139 (22.1%) out of 628 fishes in 10 PFS, and their mean intensity was 7 PFI. Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae were detected in 14 (6.5%) out of 214 fishes in 4 PFS, and their mean intensity was 2.4 PFI. Metorchis orientalis metacercariae were detected in 36 (13.5%) out of 267 fishes in 5 PFS, and their mean intensity was 4.3 PFI. Conclusively, the prevalence and infection intensity of ZTM is generally not so high in fishes from Soyang-cheon. However, those of C. sinensis metacercariae are more or less higher in 2 fish species, Pungtungia herzi and Sarcocheilichthys variegatus wakiyae.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896159

ABSTRACT

The infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae (ZTM) was investigated in total 568 freshwater fishes (19 species) from the irrigation canal of Togyo-jeosuji (Reservoir) in Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, the Republic of Korea for 3 years (2018-2020). All fishes were examined using the artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis (CsMc) were detected in 180 (43.8%) out of 411 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 38 per fish infected (PFI). Especially, in 2 fish species, i.e., Pseudorasbora parva and Puntungia herzi, the prevalence was 82.1% and 31.3%, and the infection intensity with CsMc was 88 and 290 PFI, respectively. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae (MsMc) were found in 403 (74.1%) out of 544 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 62 PFI. In the pale chub, Zacco platypus, the prevalence of MsMc was 98.6%, and their infection intensity was 144 PFI. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were detected in 171 (38.9%) out of 440 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 1,844 PFI. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were found in 94 (19.6%) out of 479 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 3 PFI. Metorchis orientalis metacercariae were detected in 43 (29.3%) out of 147 fish of positive species, and their infection intensity was 4 PFI. By the present study, it has been confirmed that some species of ZTM, including CsMc and MsMc, are prevalent in fishes from the irrigation canal of Togyo-jeosuji in Cheorwon-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896149

ABSTRACT

Human infection with Taenia asiatica or a hybrid between Taenia saginata and T. asiatica has not been reported in Cambodia. We detected for the first time a hybrid form between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia. An adult tapeworm specimen, i.e., 75 cm long strobila without scolex, was expelled from a 27-year-old man after praziquantel medication and purging. It was morphologically indistinguishable between T. saginata and T. asiatica. Several proglottids were molecularly analyzed to confirm the tapeworm species. The mitochondrial gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear genes encoding elongation factor-1α (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp) were sequenced, and a single-allele analysis was performed to confirm the haploid genotype. The results revealed that our sample showed a discrepancy between the mitochondrial and 2 nuclear genes. It possessed homozygous sequences typical of T. saginata at cox1 and ef1 loci. However, it was heterozygous at the elp locus, with 1 allele in T. asiatica (elpA) and 1 in T. saginata (elpC), which indicates that it is a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica. The present results confirmed the presence of a hybrid between T. saginata and T. asiatica in Cambodia and strongly suggest the existence of also ‘pure’ T. asiatica in Cambodia.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919311

ABSTRACT

The Chinese edible frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (n=20), and the striped snakehead fish, Channa striata (n=34), were purchased from local markets in 3 administrative regions of Cambodia (Phnom Penh, Pursat, and Takeo Provinces) from May 2017 to April 2019, and their infection status with Gnathostoma sp. larvae was investigated. The frogs and fish were transported to the laboratory with ice and examined using the artificial digestion method. Advanced 3rd-stage larvae (AdL3) of Gnathostoma spinigerum, 24 in total number (1-6 larvae/frog), were detected from 6 (60.0%) out of 10 frogs purchased from Phnom Penh. No gnathostome larvae were detected in 10 frogs purchased from Takeo Province and 34 snakeheads from Phnom Penh, Pursat, and Takeo Provinces. AdL3 isolated from the frogs were 2.55- 3.90 mm long and 0.31-0.36 mm wide. They had a characteristic head bulb (0.081×0.191 mm in average size) with 4 rows of hooklets, a muscular long esophagus (0.950-1.230 mm long), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.530-0.890 mm long). The average number of hooklets in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th rows was 41, 45, 48, and 51, respectively. These features were consistent with G. spinigerum AdL3. By the present study, it has been first confirmed that the Chinese edible frog, H. rugulosus, from Phnom Penh serves as a second intermediate host for G. spinigerum, although their intensity of infection was not so high compared to other previously reported localities.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919310

