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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 569-576, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904245

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) has been performed to reduce locoregional failure (LRF) following radical cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer; however, its efficacy has not been well established. We analyzed the locoregional recurrence patterns of post-radical cystectomy to identify patients who could benefit from adjuvant RT and determine the optimal target volume. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 160 patients with stage ≥ pT3 bladder cancer who were treated with radical cystectomy between January 2006 and December 2015. The impact of pathologic findings, including the stage, lympho-vascular invasion, perineural invasion, margin status, nodal involvement, and the number of nodes removed on failure patterns, was assessed. @*Results@#Median follow-up period was 27.7 months. LRF was observed in 55 patients (34.3%), 12 of whom presented with synchronous local and regional failures as the first failure. The most common failure pattern was distant metastasis (40%). Among LRFs, the most common recurrence site was the cystectomy bed (15.6%). Patients with positive resection margins had a significantly higher recurrence rate compared to those without (28% vs. 10%, p=0.004). The pelvic nodal recurrence rate was < 5% in pN0 patients; the rate of recurrence in the external and common iliac nodes was 12.5% in pN+ patients. The rate of recurrence in the common iliac nodes was significantly higher in pN2–3 patients than in pN0–1 patients (15.2% vs. 4.4%, p=0.04). @*Conclusion@#Pelvic RT could be beneficial especially for those with positive resection margins or nodal involvement after radical cystectomy. Radiation fields should be optimized based on the patient-specific risk factors.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897447

ABSTRACT

Particle therapy is a promising and evolving modality of radiotherapy that can be used to treat tumors that are radioresistant to conventional photon beam radiotherapy. It has unique biological and physical advantages compared with conventional radiotherapy. The characteristic feature of particle therapy is the “Bragg peak,” a steep and localized peak of dose, that enables precise delivery of the radiation dose to the tumor while effectively sparing normal organs. Especially, the charged particles (e.g., proton, helium, carbon) cause a high rate of energy loss along the track, thereby leading to high biological effectiveness, which makes particle therapy attractive. Using this property, the particle beam induces more severe DNA double-strand breaks than the photon beam, which is less influenced by the oxygen level. This review describes the general biological and physical aspects of particle therapy for oncologists, including non-radiation oncologists and beginners in the field.

3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 569-576, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896541

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) has been performed to reduce locoregional failure (LRF) following radical cystectomy for locally advanced bladder cancer; however, its efficacy has not been well established. We analyzed the locoregional recurrence patterns of post-radical cystectomy to identify patients who could benefit from adjuvant RT and determine the optimal target volume. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 160 patients with stage ≥ pT3 bladder cancer who were treated with radical cystectomy between January 2006 and December 2015. The impact of pathologic findings, including the stage, lympho-vascular invasion, perineural invasion, margin status, nodal involvement, and the number of nodes removed on failure patterns, was assessed. @*Results@#Median follow-up period was 27.7 months. LRF was observed in 55 patients (34.3%), 12 of whom presented with synchronous local and regional failures as the first failure. The most common failure pattern was distant metastasis (40%). Among LRFs, the most common recurrence site was the cystectomy bed (15.6%). Patients with positive resection margins had a significantly higher recurrence rate compared to those without (28% vs. 10%, p=0.004). The pelvic nodal recurrence rate was < 5% in pN0 patients; the rate of recurrence in the external and common iliac nodes was 12.5% in pN+ patients. The rate of recurrence in the common iliac nodes was significantly higher in pN2–3 patients than in pN0–1 patients (15.2% vs. 4.4%, p=0.04). @*Conclusion@#Pelvic RT could be beneficial especially for those with positive resection margins or nodal involvement after radical cystectomy. Radiation fields should be optimized based on the patient-specific risk factors.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889743

ABSTRACT

Particle therapy is a promising and evolving modality of radiotherapy that can be used to treat tumors that are radioresistant to conventional photon beam radiotherapy. It has unique biological and physical advantages compared with conventional radiotherapy. The characteristic feature of particle therapy is the “Bragg peak,” a steep and localized peak of dose, that enables precise delivery of the radiation dose to the tumor while effectively sparing normal organs. Especially, the charged particles (e.g., proton, helium, carbon) cause a high rate of energy loss along the track, thereby leading to high biological effectiveness, which makes particle therapy attractive. Using this property, the particle beam induces more severe DNA double-strand breaks than the photon beam, which is less influenced by the oxygen level. This review describes the general biological and physical aspects of particle therapy for oncologists, including non-radiation oncologists and beginners in the field.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831115

