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Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 34(1): 1-12, jan.-mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BIGG | ID: biblio-1388050


Há diversas terapias sendo utilizadas ou propostas para a COVID-19, muitas carecendo de apropriada avaliação de efetividade e segurança. O propósito deste documento é elaborar recomendações para subsidiar decisões sobre o tratamento farmacológico de pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19 no Brasil. Métodos: Um grupo de 27 membros, formado por especialistas, representantes do Ministério da Saúde e metodologistas, integra essa diretriz. Foi utilizado o método de elaboração de diretrizes rápidas, tomando por base a adoção e/ou a adaptação de recomendações a partir de diretrizes internacionais existentes (GRADE ADOLOPMENT), apoiadas pela plataforma e-COVID-19 RecMap. A qualidade das evidências e a elaboração das recomendações seguiram o método GRADE. Resultados: Foram geradas 16 recomendações. Entre elas, estão recomendações fortes para o uso de corticosteroides em pacientes em uso de oxigênio suplementar, para o uso de anticoagulantes em doses de profilaxia para tromboembolismo e para não uso de antibacterianos nos pacientes sem suspeita de infecção bacteriana. Não foi possível fazer uma recomendação quanto à utilização do tocilizumabe em pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19 em uso de oxigênio, pelas incertezas na disponibilidade e de acesso ao medicamento. Foi feita recomendação para não usar azitromicina, casirivimabe + imdevimabe, cloroquina, colchicina, hidroxicloroquina, ivermectina, lopinavir/ ritonavir, plasma convalescente e rendesivir. Conclusão: Até o momento, poucas terapias se provaram efetivas no tratamento do paciente hospitalizado com COVID-19, sendo recomendados apenas corticosteroides e profilaxia para tromboembolismo. Diversos medicamentos foram considerados ineficazes, devendo ser descartados, de forma a oferecer o melhor tratamento pelos princípios da medicina baseada em evidências e promover economia de recursos não eficazes.

Several therapies are being used or proposed for COVID-19, and many lack appropriate evaluations of their effectiveness and safety. The purpose of this document is to develop recommendations to support decisions regarding the pharmacological treatment of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Brazil. Methods: A group of 27 experts, including representatives of the Ministry of Health and methodologists, created this guideline. The method used for the rapid development of guidelines was based on the adoption and/or adaptation of existing international guidelines (GRADE ADOLOPMENT) and supported by the e-COVID-19 RecMap platform. The quality of the evidence and the preparation of the recommendations followed the GRADE method. Results: Sixteen recommendations were generated. They include strong recommendations for the use of corticosteroids in patients using supplemental oxygen, the use of anticoagulants at prophylactic doses to prevent thromboembolism and the nonuse of antibiotics in patients without suspected bacterial infection. It was not possible to make a recommendation regarding the use of tocilizumab in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 using oxygen due to uncertainties regarding the availability of and access to the drug. Strong recommendations against the use of hydroxychloroquine, convalescent plasma, colchicine, lopinavir + ritonavir and antibiotics in patients without suspected bacterial infection and also conditional recommendations against the use of casirivimab + imdevimab, ivermectin and rendesivir were made. Conclusion: To date, few therapies have proven effective in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, and only corticosteroids and prophylaxis for thromboembolism are recommended. Several drugs were considered ineffective and should not be used to provide the best treatment according to the principles of evidence-based medicine and promote economical resource use.

Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Immunization, Passive , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Health Planning Guidelines , Hydroxychloroquine , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Adv Rheumatol ; 62: 3, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360070


