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Crit. Care Sci ; 35(3): 243-255, July-Sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528475


ABSTRACT Objective: To update the recommendations to support decisions regarding the pharmacological treatment of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Brazil. Methods: Experts, including representatives of the Ministry of Health and methodologists, created this guideline. The method used for the rapid development of guidelines was based on the adoption and/or adaptation of existing international guidelines (GRADE ADOLOPMENT) and supported by the e-COVID-19 RecMap platform. The quality of the evidence and the preparation of the recommendations followed the GRADE method. Results: Twenty-one recommendations were generated, including strong recommendations for the use of corticosteroids in patients using supplemental oxygen and conditional recommendations for the use of tocilizumab and baricitinib for patients on supplemental oxygen or on noninvasive ventilation and anticoagulants to prevent thromboembolism. Due to suspension of use authorization, it was not possible to make recommendations regarding the use of casirivimab + imdevimab. Strong recommendations against the use of azithromycin in patients without suspected bacterial infection, hydroxychloroquine, convalescent plasma, colchicine, and lopinavir + ritonavir and conditional recommendations against the use of ivermectin and remdesivir were made. Conclusion: New recommendations for the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were generated, such as those for tocilizumab and baricitinib. Corticosteroids and prophylaxis for thromboembolism are still recommended, the latter with conditional recommendation. Several drugs were considered ineffective and should not be used to provide the best treatment according to the principles of evidence-based medicine and to promote resource economy.

RESUMO Objetivo: Atualizar as recomendações para embasar as decisões para o tratamento farmacológico de pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19 no Brasil. Métodos: A elaboração desta diretriz foi feita por especialistas, incluindo representantes do Ministério da Saúde e metodologistas. O método utilizado para o desenvolvimento rápido de diretrizes baseou-se na adoção e/ou adaptação de diretrizes internacionais existentes (GRADE ADOLOPMENT) e contou com o apoio da plataforma e-COVID-19 RecMap. A qualidade das evidências e a elaboração das recomendações seguiram o método GRADE. Resultados: Chegaram-se a 21 recomendações, incluindo recomendações fortes quanto ao uso de corticosteroides em pacientes em uso de oxigênio suplementar e recomendações condicionais para o uso de tocilizumabe e baricitinibe, em pacientes com oxigênio suplementar ou ventilação não invasiva, e de anticoagulantes, para prevenção de tromboembolismo. Devido à suspensão da autorização de uso, não foi possível fazer recomendações para o tratamento com casirivimabe + imdevimabe. Foram feitas recomendações fortes contra o uso de azitromicina em pacientes sem suspeita de infecção bacteriana, hidroxicloroquina, plasma convalescente, colchicina e lopinavir + ritonavir, além de recomendações condicionais contra o uso de ivermectina e rendesivir. Conclusão: Foram criadas novas recomendações para o tratamento de pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19, como as recomendações de tocilizumabe e baricitinibe. Ainda são recomendados corticosteroides e profilaxia contra tromboembolismo, esta em caráter condicional. Vários medicamentos foram considerados ineficazes e não devem ser usados, no intuito de proporcionar o melhor tratamento segundo os princípios da medicina baseada em evidências e promover a economia de recursos.

Adv Rheumatol ; 63: 14, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447130


Abstract Background Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that often leads patients to muscle impairment and physical disability. This study aimed to evaluate changes in the activity of proteasome system in skeletal muscles of mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and treated with etanercept or methotrexate. Methods Male DBA1/J mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 each): CIA-Vehicle (treated with saline), CIA-ETN (treated with etanercept, 5.5 mg/kg), CIA-MTX (treated with methotrexate, 35 mg/kg) and CO (healthy control group). Mice were treated two times a week for 6 weeks. Clinical score and hind paw edema were measured. Muscles were weighted after euthanasia and used to quantify proteasome activity, gene (MuRF-1, PMSα4, PSMβ5, PMSβ6, PSMβ7, PSMβ8, PSMβ9, and PSMβ10), and protein (PSMβ1, PSMβ5, PSMβ1i, PSMβ5i) expression of proteasome subunits. Results Both treatments slowed disease development, but only CIA-ETN maintained muscle weight compared to CIA-MTX and CIA-Vehicle groups. Etanercept treatment showed caspase-like activity of 26S proteasome similar to CO group, while CIA-Vehicle and CIA-MTX had higher activity compared to CO group (p: 0.0057). MuRF-1 mRNA expression was decreased after etanercept administration compared to CIA-Vehicle and CO groups (p: 0.002, p: 0.007, respectively). PSMβ8 and PSMβ9 mRNA levels were increased in CIA-Vehicle and CIA-MTX compared to CO group, while CIA-ETN presented no difference from CO. PMSβ6 mRNA expression was higher in CIA-Vehicle and CIA-MTX groups than in CO group. Protein levels of the PSMβ5 subunit were increased in CO group compared to CIA-Vehicle; after both etanercept and methotrexate treatments, PSMβ5 expression was higher than in CIA-Vehicle group and did not differ from CO group expression (p: 0.0025, p: 0.001, respectively). The inflammation-induced subunit β1 (LMP2) was enhanced after methotrexate treatment compared to CO group (p: 0.043). Conclusions The results of CIA-Vehicle show that arthritis increases muscle proteasome activation by enhanced caspase-like activity of 26S proteasome and increased PSMβ8 and PSMβ9 mRNA levels. Etanercept treatment was able to maintain the muscle weight and to modulate proteasome so that its activity and gene expression were compared to CO after TNF inhibition. The protein expression of inflammation-induced proteasome subunit was increased in muscle of CIA-MTX group but not following etanercept treatment. Thus, anti-TNF treatment may be an interesting approach to attenuate the arthritis-related muscle wasting.