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the clinical efficacy of immune checkpoint blocker (ICB) therapy for metastatic or advanced melanoma in Korean patients. As well, we assessed whether the effects of ICBs can be enhanced by combination therapy with palliative radiotherapy (RT). @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the records of 127 patients with metastatic melanoma who received ICB with or without palliative RT between 2014 and 2018. The melanoma subtypes were classified as follows: chronic sun-damaged (CSD), acral, mucosal, and uveal. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). @*Results@#The overall ORR was 15%, with 11 complete and eight partial responses. ORRs for CSD, acral/mucosal, and uveal melanomas were 50%, 16.5%, and 0%, respectively (p=0.009). In addition to the subtype, stage at treatment, total tumor burden at treatment, and ICB type were significantly associated with ORR (all p < 0.05). Palliative RT was administered in 44% of patients during the treatment, and it did not affect ORR. Clinical responders to ICB therapy exhibited significantly higher 1-year progression-free and overall survival rates than nonresponders. @*Conclusion@#ORR for ICB monotherapy in Korean patients with melanoma is relatively modest compared with that in Western patients because the non-CSD subtypes are predominant in the Korean population. Our findings regarding combination therapy with ICB provided a rationale for the initiation of our phase II study (NCT04017897).

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the recent changes of radiation therapy (RT) modalities in Korea. In particular, we focused on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) utilization as the main index, presenting the application status of advanced RT. METHODS: We collected information from the Korean Health and Insurance Review and Assessment Service data based on the National Health Insurance Service claims and reimbursements records by using treatment codes from 2010 to 2016. We classified locating region of each institution as capital vs. non-capital areas and metropolitan vs. non-metropolitan areas to assess the regional difference in IMRT utilization in Korea. RESULTS: IMRT use has been steadily increased in Korea, with an annual increase estimate (AIE) of 37.9% from 2011 to 2016 (P < 0.001) resulting in IMRT being the second most common RT modality following three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. In general, an increasing trend of IMRT utilization was observed, regardless of the region. The rate of AIE in the capital areas or metropolitan areas was higher than that in non-capital areas or non-metropolitan areas (40.7% vs. 31.9%; P < 0.001 and 39.7% vs. 29.4%; P < 0.001, respectively). DISCUSSION: The result of our survey showed that IMRT has become one of the most common RT modalities. IMRT is becoming popular in both metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas, while metropolitan area has faster AIE possibly due to concentration of medical resources and movement of advanced patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Insurance , Korea , National Health Programs , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1049-1056, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718036

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Local recurrence is the most common cause of failure in retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma patients after surgical resection. Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) is infrequently used due to its high complication risk. We investigated the efficacy of PORT using modern techniques in patients with retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients, who underwent surgical resection for non-metastatic primary retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma at the Yonsei Cancer Center between 1994 and 2015, were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-eight (47.5%) patients received PORT: three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in 29 and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in nine patients. Local failure-free survival (LFFS), overall survival (OS), and RT-related toxicities were investigated. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 37.1 months (range, 5.8–207.9). Treatment failure occurred in 47 (58.8%) patients including local recurrence in 33 (41.3%), distant metastasis in eight (10%), and both occurred in six (7.5%) patients. The 2-year and 5-year LFFS rates were 63.9% and 47.9%, respectively. The 2-year and 5-year OS rates were 87.5% and 71.1%. The 5-year LFFS rate was significantly higher in PORT group than in no-PORT group (74.2% vs. 24.3%, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, PORT was the only independent prognostic factor for LFFS. However, there was no significant correlation between RT dose and LFFS. OS showed no significant difference between the two groups. Grade ≤2 acute toxicities were observed in 63% of patients, but no acute toxicity ≥grade 3 was observed. CONCLUSION: PORT using modern technique markedly reduced local recurrence in retroperitoneal sarcoma patients, with low toxicity. The optimal RT technique, in terms of RT dose and target volume, should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sarcoma , Treatment Failure
8.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 230-238, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39691