Abstract Objective: To provide guidelines on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in patients with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases (IMRD) to rheumatologists considering specific scenarios of the daily practice based on the shared-making decision (SMD) process. Methods: A task force was constituted by 24 rheumatologists (panel members), with clinical and research expertise in immunizations and infectious diseases in immunocompromised patients, endorsed by the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology (BSR), to develop guidelines for COVID-19 vaccination in patients with IMRD. A consensus was built through the Delphi method and involved four rounds of anonymous voting, where five options were used to determine the level of agreement (LOA), based on the Likert Scale: (1) strongly disagree; (2) disagree, (3) neither agree nor disagree (neutral); (4) agree; and (5) strongly agree. Nineteen questions were addressed and discussed via teleconference to formulate the answers. In order to identify the relevant data on COVID-19 vaccines, a search with standardized descriptors and synonyms was performed on September 10th, 2021, of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials,, and LILACS to identify studies of interest. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the quality of nonrandomized studies. Results: All the nineteen questions-answers (Q&A) were approved by the BSR Task Force with more than 80% of panelists voting options 4—agree—and 5—strongly agree—, and a consensus was reached. These Guidelines were focused in SMD on the most appropriate timing for IMRD patients to get vaccinated to reach the adequate covid-19 vaccination response. Conclusion: These guidelines were developed by a BSR Task Force with a high LOA among panelists, based on the literature review of published studies and expert opinion for COVID-19 vaccination in IMRD patients. Noteworthy, in the pandemic period, up to the time of the review and the consensus process for this document, high-quality evidence was scarce. Thus, it is not a substitute for clinical judgment.

Adv Rheumatol ; 62: 27, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393818


Abstract Introduction/objectives: Clinical evidence of skeletal muscle involvement is not uncommon in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Because of the poor understanding of signaling pathways involved in SLE muscle wasting, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on skeletal muscle in mice with pristane-induced lupus. Methods: Balb/c mice with lupus-like disease induced by pristane injection were randomized into three groups: pristane-induced lupus (PIL; n = 10), pristane-induced lupus + vitamin D supplementation (PIL + VD; n = 10) and healthy controls (CO; n = 8). Physical function was evaluated on days 0, 60, 120 and 180. The tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles were collected to evaluate myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and protein expression. Results: The PIL + VD group showed lower muscle strength compared to the CO and PIL groups at different time points. PIL mice showed similar myofiber CSA compared to CO and PIL + VD groups. LC3-II expression was higher in PIL compared to CO and PIL + VD groups. MyoD expression was higher in PIL mice compared to PIL + VD, while myostatin expression was higher in PIL + VD than PIL group. Myogenin expression levels were decreased in the PIL + VD group compared with the CO group. The Akt, p62 and MuRF expressions and mobility assessment showed no significance. Conclusions: Changes in skeletal muscle in PIL model happen before CSA reduction, possibly due to autophagy degradation, and treatment with Vitamin D has a impact on physical function by decreasing muscle strength and time of fatigue.. Vitamin D supplementation has a potential role modulating physical parameters and signaling pathways in muscle during pristane-induced lupus model.

Adv Rheumatol ; 61: 56, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339077


Abstract Background: Determining potential predictors of clinical response would allow a more personalized rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment approach in heterogeneous populations such as Latin American (LA) patients. Methods: Post hoc analysis to identify baseline characteristics predictive of clinical remission in response to treatment with etanercept (ETN) plus methotrexate (MTX) in LA patients with moderate to severe MTX-resistant RA. We report data from the group of patients who received ETN 50 mg/week plus MTX (ETN + MTX, n = 281) in a clinical trial consisting of an initial 24-week open-label phase, followed by a 104-week extension. Remission was defined as 28-joint Disease Activity Score with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) score < 2.6. Cutoff values to dichotomize baseline variables maximizing the detection of remission were obtained from Receiver Operator Curve analyses. Baseline dichotomized and categorical variables were analyzed altogether in a stepwise logistic regression model. Odds of attaining response at Weeks 24 and 128 were estimated for each significant predictor. Results: At Week 24 and Week 128, 27% (66/241) and 42% (91/219) of patients in the ETN + MTX group achieved remission. On average, patients achieving remission were younger and had lower baseline ESR, lower Physician Global Assessment (PGA) scores, lower total Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores, and lower visual analog scale (VAS) Pain scores compared with patients who did not achieve remission. The best subset of baseline variables predicting Week 24 remission in the stepwise regression model were age ≤ 49 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.93), body mass index (BMI) > 28.5 kg/m2 (OR 3.24), disease duration > 3.7 years (OR 2.22), ESR ≤ 42 mm/h (OR 2.72), PGA ≤ 6 (OR 3.21), tender joint count ≤ 14 (OR 2.25), and total HAQ score ≤ 1.6 (OR 2.86). At Week 128, age ≤ 42 years (OR 2.21), SF-36 Mental Health Scale score > 39.6 (OR 2.16), White race (OR 4.07), > 18 swollen joints (OR 2.11), and VAS Pain ≤ 41 (OR 6.05) at baseline were the best subset of significant predictors of remission. Conclusions: In LA patients with RA, younger age, higher BMI, longer disease duration, higher SF-36 Mental Health Scale score, higher swollen joint count, and overall lower disease activity predicted clinical response to ETN + MTX therapy. Trial registration: Identifier: NCT00848354.