Adv Rheumatol ; 63: 12, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447146


Abstract Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are developed to align standards of health care around the world, aiming to reduce the incidence of misconducts and enabling more effective use of health resources. Considering the complexity, cost, and time involved in formulating CPG, strategies should be used to facilitate and guide authors through each step of this process. The main objective of this document is to present a methodological guide prepared by the Epidemiology Committee of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology for the elaboration of CPG in rheumatology. Through an extensive review of the literature, this study compiles the main practical recommendations regarding the following steps of CPG drafting: distribution of working groups, development of the research question, search, identification and selection of relevant studies, evidence synthesis and quality assessment of the body of evidence, the Delphi methodology for consensus achievement, presentation and dissemination ofthe recommendations, CPG quality assessment and updating. This methodological guide serves as an important tool for rheumatologists to develop reliable and high-quality CPG, standardizing clinical practices worldwide.

Adv Rheumatol ; 63: 1, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447155


Abstract Background Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) play a prominent role in rheumatoid synovitis and degradation of the extracellular matrix through the production of inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases (MMPs). Since animal models are frequently used for elucidating the disease mechanism and therapeutic development, it is relevant to study the ultrastructural characteristics and functional responses in human and mouse FLS. The objective of the study was to analyze ultrastructural characteristics, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) production and the activation of intracellular pathways in Fibroblast like synoviocytes (FLS) cultures obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and from mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods FLSs were obtained from RA patients (RA-FLSs) (n = 8) and mice with CIA (CIA-FLSs) (n = 4). Morphology was assessed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. IL-6 and MMP-3 production was measured by ELISA, and activation of intracellular signaling pathways (NF-κB and MAPK: p-ERK1/2, p-P38 and p-JNK) was measured by Western blotting in cultures of RA-FLSs and CIA-FLSs stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-1β. Results RA-FLS and CIA-FLS cultures exhibited rich cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticula and prominent and well- developed Golgi complexes. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of lamellar bodies, which are cytoplasmic structures related to surfactant production, in FLSs from both sources. Increased levels of pinocytosis and numbers of pinocytotic vesicles were observed in RA-FLSs (p < 0.05). Basal production of MMP-3 and IL-6 was present in RA-FLSs and CIA-FLSs. Regarding the production of MMP-3 and IL-6 and the activation of signaling pathways, the present study demonstrated a lower response to IL-1β by CIA-FLSs than by RA-FLSs. Conclusion This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the biology of RA-FLS and CIA-FLS. The differences and similarities in ultrastructural morphology and important inflammatory cytokines shown, contribute to future in vitro studies using RA-FLS and CIA-FLS, in addition, they indicate that the adoption of CIA-FLS for studies should take careful and be well designed, since they do not completely resemble human diseases.

Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 34(1): 1-12, jan.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BIGG | ID: biblio-1388050


Há diversas terapias sendo utilizadas ou propostas para a COVID-19, muitas carecendo de apropriada avaliação de efetividade e segurança. O propósito deste documento é elaborar recomendações para subsidiar decisões sobre o tratamento farmacológico de pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19 no Brasil. Métodos: Um grupo de 27 membros, formado por especialistas, representantes do Ministério da Saúde e metodologistas, integra essa diretriz. Foi utilizado o método de elaboração de diretrizes rápidas, tomando por base a adoção e/ou a adaptação de recomendações a partir de diretrizes internacionais existentes (GRADE ADOLOPMENT), apoiadas pela plataforma e-COVID-19 RecMap. A qualidade das evidências e a elaboração das recomendações seguiram o método GRADE. Resultados: Foram geradas 16 recomendações. Entre elas, estão recomendações fortes para o uso de corticosteroides em pacientes em uso de oxigênio suplementar, para o uso de anticoagulantes em doses de profilaxia para tromboembolismo e para não uso de antibacterianos nos pacientes sem suspeita de infecção bacteriana. Não foi possível fazer uma recomendação quanto à utilização do tocilizumabe em pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19 em uso de oxigênio, pelas incertezas na disponibilidade e de acesso ao medicamento. Foi feita recomendação para não usar azitromicina, casirivimabe + imdevimabe, cloroquina, colchicina, hidroxicloroquina, ivermectina, lopinavir/ ritonavir, plasma convalescente e rendesivir. Conclusão: Até o momento, poucas terapias se provaram efetivas no tratamento do paciente hospitalizado com COVID-19, sendo recomendados apenas corticosteroides e profilaxia para tromboembolismo. Diversos medicamentos foram considerados ineficazes, devendo ser descartados, de forma a oferecer o melhor tratamento pelos princípios da medicina baseada em evidências e promover economia de recursos não eficazes.

Several therapies are being used or proposed for COVID-19, and many lack appropriate evaluations of their effectiveness and safety. The purpose of this document is to develop recommendations to support decisions regarding the pharmacological treatment of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Brazil. Methods: A group of 27 experts, including representatives of the Ministry of Health and methodologists, created this guideline. The method used for the rapid development of guidelines was based on the adoption and/or adaptation of existing international guidelines (GRADE ADOLOPMENT) and supported by the e-COVID-19 RecMap platform. The quality of the evidence and the preparation of the recommendations followed the GRADE method. Results: Sixteen recommendations were generated. They include strong recommendations for the use of corticosteroids in patients using supplemental oxygen, the use of anticoagulants at prophylactic doses to prevent thromboembolism and the nonuse of antibiotics in patients without suspected bacterial infection. It was not possible to make a recommendation regarding the use of tocilizumab in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 using oxygen due to uncertainties regarding the availability of and access to the drug. Strong recommendations against the use of hydroxychloroquine, convalescent plasma, colchicine, lopinavir + ritonavir and antibiotics in patients without suspected bacterial infection and also conditional recommendations against the use of casirivimab + imdevimab, ivermectin and rendesivir were made. Conclusion: To date, few therapies have proven effective in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, and only corticosteroids and prophylaxis for thromboembolism are recommended. Several drugs were considered ineffective and should not be used to provide the best treatment according to the principles of evidence-based medicine and promote economical resource use.

Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Immunization, Passive , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Health Planning Guidelines , Hydroxychloroquine , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Adv Rheumatol ; 62: 27, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393818


Abstract Introduction/objectives: Clinical evidence of skeletal muscle involvement is not uncommon in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Because of the poor understanding of signaling pathways involved in SLE muscle wasting, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on skeletal muscle in mice with pristane-induced lupus. Methods: Balb/c mice with lupus-like disease induced by pristane injection were randomized into three groups: pristane-induced lupus (PIL; n = 10), pristane-induced lupus + vitamin D supplementation (PIL + VD; n = 10) and healthy controls (CO; n = 8). Physical function was evaluated on days 0, 60, 120 and 180. The tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles were collected to evaluate myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and protein expression. Results: The PIL + VD group showed lower muscle strength compared to the CO and PIL groups at different time points. PIL mice showed similar myofiber CSA compared to CO and PIL + VD groups. LC3-II expression was higher in PIL compared to CO and PIL + VD groups. MyoD expression was higher in PIL mice compared to PIL + VD, while myostatin expression was higher in PIL + VD than PIL group. Myogenin expression levels were decreased in the PIL + VD group compared with the CO group. The Akt, p62 and MuRF expressions and mobility assessment showed no significance. Conclusions: Changes in skeletal muscle in PIL model happen before CSA reduction, possibly due to autophagy degradation, and treatment with Vitamin D has a impact on physical function by decreasing muscle strength and time of fatigue.. Vitamin D supplementation has a potential role modulating physical parameters and signaling pathways in muscle during pristane-induced lupus model.