ABSTRACT

The endemicity of zoonotic trematode metacercariae (ZTM) was investigated with total 871 freshwater fishes (19 species) from Deokcheon-gang (a branch stream of Gyeongho-gang) in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea for 3 years (2018-2020). All fishes were examined with the artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis (CsMc) were detected in 233 (36.3%) out of 642 fish in 11 positive fish species (PFS), and their infection intensity was 27 per fish infected (PFI). Especially, in index fish, Puntungia herzi, of CsMc infection, prevalence was 64.2% and infection intensity was 37 PFI. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae (MsMc) were found in 760 (87.5%) out of 869 fish in 18 PFS and their infection intensity was 228 PFI. In sweet smelt, Plecoglossus altivelis, the prevalence of MsMc was 97.6% and their infection intensity was 3,570 PFI. Centrocestus armatus metacercariae were detected in 209 (29.4%) out of 710 fish in 8 PFS and their infection intensity was 1,361 PFI. Echinostoma spp. metacercariae were found in 293 (42.6%) out of 688 fish in 15 PFS and their infection intensity was 5 PFI. Metacercariae of Clinostomum complanatum and Metorchis orientalis were also detected in 2.7% and 21.2% fish in 4 PFS and their infection intensities were 3.1 and 3.4 PFI respectively. By the present study, it was confirmed that some species of ZTM including CsMc and MsMc are more or less prevalent in fishes from Deokcheon-gang in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919309

ABSTRACT

The prevalence and intensity of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OvMc) were investigated in fish from 3 southern administrative regions along the Mekong River in Cambodia, i.e., Phnom Penh, Takeo, and Kandal Provinces from 2017 to 2020. A total of 295 freshwater fish (24 species) were transported to our laboratory with ice and examined using the artificial digestion method. In Phnom Penh, among 4 fish species positive for OvMc, 9 (23.7%) of 38 specimens examined were infected, and their intensity of infection averaged 4.3 metacercariae per infected fish. In Takeo Province, among 10 fish species positive for OvMc, 24 (38.1%) out of 63 fish examined were infected, and their intensity of infection was av. 14.4 metacercariae per infected fish. In particular, all of 3 Osteochilus schlegelii fish examined were infected, and their infection intensity was high, 34.7 metacercariae per fish. In Kandal Province, among 6 fish species positive for OvMc, 46 (90.2%) out of 51 specimens examined were infected, and their infection intensity was 24.0 metacercaraie per infected fish. All fish of Systomus orphoides (n=17), Barbonymus altus (n=14), and Rasbora aurotaenia (n=2) were infected, and their intensity of infection averaged 37.7, 21.6, and 18.5 metacercariae per fish, respectively. Metacercariae of Haplochis yokogawai, Haplorchis taichui, and Centrocestus formosanus were detected in fish from Takeo and Kandal Provinces. From these results, it has been confirmed that a variety of fish species from Phnom Penh, Takeo, and Kandal Provinces are commonly infected with OvMc, and preventive measures to avoid human O. viverrini infection should be performed in Cambodia.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919301

ABSTRACT

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are still a considerable challenge in Myanmar. We undertook a control program for STH infections (especially Trichuris trichiura) among schoolchildren in Myanmar using mass drug administration (MDA) and health education. Around 1,700 schoolchildren from 15 primary schools in 3 suburban districts (Shwe Pyi Thar, Twantay, and Kyauktan) of the Yangon Region were subjected in this study during 2017-2019. All of the schoolchildren in each school were orally administered albendazole (400 mg in a single dose) 2, 3, and 4 times a year in 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively. The results revealed that the egg positive rate of any intestinal helminths (including STH) was reduced from 37.6% (649/1,724) in 2017 to 22.8% (352/1,542) in 2019. The egg positive rate of Ascaris lumbricoides was decreased remarkably from 23.3% (402/1,724) in 2017 to 3.6% (56/1,542) in 2019. However, that of T. trichiura was only slightly reduced from 26.9% (464/1,724) in 2017 to 20.2% (312/1,542) in 2019. The intensity of infection with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was both more or less reduced, and the proportion of light infection cases with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura increased from 35.6% in 2017 to 64.3% in 2019 and from 70.3% in 2017 to 81.7% in 2019, respectively. The results indicated that repeated MDAs (2-4 times a year for 3 years) using albendazole on schoolchildren in Myanmar failed to control T. trichiura infection. For a successful control of trichuriasis in Myanmar, new MDA strategies, using a modified albendazole regimen (multiple daily doses for 2 or 3 days) or an alternative anthelmintic drug, such as oxantel pamoate, is strongly recommended.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833822