Clin. biomed. res ; 40(1): 1-6, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104373


Introduction: Registries of spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients' follow-up provided evidence that tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) increase the incidence of active tuberculosis infection (TB). However, most of these registries are from low burden TB areas. Few studies evaluated the safety of biologic agents in TB endemic areas. This study compares the TB incidence rate (TB IR) in anti-TNF-naïve and anti-TNF-experienced subjects with SpA in a high TB incidence setting.Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, medical records from patients attending a SpA clinic during 13 years (2004 to 2016) in a university hospital were reviewed. The TB IR was calculated and expressed as number of events per 105 patients/year; the incidence rate ratio (IRR) associated with the use of TNFi was calculated.Results: A total of 277 patients, 173 anti-TNF-naïve and 104 anti-TNF-experienced subjects, were evaluated; 35.7% (N = 35) of patients who were prescribed an anti-TNF drug were diagnosed with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Total follow-up time (person-years) was 1667.8 for anti-TNF-naïve and 394.9 for anti-TNF-experienced patients. TB IR (95% CI) was 299.8 (37.4-562.2) for anti-TNF naïve and 1012.9 (25.3-2000.5) for anti-TNF experienced subjects. The IRR associated with the use of TNFi was 10.4 (2.3- 47.9).Conclusions: In this high TB incidence setting, SpA patients exposed to anti-TNF therapy had a higher incidence of TB compared to anti-TNF-naïve subjects, although the TB incidence in the control group was significant.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Tuberculosis/chemically induced , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Biological Products/adverse effects , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Spondylarthritis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/adverse effects , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Endemic Diseases , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 32, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130792


Abstract Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, also known as antimalarial drugs, are widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases and have recently become the focus of attention because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Rheumatologists have been using antimalarials to manage patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory rheumatic diseases for decades. It is an appropriate time to review their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms impact on disease activity and survival of systemic lupus erythematosus patient, including antiplatelet effect, metabolic and lipid benefits. We also discuss possible adverse effects, adding a practical and comprehensive approach to monitoring rheumatic patients during treatment with these drugs.(AU)

Humans , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 28, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130791


Abstract Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory and chronic autoimmune disease that leads to muscle mass loss and functional capacity impairment, potentiated by physical inactivity. Despite evidences demonstrate neuromuscular impairments in RA patients, aging effects may have masked the results of similar previous studies. The aim of study was to verify (i) the effects of RA on functional capacity and muscle properties in middle-aged patients and (ii) the association between age, clinical characteristics, quadriceps muscle properties and functional capacity. Methods: Thirty-five RA women and 35 healthy age-matched women were compared with the following outcomes: (i) physical activity level through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ); (ii) timed-up and go (TUG) test; (iii) isometric knee extensor muscular strength; and (iv) vastus lateralis muscle activation and muscle architecture (muscle thickness, pennation angle and fascicle length) during an isometric test. An independent Student t-test and partial correlation (controlled by physical activity levels) were performed, with p < 0.05. Results: Compared with healthy women, RA presented (i) lower physical activity level (- 29.4%; p < 0.001); (ii) lower isometric knee extensor strength (- 20.5%; p < 0.001); (iii) lower TUG performance (- 21.7%; p < 0.001); (iv) smaller muscle thickness (- 23.3%; p < 0.001) and pennation angle (- 14.1%; p = 0.011). No differences were observed in muscle activation and fascicle length. Finally, the correlation demonstrated that, with exception of TUG, muscle strength and muscle morphology were not associated with age in RA, differently from healthy participants. Conclusion: Middle-aged RA patients' impairments occurred due to the disease independently of the aging process, except for functional capacity. Physical inactivity may have potentiated these losses.(AU)

Humans , Female , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/physiopathology , Muscular Atrophy , Exercise , Electromyography/instrumentation , Quadriceps Muscle , Muscle Strength
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 08, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088648