Adv Rheumatol ; 62: 3, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360070


Abstract Objective: To provide guidelines on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in patients with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases (IMRD) to rheumatologists considering specific scenarios of the daily practice based on the shared-making decision (SMD) process. Methods: A task force was constituted by 24 rheumatologists (panel members), with clinical and research expertise in immunizations and infectious diseases in immunocompromised patients, endorsed by the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology (BSR), to develop guidelines for COVID-19 vaccination in patients with IMRD. A consensus was built through the Delphi method and involved four rounds of anonymous voting, where five options were used to determine the level of agreement (LOA), based on the Likert Scale: (1) strongly disagree; (2) disagree, (3) neither agree nor disagree (neutral); (4) agree; and (5) strongly agree. Nineteen questions were addressed and discussed via teleconference to formulate the answers. In order to identify the relevant data on COVID-19 vaccines, a search with standardized descriptors and synonyms was performed on September 10th, 2021, of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials,, and LILACS to identify studies of interest. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the quality of nonrandomized studies. Results: All the nineteen questions-answers (Q&A) were approved by the BSR Task Force with more than 80% of panelists voting options 4—agree—and 5—strongly agree—, and a consensus was reached. These Guidelines were focused in SMD on the most appropriate timing for IMRD patients to get vaccinated to reach the adequate covid-19 vaccination response. Conclusion: These guidelines were developed by a BSR Task Force with a high LOA among panelists, based on the literature review of published studies and expert opinion for COVID-19 vaccination in IMRD patients. Noteworthy, in the pandemic period, up to the time of the review and the consensus process for this document, high-quality evidence was scarce. Thus, it is not a substitute for clinical judgment.

Adv Rheumatol ; 61: 60, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345107


Abstract Background: There is a lack of information on the role of chronic use of hydroxychloroquine during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Our aim was to compare the occurrence of COVID-19 between rheumatic disease patients on hydroxychloroquine with individuals from the same household not taking the drug during the first 8 weeks of community viral transmission in Brazil. Methods: This baseline cross-sectional analysis is part of a 24-week observational multi-center study involving 22 Brazilian academic outpatient centers. All information regarding COVID-19 symptoms, epidemiological, clinical, and demographic data were recorded on a specific web-based platform using telephone calls from physicians and medical students. COVID-19 was defined according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health (BMH) criteria. Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Exact Fisher tests were used for statistical analysis and two binary Final Logistic Regression Model by Wald test were developed using a backward-stepwise method for the presence of COVID-19. Results: From March 29th to May 17st, 2020, a total of 10,443 participants were enrolled, including 5166 (53.9%) rheumatic disease patients, of whom 82.5% had systemic erythematosus lupus, 7.8% rheumatoid arthritis, 3.7% Sjögren's syndrome and 0.8% systemic sclerosis. In total, 1822 (19.1%) participants reported flu symptoms within the 30 days prior to enrollment, of which 3.1% fulfilled the BMH criteria, but with no significant difference between rheumatic disease patients (4.03%) and controls (3.25%). After adjustments for multiple confounders, the main risk factor significantly associated with a COVID-19 diagnosis was lung disease (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.03-2.58); and for rheumatic disease patients were diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.19-6.63) and glucocorticoids above 10 mg/ day (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.31-3.19). In addition, a recent influenza vaccination had a protective effect (OR 0.674; 95% CI 0.46-0.98). Conclusion: Patients with rheumatic disease on hydroxychloroquine presented a similar occurrence of COVID-19 to household cohabitants, suggesting a lack of any protective role against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Trial registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC; RBR - 9KTWX6).

Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum ; 23: e78122, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351636


Abstract Our objective was to adjust and validate predictive equations for appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Whole-body DXA data in 90 RA patients were used for measurement of ASM (kg). The prediction equation anthropometric for muscle mass proposed by Lee et al was used to generate estimates of ASM. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI, kg/m2) was calculated. Frequency analysis, Paired student's t-test, Linear regression, Pearson correlation, Intraclass correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman scatter were performed. The statistical significance considered was p<0.05. Lee's equation was overestimated by 30% when compared with ASMI by DXA. When stratified by nutritional status, Lee's equation overestimated the ASMI by 30% in overweight patients and by 50% in obese patients when compared with DXA (p<0.05). These adjusted equations estimated values for ASMI were closer to those obtained by DXA than those estimated by the original Lee's equation (p<0.05). This greater concordance was confirmed by the observed interclass correlation coefficients and by Bland-Altman scatter graphs. In conclusion, the prediction of muscle mass in RA patients may be performed with equations that consider the nutritional status of patients.