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hypoxia can impair the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT). Therefore, a new strategy is necessary for enhancing the response to RT. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of nanoparticles and RT is effective in eliminating the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) consisting of a silica core with a gold shell were used. CT26 colon cancer mouse model was developed to study whether the combination of RT and GNPs reduced hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was used as a hypoxia marker. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were conducted to evaluate cell death. RESULTS: Hypoxic tumor cells had an impaired response to RT. GNPs combined with RT enhanced anti-tumor effect in hypoxic tumor compared with RT alone. The combination of GNPs and RT decreased tumor cell viability compare to RT alone in vitro. Under hypoxia, tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed a higher response than that shown by tumors treated with RT alone. When a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger was added, the enhanced antitumor effect of GNPs + RT was diminished. CONCLUSION: In the present study, hypoxic tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed favorable responses, which might be attributable to the ROS production induced by GNPs + RT. Taken together, GNPs combined with RT seems to be potential modality for enhancing the response to RT in hypoxic tumors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia , Cell Death , Cell Survival , Colonic Neoplasms , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase , In Vitro Techniques , Mice , Nanoparticles , Radiotherapy , Reactive Oxygen Species , Silicon Dioxide
9.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 128-134, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60762

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent radiation therapy with or without targeted molecular therapy for the treatment of spinal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 28 spinal metastatic lesions from RCC patients treated with radiotherapy between June 2009 and June 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirteen lesions were treated concurrently with targeted molecular therapy (concurrent group) and 15 lesions were not (nonconcurrent group). Local control was defined as lack of radiographically evident local progression and neurological deterioration. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 11 months (range, 2 to 58 months), the 1-year local progression-free rate (LPFR) was 67.0%. The patients with concurrent targeted molecular therapy showed significantly higher LPFR than those without (p = 0.019). After multivariate analysis, use of concurrent targeted molecular therapy showed a tendency towards improved LPFR (hazard ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 1.16). There was no difference in the incidence of systemic progression between concurrent and nonconcurrent groups. No grade ≥2 toxicities were observed during or after radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests the possibility that concurrent use of targeted molecular therapy during radiotherapy may improve LPFR. Further study with a large population is required to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
10.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 135-144, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60761

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of art therapy to control fatigue in cancer patients during course of radiotherapy and its impact on quality of life (QoL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty cancer patients receiving radiotherapy received weekly art therapy sessions using famous painting appreciation. Fatigue and QoL were assessed using the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) Scale and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) at baseline before starting radiotherapy, every week for 4 weeks during radiotherapy, and at the end of radiotherapy. Mean changes of scores over time were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. RESULTS: Of the 50 patients, 34 (68%) participated in 4 sessions of art therapy. Generalized linear mixed models testing for the effect of time on mean score changes showed no significant changes in scores from baseline for the BFI and FACIT-F. The mean BFI score and FACIT-F total score changed from 3.1 to 2.7 and from 110.7 to 109.2, respectively. Art therapy based on the appreciation of famous paintings led to increases in self-esteem by increasing self-realization and forming social relationships. CONCLUSION: Fatigue and QoL in cancer patients with art therapy do not deteriorate during a period of radiotherapy. Despite the single-arm small number of participants and pilot design, this study provides a strong initial demonstration that art therapy of appreciation for famous painting is worthy of further study for fatigue and QoL improvement. Further, it can play an important role in routine practice in cancer patients during radiotherapy.


Subject(s)
Art Therapy , Chronic Disease , Fatigue , Humans , Paint , Paintings , Quality of Life , Radiotherapy
11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1102-1109, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68884

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Korean Society of Radiation Oncologists (KOSRO) conducted the Patterns of Care Study (PCS) of radiotherapy (RT) for spine metastases in 2009. The current study was conducted to investigate current practice patterns and compare them with the results of the PCS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey questionnaire was composed of 10 questions regarding general information and seven questions for each of two clinical scenarios. RESULTS: Fifty-four members of the KOSRO answered at least one question on the web-based questionnaire. The yearly number of patients treated who underwent palliative spine RT was greater than 200 in 14 (25.9%), 51 to 100 in 13 (24.1%), and 31 to 50 in 11 respondents (20.4%). Scenario 1 described a patient presenting with cord compressive spine metastasis in multiple bones and liver metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer. Thirty gray (Gy) in 10 fractions was chosen by 35 respondents (64.8%). Scenario 2 described a case of a single spine metastasis without progression after targeted therapy. Thirty Gy in 10 fractions was chosen by 19 respondents (35.2%), and a single fraction or less than four fractions of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) were selected by 18 respondents (33.3%). When compared with the 2009 PCS, practice patterns of Korean radiation oncologists had not changed significantly over 5 years, except that SABR emerged as a new treatment modality in the selected population. CONCLUSION: The 2014 PCS demonstrated that multiple fraction RT is still preferred in a considerable proportion of Korean radiation oncologists.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Data Collection , Humans , Korea , Liver , Neoplasm Metastasis , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Radiotherapy , Spine , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 134-141, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129478