Abstract Background: The results of investigations on the association between killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene polymorphisms and the risk of systemic sclerosis (SSc) are inconsistent. To comprehensively evaluate the influence of KIR polymorphisms on the risk of SSc, this meta-analysis was performed. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in electronic databases including Scopus and PubMed/ MEDLINE to find all available studies involving KIR gene family polymorphisms and SSc risk prior to July 2019. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were measured to detect associations between KIR gene family polymorphisms and SSc risk. Results: Five articles, comprising 571 patients and 796 healthy participants, evaluating the KIR gene family polymorphisms were included in the final meta-analysis according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 16 KIR genes were assessed. None of the KIR genes were significantly associated with the risk of SSc. Conclusions: The current meta-analysis provides evidence that KIR genes might not be potential risk factors for SSc risk.(AU)

Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Scleroderma, Systemic/etiology , Confidence Intervals , Risk Factors
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 23, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088636


Abstract Background: The presence of enthesitis is associated with higher disease activity, more disability and incapacity to work and a poorer quality of life in spondyloarthritis (SpA). There is currently no consensus on which clinical score should be used to assess enthesitis in SpA. The objective of the present work was to compare the correlation of three enthesitis indices (MASES, SPARCC and LEI) with measures of disease activity and function in a heterogeneous population of patients with axial and peripheral SpA. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three Brazilian public university hospitals; patients fulfilling ASAS classification criteria for peripheral or axial SpA were recruited and measures of disease activity and function were collected and correlated to three enthesitis indices: MASES, SPARCC and LEI using Spearman's Correlation index. ROC curves were used to determine if the the enthesitis indices were useful to discriminate patients with active disease from those with inactive disease. Results: Two hundred four patients were included, 71.1% (N = 145) fulfilled ASAS criteria for axial SpA and 28.9% (N = 59) for peripheral SpA. In axial SpA, MASES performed better than LEI (p = 0.018) and equal to SPARCC (p = 0.212) regarding correlation with disease activity (BASDAI) and function (BASFI). In peripheral SpA, only MASES had a weak but statistical significant correlation with DAS28-ESR (rs 0.310 p = 0.05) and MASES had better correlation with functional measures (HAQ) than SPARCC (p = 0.034). Conclusion: In this sample composed of SpA patients with high coexistence of axial and peripheral features, MASES showed statistical significant correlation with measures of disease activity and function in both axial and peripheral SpA.(AU)

Humans , Arthritis, Juvenile , Spondylarthritis/physiopathology , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Statistics, Nonparametric
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 47, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088596


Abstract Background: To determine the burden of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) on patients' work productivity and health related quality of life (HRQoL), and examine the influence of several exposure variables; to analyze the progression of RA over 1 year and its impact on work productivity and HRQoL. Methods: International multicenter prospective survey including patients in 18 centers in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico with diagnosis of RA and aged between 21-55 years. The following standard questionnaires were completed at baseline and throughout a 1-year follow-up: WPAI:RA, WALS, WLQ-25, EQ-5D-3 L and SF-36. Clinical and demographic variables were also collected through interview. Results: The study enrolled 290 patients on baseline visit. Overall mean scores at baseline visit were: WPAI:RA (presenteeism) = 29.5% (SD = 28.8%); WPAI:RA (absenteeism) = 9.0% (SD = 23.2%); WPAI:RA (absenteeism and presenteeism) = 8.6% (SD = 22.6%); WALS = 9.0 (SD = 6.1); WLQ-25 = 7.0% (SD = 5.1%); SF-36 Physical Scale = 39.1 (SD = 10.3) and Mental Scale = 45.4 (SD = 11.3); EQ-5D-3 L VAS = 69.8 (SD = 20.4) and EQ-5D-3 L index = 0.67 (SD = 0.23). Higher educational levels were associated with better results in WLQ-25, while previous orthopedic surgeries reduced absenteeism results of WPAI:RA and work limitations in WLQ-25. Higher disease duration was associated with decreased HRQoL. Intensification of disease activity was associated with decreased work productivity and HRQoL, except in WLQ-25. In the longitudinal analysis, worsening in disease activity was associated with a decrease in both work productivity and HRQoL. Conclusions: RA patients are dealing with workplace disabilities and limitations and loss in HRQoL, and multiple factors seems to be associated with this. Worsening of disease activity further decreased work productivity and HRQoL, stressing the importance of disease tight control.

Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(5): 385-391, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899442


Abstract Objectives: To correlate the basal expression of complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) CD55, CD59, CD35, and CD46 in B-lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of a cohort of 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) initiating treatment with rituximab (RTX) with depletion and time repopulation of such cells. Methods: Ten patients with RA received two infusions of 1 g of RTX with an interval of 14 days. Immunophenotypic analysis for the detection of CD55, CD59, CD35, and CD46 on B-lymphocytes was carried out immediately before the first infusion. The population of B-lymphocytes was analyzed by means of basal CD19 expression and after 1, 2, and 6 months after the infusion of RTX, and then quarterly until clinical relapse. Depletion of B-lymphocytes in peripheral blood was defined as a CD19 expression <0.005 × 109/L. Results: Ten women with a median of 49 years and a baseline DAS28 = 5.6 were evaluated; 9 were seropositive for rheumatoid factor. Five patients showed a repopulation of B-lymphocytes after 2 months, and the other five after 6 months. There was a correlation between the basal expression of CD46 and the time of repopulation (correlation coefficient = −0.733, p = 0.0016). A similar trend was observed with CD35, but without statistical significance (correction coefficient = −0.522, p = 0.12). Conclusion: The increased CD46 expression was predictive of a faster repopulation of B-lymphocytes in patients treated with RTX. Studies involving a larger number of patients will be needed to confirm the utility of basal expression of CRPs as a predictor of clinical response.

Resumo Objetivos: Correlacionar a expressão basal das proteínas reguladoras do complemento (PRC) CD55, CD59, CD35 e CD46 nos linfócitos B do sangue periférico de uma coorte de 10 pacientes com artrite reumatoide (AR) iniciando tratamento com rituximabe (RTX) com a depleção e tempo de repopulação dessas células. Métodos: Dez pacientes com AR receberam duas infusões de 1 g de RTX com intervalo de 14 dias. Análises imunofenotípicas para detecção de CD55, CD59, CD35 e CD46 nos linfócitos B foram feitas imediatamente antes da primeira infusão. A população de linfócitos B foi analisada por meio da expressão de CD19 basal e após um, dois e seis meses após a infusão de RTX e então trimestralmente até a recaída clínica. Depleção de linfócitos B no sangue periférico foi definida como expressão de CD19 < 0,005 × 109/l. Resultados: Dez mulheres com mediana de 49 anos e DAS 28 basal de 5,6 foram avaliadas; nove eram soropositivas para o fator reumatoide. Cinco pacientes apresentaram repopulação de linfócitos B após dois meses e as outras cinco aos seis meses. Houve correlação entre a expressão basal de CD46 e o tempo de repopulação (coeficiente de correlação -0,733, p = 0,0016). Tendência semelhante foi observada com CD35, porém sem significância estatística (coeficiente de correção 0,522, p = 0,12). Conclusão: Expressão aumentada de CD46 foi preditora de repopulação mais rápida de linfócitos B em pacientes tratados com RTX. Estudos com um número maior de pacientes serão necessários para confirmar a utilidade da expressão basal das PRC como preditora de resposta clínica.

Humans , Female , Adult , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , GPI-Linked Proteins/blood , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/blood , Infusions, Intravenous , Drug Administration Schedule , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Biomarkers/blood , Treatment Outcome , Antirheumatic Agents/pharmacology , Rituximab/pharmacology , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 55(6): 512-521, nov.-dez. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770015