ABSTRACT

Clonorchis sinensis is a food-borne trematode that infects more than 15 million people. The liver fluke causes clonorchiasis and chronical cholangitis, and promotes cholangiocarcinoma. The underlying molecular pathogenesis occurring in the bile duct by the infection is little known. In this study, transcriptome profile in the bile ducts infected with C. sinensis were analyzed using microarray methods. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were 1,563 and 1,457 at 2 and 4 weeks after infection. Majority of the DEGs were temporally dysregulated at 2 weeks, but 519 DEGs showed monotonically changing expression patterns that formed seven distinct expression profiles. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis of the DEG products revealed 5 sub-networks and 10 key hub proteins while weighted co-expression network analysis (WGCNA)-derived gene-gene interaction exhibited 16 co-expression modules and 13 key hub genes. The DEGs were significantly enriched in 16 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, which were related to original systems, cellular process, environmental information processing, and human diseases. This study uncovered a global picture of gene expression profiles in the bile ducts infected with C. sinensis, and provided a set of potent predictive biomarkers for early diagnosis of clonorchiasis.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833797

ABSTRACT

A small survey was performed to investigate the recent infection status of Clonorchis sinensis and other zoonotic trematode metacercariae in freshwater fish from a local market of Yen Bai city, Yen Bai province, northern Vietnam. A total of 118 fish in 7 species were examined by the artificial digestion method on March 2016. The metacercariae of 4 species of zoonotic trematodes, i.e., C. sinensis, Haplorchis pumilio, Haplorchis taichui, and Centrocestus formosanus, were detected. The metacercariae of C. sinensis were found in 62 (69.7%) out of 89 fish (5 species), and their intensity of infection was very high, 81.2 per fish infected. Prevalences of 3 intestinal flukes, H. pumilio, H. taichui and C. formosanus, were 75.0%, 47.6%, and 31.7% in positive fish species, respectively, with the metacercarial intensities of 15.5, 10.3, and 2.2 per fish infected. From the above results, it has been confirmed that various species of freshwater fish continue to play the role of the infection source of C. sinensis and other zoonotic trematodes in Yen Bai city, Yen Bai province, northern Vietnam. It is of particular note that the prevalence and intensity of C. sinensis metacercariae are much higher than those reported in previous studies in fish in northern Vietnam.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833787

ABSTRACT

Human infection with Echinostoma aegyptica Khalil and Abaza, 1924 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) is extremely rare. In this study, we confirmed E. aegyptica infection in 5 riparian residents living along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. The patients revealed eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes, echinostomes, and other parasites in fecal examinations using the Kato-Katz technique. Following treatment with praziquantel 30-40 mg/kg and pyrantel pamoate 10-15 mg/kg in a single dose and purging with magnesium salts, adult specimens of various helminth species were collected. Among the trematodes, echinostome flukes of 4.5-7.6 mm in length (n = 134; av. 22.3 specimens per case) were of taxonomic interest and subjected in this study. The flukes were morphologically characterized by having total 43-45 collar spines arranged in 2 alternating rows (corner spines usually 5 on each side) and compatible with previous descriptions of E. aegyptica. The patients were mixed-infected with other helminths, so specific clinical manifestations due to this echinostome fluke were difficult to determine. The present paper describes for the first time human E. aegyptica infections in Lao PDR. This is the second report of human infection (2nd-6th cases) with E. aegyptica in the world following the first one from China.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833784