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigates morphologic change of the rectosigmoid colon using a belly board in prone position and distended bladder in patients with rectal cancer. We evaluate the possibility of excluding the proximal margin of anastomosis from the radiation field by straightening the rectosigmoid colon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients who received preoperative radiotherapy between 2006 and 2009 underwent simulation in a prone position (group A). These patients were compared to 19 patients treated using a belly board in prone position and a distended bladder protocol (group B). Rectosigmoid colon in the pelvic cavity was delineated on planning computed tomography (CT) images. A total dose of 45 Gy was planned for the whole pelvic field with superior margin of the sacral promontory. The volume and redundancy of rectosigmoid colon was assessed. RESULTS: Patients in group B had straighter rectosigmoid colons than those in group A (no redundancy; group A vs. group B, 10% vs. 42%; p = 0.03). The volume of rectosigmoid colon in the radiation field was significantly larger in group A (56.7 vs. 49.1 mL; p = 0.009). In dose volume histogram analysis, the mean irradiated volume was lower in patients in group B (V45 27.2 vs. 18.2 mL; p = 0.004). In Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, the in-field volume of rectosigmoid colon was significantly correlated with the bladder volume (R = 0.86, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Use of a belly board and distended bladder protocol could contribute to exclusion of the proximal margin of anastomosis from the radiation field.


Subject(s)
Anastomotic Leak , Colon , Humans , Prone Position , Radiotherapy , Rectal Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder
13.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 134-141, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129463

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigates morphologic change of the rectosigmoid colon using a belly board in prone position and distended bladder in patients with rectal cancer. We evaluate the possibility of excluding the proximal margin of anastomosis from the radiation field by straightening the rectosigmoid colon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients who received preoperative radiotherapy between 2006 and 2009 underwent simulation in a prone position (group A). These patients were compared to 19 patients treated using a belly board in prone position and a distended bladder protocol (group B). Rectosigmoid colon in the pelvic cavity was delineated on planning computed tomography (CT) images. A total dose of 45 Gy was planned for the whole pelvic field with superior margin of the sacral promontory. The volume and redundancy of rectosigmoid colon was assessed. RESULTS: Patients in group B had straighter rectosigmoid colons than those in group A (no redundancy; group A vs. group B, 10% vs. 42%; p = 0.03). The volume of rectosigmoid colon in the radiation field was significantly larger in group A (56.7 vs. 49.1 mL; p = 0.009). In dose volume histogram analysis, the mean irradiated volume was lower in patients in group B (V45 27.2 vs. 18.2 mL; p = 0.004). In Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, the in-field volume of rectosigmoid colon was significantly correlated with the bladder volume (R = 0.86, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Use of a belly board and distended bladder protocol could contribute to exclusion of the proximal margin of anastomosis from the radiation field.


Subject(s)
Anastomotic Leak , Colon , Humans , Prone Position , Radiotherapy , Rectal Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder
14.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 221-230, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-178785

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the risk of vertebral compression fracture (VCF) after conventional radiotherapy (RT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) with spine metastasis and to identify risk factors for VCF in metastatic and non-metastatic irradiated spines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 68 spinal segments in 16 patients who received conventional RT between 2009 and 2012. Fracture was defined as a newly developed VCF or progression of an existing fracture. The target volume included all metastatic spinal segments and one additional non-metastatic vertebra adjacent to the tumor-involved spines. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 7.8 months. Among all 68 spinal segments, there were six fracture events (8.8%) including three new VCFs and three fracture progressions. Observed VCF rates in vertebral segments with prior irradiation or pre-existing compression fracture were 30.0% and 75.0% respectively, compared with 5.2% and 4.7% for segments without prior irradiation or pre-existing compression fracture, respectively (both p < 0.05). The 1-year fracture-free probability was 87.8% (95% CI, 78.2-97.4). On multivariate analysis, prior irradiation (HR, 7.30; 95% CI, 1.31-40.86) and pre-existing compression fracture (HR, 18.45; 95% CI, 3.42-99.52) were independent risk factors for VCF. CONCLUSION: The incidence of VCF following conventional RT to the spine is not particularly high, regardless of metastatic tumor involvement. Spines that received irradiation and/or have pre-existing compression fracture before RT have an increased risk of VCF and require close observation.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Follow-Up Studies , Fractures, Compression , Humans , Incidence , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spinal Fractures , Spinal Neoplasms , Spine
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47261