Resumo Em 2014, o tofacitinibe, um medicamento modificador do curso da doença (MMCD) sintético, alvo-específico, inibidor seletivo das Janus quinases (JAK), foi aprovado para uso no Brasil. Este documento de posicionamento tem o objetivo de atualizar as recomendações da Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia (SBR) sobre o tratamento da artrite reumatoide (AR) no Brasil, especificamente com relação ao uso de MMCD sintéticos alvo-específicos. O método dessa recomendação incluiu revisão bibliográfica de artigos científicos, feita na base de dados Medline. Após a revisão, foi produzido um texto, que responde a perguntas na estrutura Pico, e considera questões de eficácia e segurança do uso do tofacitinibe para tratamento de AR em diferentes situações (como primeira linha de tratamento, após falha ao metotrexato [MTX] ou outros MMCD sintéticos convencionais, após falha da terapia biológica). Com base nas evidências existentes, e considerando os dados disponíveis sobre eficácia, segurança e custo das medicações disponíveis para tratamento da doença no Brasil, a Comissão de AR da SBR, após processo de discussão e votação de propostas, estabeleceu o seguinte posicionamento sobre o uso de tofacitinibe para o tratamento da AR no Brasil: “Tofacitinibe, em monoterapia ou em associação ao MTX, é uma opção para os pacientes com AR em atividade moderada ou alta, após falha de pelo menos dois esquemas com diferentes MMCD sintéticos e um esquema de MMCD biológico”. O grau de concordância com essa recomendação foi 7,5. Esse posicionamento poderá ser revisto nos próximos anos, com a maior experiência adquirida com o uso do medicamento.

Abstract In 2014, tofacitinib, a target-specific, synthetic disease modifying anti rheumatic drug (DMARD) and a selective inhibitor of Janus kinase (JAK) was approved for use in Brazil. This position paper aims to update the recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology (SBR) on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Brazil, specifically regarding the use of target-specific synthetic DMARDs. The method of this recommendation consisted of a literature review of scientific papers held on the Medline database. After this review, a text was produced, answering questions in Pico structure, considering efficacy and safety issues of tofacitinib use for RA treatment in different scenarios (such as first-line treatment after failure with methotrexate [MTX] or other conventional synthetic DMARDs after failure with biological therapy). Based on existing evidence, and considering the available data on efficacy, safety and cost of medications available to treat the disease in Brazil, the RA Commission of SBR, after a process of discussion and voting on proposals, established the following position on the use of tofacitinib for treatment of RA in Brazil: “Tofacitinib, alone or in combination with MTX, is an alternative for RA patients with moderate or high activity after failure of at least two different synthetic DMARDs and one biological DMARD.” The level of agreement with this recommendation was 7.5. This position may be reviewed in the coming years, in the face of a greater experience with the use of this medication.

Humans , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Pyrroles/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Rheumatology , Societies, Medical , Brazil , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Treatment Failure , Drug Therapy, Combination
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 55(4): 363-367, jul.-ago. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-757464


RESUMOO hormônio anti-Mülleriano (HAM) é secretado a partir das células da granulosa dos folículos ovarianos em crescimento e parece ser o melhor marcador endócrino capaz de estimar a reserva ovariana. O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) é uma doença autoimune que acomete predominantemente mulheres em idade reprodutiva e pode afetar negativamente sua fertilidade pela atividade da doença, bem como pelos tratamentos usados. Conhecer o real impacto do LES e de seu tratamento na fertilidade vem sendo o objetivo de estudos recentes, os quais têm usado o HAM para esse fim.

ABSTRACTThe anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted from granulosa cells of growing ovarian follicles and appears to be the best endocrine marker capable of estimating ovarian reserve. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that predominantly affects women of reproductive age and may negatively affect their fertility due to disease activity and the treatments used. Recently, several studies assessed AMH levels to understand the real impact of SLE and its treatment on fertility.

Humans , Female , Anti-Mullerian Hormone/blood , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/blood , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/physiopathology , Ovarian Reserve , Predictive Value of Tests
J. bras. med ; 102(6)dez. 2014. graf, ilus, tab, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-737128


A fibromialgia (FM) é uma síndrome de dor difusa crônica acompanhada de sintomas somáticos, tais como fadiga, transtornos do humor, do sono e da cognição. Em uma abordagem prática do paciente com FM, além das medidas não farmacológicas, cada sintoma pode ser tratado com medicamento específico. O objetivo deste artigo é prover revisão atualizada da literatura sobre os principais medicamentos atualmente disponíveis no Brasil para o tratamento da FM em adultos. O sucesso terapêutico da FM depende, essencialmente, do uso racional de medicamentos voltados para os sintomas refratários às medidas não farmacológicas.