Resumo Nosso objetivo foi ajustar e validar equações preditivas para massa muscular esquelética apendicular (ASM) em pacientes com Artrite Reumatoide (AR). Dados de DXA de corpo inteiro em 90 pacientes com AR foram usados ​​para medição de ASM (kg). A equação de predição antropométrica de massa muscular proposta por Lee et al foi utilizada para gerar estimativas de ASM. Índice de massa muscular esquelética apendicular (ASMI, kg / m2) foi calculada. Análise de frequência, Teste t de Student pareado, Regressão linear, Correlação de Pearson, Coeficientes de correlação intraclasse e Dispersão de Bland-Altman foram realizados. A significância estatística considerada foi p<0,05. A equação de Lee superestimou em 30% quando comparada com a ASMI da DXA. Quando estratificada por estado nutricional, a equação de Lee superestimou o ASMI em 30% em pacientes com sobrepeso e em 50% em pacientes obesos em comparação com DXA (p<0,05). Esses valores estimados de equações ajustadas para ASMI foram mais próximos daqueles obtidos por DXA do que aqueles estimados pela equação de Lee original (p<0,05). Essa maior concordância foi confirmada pelos coeficientes de correlação interclasses observados e pelos gráficos de dispersão de Bland-Altman. Em conclusão, a predição da massa muscular em pacientes com AR pode ser realizada com equações que consideram o estado nutricional dos pacientes.

Adv Rheumatol ; 61: 56, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339077


Abstract Background: Determining potential predictors of clinical response would allow a more personalized rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment approach in heterogeneous populations such as Latin American (LA) patients. Methods: Post hoc analysis to identify baseline characteristics predictive of clinical remission in response to treatment with etanercept (ETN) plus methotrexate (MTX) in LA patients with moderate to severe MTX-resistant RA. We report data from the group of patients who received ETN 50 mg/week plus MTX (ETN + MTX, n = 281) in a clinical trial consisting of an initial 24-week open-label phase, followed by a 104-week extension. Remission was defined as 28-joint Disease Activity Score with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) score < 2.6. Cutoff values to dichotomize baseline variables maximizing the detection of remission were obtained from Receiver Operator Curve analyses. Baseline dichotomized and categorical variables were analyzed altogether in a stepwise logistic regression model. Odds of attaining response at Weeks 24 and 128 were estimated for each significant predictor. Results: At Week 24 and Week 128, 27% (66/241) and 42% (91/219) of patients in the ETN + MTX group achieved remission. On average, patients achieving remission were younger and had lower baseline ESR, lower Physician Global Assessment (PGA) scores, lower total Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores, and lower visual analog scale (VAS) Pain scores compared with patients who did not achieve remission. The best subset of baseline variables predicting Week 24 remission in the stepwise regression model were age ≤ 49 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.93), body mass index (BMI) > 28.5 kg/m2 (OR 3.24), disease duration > 3.7 years (OR 2.22), ESR ≤ 42 mm/h (OR 2.72), PGA ≤ 6 (OR 3.21), tender joint count ≤ 14 (OR 2.25), and total HAQ score ≤ 1.6 (OR 2.86). At Week 128, age ≤ 42 years (OR 2.21), SF-36 Mental Health Scale score > 39.6 (OR 2.16), White race (OR 4.07), > 18 swollen joints (OR 2.11), and VAS Pain ≤ 41 (OR 6.05) at baseline were the best subset of significant predictors of remission. Conclusions: In LA patients with RA, younger age, higher BMI, longer disease duration, higher SF-36 Mental Health Scale score, higher swollen joint count, and overall lower disease activity predicted clinical response to ETN + MTX therapy. Trial registration: Identifier: NCT00848354.

Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 08, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088648


Abstract Background: The results of investigations on the association between killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene polymorphisms and the risk of systemic sclerosis (SSc) are inconsistent. To comprehensively evaluate the influence of KIR polymorphisms on the risk of SSc, this meta-analysis was performed. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in electronic databases including Scopus and PubMed/ MEDLINE to find all available studies involving KIR gene family polymorphisms and SSc risk prior to July 2019. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were measured to detect associations between KIR gene family polymorphisms and SSc risk. Results: Five articles, comprising 571 patients and 796 healthy participants, evaluating the KIR gene family polymorphisms were included in the final meta-analysis according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 16 KIR genes were assessed. None of the KIR genes were significantly associated with the risk of SSc. Conclusions: The current meta-analysis provides evidence that KIR genes might not be potential risk factors for SSc risk.(AU)

Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Scleroderma, Systemic/etiology , Confidence Intervals , Risk Factors
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 28, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130791