ABSTRACT

Gymnophallid metacercariae found in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (‘Banjirak’ in Korean) from Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Korea were morphologically and molecularly confirmed to be Parvatrema duboisi (Dollfus, 1923) Bartoli, 1974. The metacercariae were morphologically characterized by having a large oral sucker, small ventral sucker, genital pore some distance anterior to the ventral sucker, no ventral pit, and 1 compact or slightly lobed vitellarium, which were all compatible with P. duboisi. Some of the metacercariae were experimentally fed to mice, and adult flukes were recovered at day 7 post-infection. The morphology of the adult flukes was basically the same as that of the metacercariae except for the presence of uterine eggs; the uterus was filled with up to 40 eggs. The nucleotide sequences (1,193 bp) from ITS regions (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS2) of the metacercariae showed 99.7% identity with P. duboisi and 75.7% identity with Gymnophalloides seoi deposited in GenBank. These results confirmed the presence of P. duboisi metacercariae in the Manila clam R. philippinarum in an estuary region of Gochang-gun, Korea.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833780

ABSTRACT

Echinostoma flukes armed with 37 collar spines on their head collar are called as 37-collar-spined Echinostoma spp. (group) or ‘Echinostoma revolutum group’. At least 56 nominal species have been described in this group. However, many of them were morphologically close to and difficult to distinguish from the other, thus synonymized with the others. However, some of the synonymies were disagreed by other researchers, and taxonomic debates have been continued. Fortunately, recent development of molecular techniques, in particular, sequencing of the mitochondrial (nad1 and cox1) and nuclear genes (ITS region; ITS1-5.8S-ITS2), has enabled us to obtain highly useful data on phylogenetic relationships of these 37-collar-spined Echinostoma spp. Thus, 16 different species are currently acknowledged to be valid worldwide, which include E. revolutum, E. bolschewense, E. caproni, E. cinetorchis, E. deserticum, E. lindoense, E. luisreyi, E. mekongi, E. miyagawai, E. nasincovae, E. novaezealandense, E. paraensei, E. paraulum, E. robustum, E. trivolvis, and Echinostoma sp. IG of Georgieva et al., 2013. The validity of the other 10 species is retained until further evaluation, including molecular analyses; E. acuticauda, E. barbosai, E. chloephagae, E. echinatum, E. jurini, E. nudicaudatum, E. parvocirrus, E. pinnicaudatum, E. ralli, and E. rodriguesi. In this review, the history of discovery and taxonomic debates on these 26 valid or validity-retained species are briefly reviewed.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833774

ABSTRACT

Echinostoma mekongi n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is described based on adult flukes collected from humans residing along the Mekong River in Cambodia. Total 256 flukes were collected from the diarrheic stool of 6 echinostome egg positive villagers in Kratie and Takeo Province after praziquantel treatment and purging. Adults of the new species were 9.0-13.1 (av. 11.3) mm in length and 1.3-2.5 (1.9) mm in maximum width and characterized by having a head collar armed with 37 collar spines (dorsal spines arranged in 2 alternative rows), including 5 end group spines. The eggs in feces and worm uterus were 98-132 (117) μm long and 62-90 (75) μm wide. These morphological features closely resembled those of Echinostoma revolutum, E. miyagawai, and several other 37-collar-spined Echinostoma species. However, sequencing of the nuclear ITS (ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2) and 2 mitochondrial genes, cox1 and nad1, revealed unique features distinct from E. revolutum and also from other 37-collar-spined Echinostoma group available in GenBank (E. bolschewense, E. caproni, E. cinetorchis, E. deserticum, E. miyagawai, E. nasincovae, E. novaezealandense, E. paraensei, E. paraulum, E. robustum, E. trivolvis, and Echinostoma sp. IG). Thus, we assigned our flukes as a new species, E. mekongi. The new species revealed marked variation in the morphology of testes (globular or lobulated), and smaller head collar, collar spines, oral and ventral suckers, and cirrus sac compared to E. revolutum and E. miyagawai. Epidemiological studies regarding the geographical distribution and its life history, including the source of human infections, remain to be performed.

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