Fibromyalgia (FM) is the chronic widespread pain syndrome associated with fatigue, mood, sleep and cognitive disorders. Besides non-pharmacological approach, each symptom should be treated with a specific drug. The goal of this study is to provide up-to-date literature review on main aspects of adult FM drugs available for use in Brazil. Treatment success in FM depends essentially on using drugs based on symptoms that are not responsive to non-pharmacological approach.

Humans , Fibromyalgia/drug therapy , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Serotonin/therapeutic use , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 54(4): 301-310, Jul-Aug/2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-722291


As doenças reumatológicas autoimunes, na maioria das vezes, possuem uma via genética comum para a autoimunidade. Vários genes foram associados com as doenças reumatológicas, para tanto iremos analisar somente alguns genes nos quais há várias evidências da existência de associação com risco ou proteção de doença autoimune. O fator de transcrição nuclear kappa B (NF-kappa B), o qual regula as respostas imunes e inflamatórias, está associado com esclerose sistêmica (ES), artrite reumatoide (AR) e lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES), assim como os genes CXCR2 e CXCL8. Já a interleucina 10 (IL-10), que é uma citocina anti-inflamatória, está associada com quase todas as doenças reumatológicas. Neste artigo, revisamos os potenciais papéis desses genes no sistema imunológico e em diversas doenças reumatológicas. Com relação à IL-10, diversos estudos foram realizados, porém em sua maioria contraditórios - alguns encontraram ausência de associação e outros encontraram associação em diferentes polimorfismos do genes. Já em relação ao NF-kappa B, somente foi estudado em AR e LES, e não foram observadas análises significativas relevantes. Os polimorfismos genéticos do gene CXCR2 foram associados com ES, mas não estão associados com AR e LES. Já os polimorfismos genéticos do gene CXCL8 não estão associados com ES, mas estão associados com AR.

The autoimmune rheumatologic disorders mostly have a common genetic path to the autoimmunity. Several genes have been associated with rheumatologic disorders; therefore, we are analyzing just the ones in those containing several evidences of the existence of association with the risk or protection from autoimmune disorder. The nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kappa B), which regulates the autoimmune and anti-inflammatory responses, is associated with systemic sclerosis (SS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), just as the CXCR2 e CXCL8 genes. On the other hand, the interleukin-10 (IL-10), which is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is associated with almost all rheumatologic disorders. In this article, we are reviewing the potential roles of these genes in the immune system and in several rheumatologic disorders. In relation to IL-10, several studies have been carried out, but most of them are controversial - some detected the absence of association, and others found association in different genetic polymorphisms. Conversely, in relation to NF-kappa B, it was studied just in RA and SLE, and no relevant significant analyses were observed. The genetic polymorphisms of the CXCR2 gene were associated with SS, but not with RA e SLE. On the other side, the genetic polymorphisms of the CXCL8 gene are not associated with SS, but with RA.

Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Rheumatic Diseases/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , Interleukin-8/genetics , NF-kappa B/genetics , Interleukin-10/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-8B/genetics
Clin. biomed. res ; 34(1): 28-39, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-834453


INTRODUÇÃO: A artrite reumatoide é uma doença inflamatória sistêmica autoimune que acomete preferencialmente as articulações, mas também outros tecidos, como o músculo esquelético. A perda de massa muscular determina uma grande repercussão na funcionalidade e qualidade de vida desses pacientes e o exercício físico surge como uma alternativa terapêutica para esse acometimento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do exercício físico aeróbico moderado sobre a perda muscular em artrite induzida por colágeno (CIA). MÉTODOS: Esse é um estudo-piloto em que CIA foi induzida em camundongos machos DBA1/J divididos em dois grupos: (i) animais com exercício (EXE, n=5), (ii) animais sem exercício (semEXE, n=4). Foram avaliados o escore clínico, o edema da pata traseira, o peso do animal e a locomoção espontânea periodicamente. Após a morte, a histopatologia da articulação tibiotarsal e a área da miofibra dos músculos gastrocnêmio e tibial anterior foram avaliados. Significância foi considerada se p<0,05.RESULTADOS: Não foi observada diferença significativa entre os grupos nos parâmetros de atividade da doença, peso e locomoção espontânea. Entretanto, a histopatologia da articulação demonstrou redução da erosão cartilaginosa no grupo EXE. Também se observou aumento significativo na área seccional da miofibra do grupo EXE, representando uma diferença média de 24%. CONCLUSÃO: Este é o primeiro estudo com exercício aeróbico moderado em esteira em modelo experimental de artrite. O protocolo de exercício testado não parece impactar no desenvolvimento clínico da doença, mas demonstrou benefício sobre a perda muscular consequente da artrite, reduzindo a atrofia da miofibra.