Abstract Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory and chronic autoimmune disease that leads to muscle mass loss and functional capacity impairment, potentiated by physical inactivity. Despite evidences demonstrate neuromuscular impairments in RA patients, aging effects may have masked the results of similar previous studies. The aim of study was to verify (i) the effects of RA on functional capacity and muscle properties in middle-aged patients and (ii) the association between age, clinical characteristics, quadriceps muscle properties and functional capacity. Methods: Thirty-five RA women and 35 healthy age-matched women were compared with the following outcomes: (i) physical activity level through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ); (ii) timed-up and go (TUG) test; (iii) isometric knee extensor muscular strength; and (iv) vastus lateralis muscle activation and muscle architecture (muscle thickness, pennation angle and fascicle length) during an isometric test. An independent Student t-test and partial correlation (controlled by physical activity levels) were performed, with p < 0.05. Results: Compared with healthy women, RA presented (i) lower physical activity level (- 29.4%; p < 0.001); (ii) lower isometric knee extensor strength (- 20.5%; p < 0.001); (iii) lower TUG performance (- 21.7%; p < 0.001); (iv) smaller muscle thickness (- 23.3%; p < 0.001) and pennation angle (- 14.1%; p = 0.011). No differences were observed in muscle activation and fascicle length. Finally, the correlation demonstrated that, with exception of TUG, muscle strength and muscle morphology were not associated with age in RA, differently from healthy participants. Conclusion: Middle-aged RA patients' impairments occurred due to the disease independently of the aging process, except for functional capacity. Physical inactivity may have potentiated these losses.(AU)

Humans , Female , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/physiopathology , Muscular Atrophy , Exercise , Electromyography/instrumentation , Quadriceps Muscle , Muscle Strength
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 32, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130792


Abstract Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, also known as antimalarial drugs, are widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases and have recently become the focus of attention because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Rheumatologists have been using antimalarials to manage patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory rheumatic diseases for decades. It is an appropriate time to review their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms impact on disease activity and survival of systemic lupus erythematosus patient, including antiplatelet effect, metabolic and lipid benefits. We also discuss possible adverse effects, adding a practical and comprehensive approach to monitoring rheumatic patients during treatment with these drugs.(AU)

Humans , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(1): 1-6, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104373


Introduction: Registries of spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients' follow-up provided evidence that tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) increase the incidence of active tuberculosis infection (TB). However, most of these registries are from low burden TB areas. Few studies evaluated the safety of biologic agents in TB endemic areas. This study compares the TB incidence rate (TB IR) in anti-TNF-naïve and anti-TNF-experienced subjects with SpA in a high TB incidence setting.Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, medical records from patients attending a SpA clinic during 13 years (2004 to 2016) in a university hospital were reviewed. The TB IR was calculated and expressed as number of events per 105 patients/year; the incidence rate ratio (IRR) associated with the use of TNFi was calculated.Results: A total of 277 patients, 173 anti-TNF-naïve and 104 anti-TNF-experienced subjects, were evaluated; 35.7% (N = 35) of patients who were prescribed an anti-TNF drug were diagnosed with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Total follow-up time (person-years) was 1667.8 for anti-TNF-naïve and 394.9 for anti-TNF-experienced patients. TB IR (95% CI) was 299.8 (37.4-562.2) for anti-TNF naïve and 1012.9 (25.3-2000.5) for anti-TNF experienced subjects. The IRR associated with the use of TNFi was 10.4 (2.3- 47.9).Conclusions: In this high TB incidence setting, SpA patients exposed to anti-TNF therapy had a higher incidence of TB compared to anti-TNF-naïve subjects, although the TB incidence in the control group was significant.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tuberculosis/chemically induced , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Biological Products/adverse effects , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Spondylarthritis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/adverse effects , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Endemic Diseases , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 47, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088596