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the clinical implications of a pathologically complete response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by local excision for patients with cT2 rectal cancer who refused radical surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with cT2 primary rectal cancer within 6 cm from the anal verge who received neoadjuvant CRT and local excision because of patient refusal of radical surgery or poor performance status were included. Two patients had clinical involvement of a regional lymph node. Preoperative radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis at a dose of 44 to 50.4 Gy in 22 to 28 fractions. All patients underwent transanal excision and eight patients (47%) received postoperative chemotherapy. RESULTS: Ten patients (59%) achieved ypT0. At a median follow-up period of 75 months (range, 22 to 126 months), four (24%) patients developed recurrence (two locoregional and two distant). The 5-year disease-free survival of all patients was 82%, and was higher in patients with ypT0 (90%) than in patients with ypT1-2 (69%, p=0.1643). Decreased disease-free survival was also observed in patients receiving capecitabine compared with 5-fluorouracil (54% vs. 100%, p=0.0298). CONCLUSION: Local excision could be a feasible alternative to radical surgery in patients with ypT0 after neoadjuvant CRT for cT2 distal rectal cancer without further radical surgery.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Disulfiram , Drug Therapy , Fluorouracil , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Pelvis , Radiotherapy , Rectal Neoplasms , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Capecitabine
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117266

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the patterns of locoregional recurrence of pathologic T3N0 (pT3N0) lower rectal cancer omitting postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and explore the potential of modification of a RT field. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From Jan 2003 to Nov 2011, 35 patients omitting preoperative or postoperative RT for pT3N0 lower rectal cancer were included. We defined the lower rectal cancer as the tumor with the inferior margin located below the virtual line-a convergent level between rectal wall and levator ani muscle. All patients had radiologic examinations for recurrence evaluation during the follow-up duration. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 66.4 months (range, 1.4 to 126.1 months). Eight (22.9%) of the 35 patients had recurrence. Three (8.6%) was local recurrence (LR) only, 3 (8.6%) was distant metastasis (DM) only, and 2 (5.7%) was LR with DM. All LR were located at primary tumor sites. The overall survival rate, LR-free survival rate, and DM-free survival rate at 5 years was 79.8%, 83%, and 87%, respectively. All LR developed from tumors over 5 cm. However, there was no statistical significance (p = 0.065). There was no other risk factor for LR. CONCLUSION: Even though the patients included in this study had pathologically favorable pT3N0 rectal cancer, LR developed in 14.3% of patients. Most of the LR was located at primary tumor sites prior to surgery. Based on these findings, it might seem reasonable to consider postoperative RT with a smaller radiation field to the primary tumor site rather than the conventional whole pelvic irradiation.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Muscles , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Rectal Neoplasms , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51355

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze patterns of abdominopelvic failures and to define subgroups for the use of adjuvant radiotherapy in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: We reviewed 149 patients treated with debulking surgery followed by intravenous taxane and platinum chemotherapy between 1999 and 2008. Patient characteristics, patterns of failure, abdominopelvic failure APF-free survival (APFFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 51 years. Thirty-two patients (21.5%) were found to have residuum >2 cm after surgery. The median pretreatment CA-125 was 604 and 54.4% of patients had a decline in CA-125 > or =90% between pretreatment and at postoperative 1 month. With a median follow-up of 50 months, 79 patients (53.0%) experienced abdominopelvic failure (APF). The 5-year APF-free survival rate was 41.1%. Lymph node metastasis, size of residual disease, and decline in CA-125 were found to be significant prognostic factors for APF upon multivariate analysis. The group of patients in whom abdominopelvic irradiation was indicated as definitive postoperative treatment comprised 55% of the overall patient population and their 5-year survival rate was 68%. CONCLUSION: The stratification was suggested to predict APF based on lymph node metastasis, size of residual tumor, and decline in CA-125. Adjuvant radiotherapy covering the whole abdominopelvis using the intensity modulation technique may be considered to reduce APF in FIGO stage III EOC patients with intermediate risk.


Subject(s)
Bridged-Ring Compounds , Follow-Up Studies , Gynecology , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm, Residual , Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial , Obstetrics , Ovarian Neoplasms , Platinum , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Survival Rate , Taxoids
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17609

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We reviewed the treatment outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with anal canal carcinoma who were treated with curative intent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) at Severance Hospital from 2005 to 2011. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data for 38 eligible patients treated during this period were reviewed. All patients were treated with curative intent using radiotherapy (RT) with (n = 35) or without concomitant chemotherapy (n = 3). Among 35 patients who received CRT, most of the chemotherapeutic regimens were either 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus mitomycin C (23 patients) or 5-FU plus cisplatin (10 patients). Recurrence-free survival (RFS), colostomy-free survival (CFS), overall survival (OS), and locoregional control (LRC) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and survival between subgroups were compared using the log-rank test. Cox's proportional hazard model was used for multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up period of 44 months (range, 11 to 96 months), 3-year RFS, CFS, OS, and LRC were 80%, 79%, 85%, and 92%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, tumor size >4 cm was an independent predicting factor for poorer RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 6.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42 to 28.5; p = 0.006) and CFS (HR, 6.25; 95% CI, 1.39-28.0; p = 0.017), while the presence of external iliac lymph node metastasis was an independent prognosticator for poorer OS (HR, 9.32; 95% CI, 1.24 to 70.3; p = 0.030). No treatment-related colostomies or deaths occurred during or after treatment. CONCLUSION: Curative intent CRT resulted in excellent outcomes that were comparable to outcomes in previous randomized trials. No severe treatment-related toxicities were observed.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal , Anus Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin , Colostomy , Fluorouracil , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Mitomycin , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Proportional Hazards Models
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-17607

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the early experience of analyzing variations and time trends in bladder volume of the rectal cancer patients who received bladder ultrasound scan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 20 consecutive rectal cancer patients who received whole pelvic radiotherapy (RT) and bladder ultrasound scan between February and April 2012. Before simulation and during the entire course of treatment, patients were scanned with portable automated ultrasonic bladder scanner, 5 times consecutively, and the median value was reported. Then a radiation oncologist contoured the bladder inner wall shown on simulation computed tomography (CT) and calculated its volume. RESULTS: Before simulation, the median bladder volume measured using simulation CT and bladder ultrasound scan was 427 mL (range, 74 to 1,172 mL) and 417 mL (range, 147 to 1,245 mL), respectively. There was strong linear correlation (R = 0.93, p < 0.001) between the two results. During the course of treatment, there were wide variations in the bladder volume and every time, measurements were below the baseline with statistical significance (12/16). At 6 weeks after RT, the median volume was reduced by 59.3% to 175 mL. Compared to the baseline, bladder volume was reduced by 38% or 161 mL on average every week for 6 weeks. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this study is the first to prove that there are bladder volume variations and a reduction in bladder volume in rectal cancer patients. Moreover, our results will serve as the basis for implementation of bladder training to patients receiving RT with full bladder.


Subject(s)
Humans , Observer Variation , Rectal Neoplasms , Ultrasonics , Urinary Bladder
20.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 132-139, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-97535

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this prospective multi-institutional study was to evaluate the nutritional status of patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for treatment of head and neck, lung, or gastrointestinal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,000 patients were enrolled in this study at seven different hospitals in Seoul, Korea between October 2009 and May 2010. The nutritional status of patients after receiving 3 weeks of RT was evaluated using subjective global assessment (SGA). The nutritional status of each patient was rated as well nourished (A), moderately malnourished (B), or severely malnourished (C). RESULTS: The mean age of patients in this study was 59.4 +/- 11.9 years, and the male to female ratio was 7:3. According to the SGA results, 60.8%, 34.5%, and 4.7% of patients were classified as A, B, or C, respectively. The following criteria were significantly associated with malnutrition (SGA B or C; p or =5% (OR, 2.299). CONCLUSION: SGA was applied successfully to assess the nutritional status of most patients. The prevalence of malnutrition in a radiation oncology department was 39.2%. The results of this study serve as a basis for implementation of nutrition intervention to patients being treated at radiation oncology departments.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ankle , Ascites , Edema , Female , Head , Humans , Korea , Lung , Male , Malnutrition , Muscles , Neck , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Radiation Oncology , Subcutaneous Fat , Weight Loss
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