Abstract Background: To determine the burden of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) on patients' work productivity and health related quality of life (HRQoL), and examine the influence of several exposure variables; to analyze the progression of RA over 1 year and its impact on work productivity and HRQoL. Methods: International multicenter prospective survey including patients in 18 centers in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico with diagnosis of RA and aged between 21-55 years. The following standard questionnaires were completed at baseline and throughout a 1-year follow-up: WPAI:RA, WALS, WLQ-25, EQ-5D-3 L and SF-36. Clinical and demographic variables were also collected through interview. Results: The study enrolled 290 patients on baseline visit. Overall mean scores at baseline visit were: WPAI:RA (presenteeism) = 29.5% (SD = 28.8%); WPAI:RA (absenteeism) = 9.0% (SD = 23.2%); WPAI:RA (absenteeism and presenteeism) = 8.6% (SD = 22.6%); WALS = 9.0 (SD = 6.1); WLQ-25 = 7.0% (SD = 5.1%); SF-36 Physical Scale = 39.1 (SD = 10.3) and Mental Scale = 45.4 (SD = 11.3); EQ-5D-3 L VAS = 69.8 (SD = 20.4) and EQ-5D-3 L index = 0.67 (SD = 0.23). Higher educational levels were associated with better results in WLQ-25, while previous orthopedic surgeries reduced absenteeism results of WPAI:RA and work limitations in WLQ-25. Higher disease duration was associated with decreased HRQoL. Intensification of disease activity was associated with decreased work productivity and HRQoL, except in WLQ-25. In the longitudinal analysis, worsening in disease activity was associated with a decrease in both work productivity and HRQoL. Conclusions: RA patients are dealing with workplace disabilities and limitations and loss in HRQoL, and multiple factors seems to be associated with this. Worsening of disease activity further decreased work productivity and HRQoL, stressing the importance of disease tight control.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Quality of Life , Efficiency , Work Performance , Argentina , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/surgery , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/prevention & control , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Colombia , Statistics, Nonparametric , Sample Size , Disease Progression , Orthopedic Procedures , Absenteeism , Educational Status , Presenteeism/statistics & numerical data , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Mexico
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 23, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088636


Abstract Background: The presence of enthesitis is associated with higher disease activity, more disability and incapacity to work and a poorer quality of life in spondyloarthritis (SpA). There is currently no consensus on which clinical score should be used to assess enthesitis in SpA. The objective of the present work was to compare the correlation of three enthesitis indices (MASES, SPARCC and LEI) with measures of disease activity and function in a heterogeneous population of patients with axial and peripheral SpA. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three Brazilian public university hospitals; patients fulfilling ASAS classification criteria for peripheral or axial SpA were recruited and measures of disease activity and function were collected and correlated to three enthesitis indices: MASES, SPARCC and LEI using Spearman's Correlation index. ROC curves were used to determine if the the enthesitis indices were useful to discriminate patients with active disease from those with inactive disease. Results: Two hundred four patients were included, 71.1% (N = 145) fulfilled ASAS criteria for axial SpA and 28.9% (N = 59) for peripheral SpA. In axial SpA, MASES performed better than LEI (p = 0.018) and equal to SPARCC (p = 0.212) regarding correlation with disease activity (BASDAI) and function (BASFI). In peripheral SpA, only MASES had a weak but statistical significant correlation with DAS28-ESR (rs 0.310 p = 0.05) and MASES had better correlation with functional measures (HAQ) than SPARCC (p = 0.034). Conclusion: In this sample composed of SpA patients with high coexistence of axial and peripheral features, MASES showed statistical significant correlation with measures of disease activity and function in both axial and peripheral SpA.(AU)

Humans , Arthritis, Juvenile , Spondylarthritis/physiopathology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Statistics, Nonparametric
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(5): 385-391, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899442


Abstract Objectives: To correlate the basal expression of complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) CD55, CD59, CD35, and CD46 in B-lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of a cohort of 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) initiating treatment with rituximab (RTX) with depletion and time repopulation of such cells. Methods: Ten patients with RA received two infusions of 1 g of RTX with an interval of 14 days. Immunophenotypic analysis for the detection of CD55, CD59, CD35, and CD46 on B-lymphocytes was carried out immediately before the first infusion. The population of B-lymphocytes was analyzed by means of basal CD19 expression and after 1, 2, and 6 months after the infusion of RTX, and then quarterly until clinical relapse. Depletion of B-lymphocytes in peripheral blood was defined as a CD19 expression <0.005 × 109/L. Results: Ten women with a median of 49 years and a baseline DAS28 = 5.6 were evaluated; 9 were seropositive for rheumatoid factor. Five patients showed a repopulation of B-lymphocytes after 2 months, and the other five after 6 months. There was a correlation between the basal expression of CD46 and the time of repopulation (correlation coefficient = −0.733, p = 0.0016). A similar trend was observed with CD35, but without statistical significance (correction coefficient = −0.522, p = 0.12). Conclusion: The increased CD46 expression was predictive of a faster repopulation of B-lymphocytes in patients treated with RTX. Studies involving a larger number of patients will be needed to confirm the utility of basal expression of CRPs as a predictor of clinical response.

Resumo Objetivos: Correlacionar a expressão basal das proteínas reguladoras do complemento (PRC) CD55, CD59, CD35 e CD46 nos linfócitos B do sangue periférico de uma coorte de 10 pacientes com artrite reumatoide (AR) iniciando tratamento com rituximabe (RTX) com a depleção e tempo de repopulação dessas células. Métodos: Dez pacientes com AR receberam duas infusões de 1 g de RTX com intervalo de 14 dias. Análises imunofenotípicas para detecção de CD55, CD59, CD35 e CD46 nos linfócitos B foram feitas imediatamente antes da primeira infusão. A população de linfócitos B foi analisada por meio da expressão de CD19 basal e após um, dois e seis meses após a infusão de RTX e então trimestralmente até a recaída clínica. Depleção de linfócitos B no sangue periférico foi definida como expressão de CD19 < 0,005 × 109/l. Resultados: Dez mulheres com mediana de 49 anos e DAS 28 basal de 5,6 foram avaliadas; nove eram soropositivas para o fator reumatoide. Cinco pacientes apresentaram repopulação de linfócitos B após dois meses e as outras cinco aos seis meses. Houve correlação entre a expressão basal de CD46 e o tempo de repopulação (coeficiente de correlação -0,733, p = 0,0016). Tendência semelhante foi observada com CD35, porém sem significância estatística (coeficiente de correção 0,522, p = 0,12). Conclusão: Expressão aumentada de CD46 foi preditora de repopulação mais rápida de linfócitos B em pacientes tratados com RTX. Estudos com um número maior de pacientes serão necessários para confirmar a utilidade da expressão basal das PRC como preditora de resposta clínica.

Humans , Female , Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , GPI-Linked Proteins/blood , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/blood , Infusions, Intravenous , Drug Administration Schedule , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Biomarkers/blood , Treatment Outcome , Antirheumatic Agents/pharmacology , Rituximab/pharmacology , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 55(6): 512-521, nov.-dez. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770015


Resumo Em 2014, o tofacitinibe, um medicamento modificador do curso da doença (MMCD) sintético, alvo-específico, inibidor seletivo das Janus quinases (JAK), foi aprovado para uso no Brasil. Este documento de posicionamento tem o objetivo de atualizar as recomendações da Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia (SBR) sobre o tratamento da artrite reumatoide (AR) no Brasil, especificamente com relação ao uso de MMCD sintéticos alvo-específicos. O método dessa recomendação incluiu revisão bibliográfica de artigos científicos, feita na base de dados Medline. Após a revisão, foi produzido um texto, que responde a perguntas na estrutura Pico, e considera questões de eficácia e segurança do uso do tofacitinibe para tratamento de AR em diferentes situações (como primeira linha de tratamento, após falha ao metotrexato [MTX] ou outros MMCD sintéticos convencionais, após falha da terapia biológica). Com base nas evidências existentes, e considerando os dados disponíveis sobre eficácia, segurança e custo das medicações disponíveis para tratamento da doença no Brasil, a Comissão de AR da SBR, após processo de discussão e votação de propostas, estabeleceu o seguinte posicionamento sobre o uso de tofacitinibe para o tratamento da AR no Brasil: “Tofacitinibe, em monoterapia ou em associação ao MTX, é uma opção para os pacientes com AR em atividade moderada ou alta, após falha de pelo menos dois esquemas com diferentes MMCD sintéticos e um esquema de MMCD biológico”. O grau de concordância com essa recomendação foi 7,5. Esse posicionamento poderá ser revisto nos próximos anos, com a maior experiência adquirida com o uso do medicamento.

Abstract In 2014, tofacitinib, a target-specific, synthetic disease modifying anti rheumatic drug (DMARD) and a selective inhibitor of Janus kinase (JAK) was approved for use in Brazil. This position paper aims to update the recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology (SBR) on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Brazil, specifically regarding the use of target-specific synthetic DMARDs. The method of this recommendation consisted of a literature review of scientific papers held on the Medline database. After this review, a text was produced, answering questions in Pico structure, considering efficacy and safety issues of tofacitinib use for RA treatment in different scenarios (such as first-line treatment after failure with methotrexate [MTX] or other conventional synthetic DMARDs after failure with biological therapy). Based on existing evidence, and considering the available data on efficacy, safety and cost of medications available to treat the disease in Brazil, the RA Commission of SBR, after a process of discussion and voting on proposals, established the following position on the use of tofacitinib for treatment of RA in Brazil: “Tofacitinib, alone or in combination with MTX, is an alternative for RA patients with moderate or high activity after failure of at least two different synthetic DMARDs and one biological DMARD.” The level of agreement with this recommendation was 7.5. This position may be reviewed in the coming years, in the face of a greater experience with the use of this medication.

Humans , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Pyrroles/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Rheumatology , Societies, Medical , Brazil , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Treatment Failure , Drug Therapy, Combination