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease that affects primarily the joints, but also other tissues such as skeletal muscle. Muscle wasting significantly impairs the functionality and quality of life of patients with RA and physical exercise is an alternative therapy for this outcome. AIM: To evaluate the effect of moderate aerobic physical exercise on muscle loss caused by collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). METHODS: This is a pilot study in which CIA was induced in DBA/1J mice divided into two groups: (i) animals which exercised (EXE, n=5), (ii) animals which did not exercise (semEXE, n=4). Clinical score, hind paw swelling, weight, and spontaneous locomotion were evaluated periodically. After death, the histopathological score of the ankle and the myofiber area of the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles were evaluated. Significance was considered when p<0.05. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed between groups regarding clinical parameters of disease activity, animal weight, and spontaneous locomotion. However, joint histopathology demonstrated a decrease in cartilage erosion in the EXE group. There was also significant difference in the myofiber sectional area, with a 24% increase in the EXE group. CONCLUSION: This is the first interventional study with moderate aerobic exercise on a treadmill in an arthritis experimental model. The tested exercise program does not seem to have a clinical impact on the process of arthritis. However, it has a positive effect on muscle wasting caused by arthritis, demonstrated mainly by the reduction of myofiber atrophy.

Animals , Mice , Arthritis, Experimental/rehabilitation , Arthritis, Experimental/therapy , Muscular Atrophy/rehabilitation , Physical Conditioning, Animal , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Motor Activity/physiology , Muscular Atrophy/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Exercise Test
J. bras. med ; 101(5): 25-30, set.-out. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-706143


Fibromialgia (FM) é a síndrome de dor difusa crônica acompanhada de sintomas somáticos, tais como fadiga, transtornos do humor, do sono e da cognição. Em uma abordagem prática do paciente com FM, além das medidas não farmacológicas, cada sintoma pode ser tratado com medicamento específico. Este artigo provê revisão atualizada da literatura sobre os principais medicamentos atualmente disponíveis no Brasil para o tratamento da FM em adultos

Fibromyalgia (FM) is the chronic widespread pain syndrome associated with fatigue, mood, sleep and cognitive disorders. Besides non-pharmacological approach, each symptom should be treated with a specific drug. The goal of this study is to provide up-to-date literature review on main aspects of adult FM drugs available for use in Brazil

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Fibromyalgia/physiopathology , Fibromyalgia/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drug Utilization , Pain/drug therapy , Muscle Relaxation
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 53(1): 70-74, jan.-fev. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-670985


INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos têm relatado um aumento da expressão das células natural killer (NK) no sangue periférico de pacientes com esclerose sistêmica (ES). Essas células fazem parte da imunidade inata, reconhecendo células infectadas por meio dos receptores killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR), que apresentam acentuado polimorfismo. Um novo modelo foi proposto prevendo a atividade das células NK, avaliando o excesso de ativação (EA), excesso de inibição (EI) ou se a célula está funcionalmente em equilíbrio (balance, B) (neutra). OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade das células NK em pacientes com ES e comparar com grupo-controle. MÉTODO: Cento e dez pacientes com ES e 115 controles foram estudados. Foi aplicado um novo modelo que prevê a atividade das células NK. Para esse método, considerou-se cada célula com seu respectivo ligante KIR/HLA-C e Bw4. A nomenclatura utilizada foi EA, EI e B. RESULTADOS: Nossos resultados mostraram que 63,5% dos controles saudáveis apresentavam o fenótipo KIR caracterizado por EI, em comparação com 39,1% dos pacientes com ES (P = 0,001). Considerando-se somente indivíduos com presença de KIR2DL2 (KIR2DL2+), encontramos 34,7% de EI em controles sadios e 10,9% em pacientes com ES (P < 0,001). CONCLUSÃO: Em nosso estudo, o modelo que prevê a ação das células NK mostrou que controles sadios têm maior frequência de EI quando comparados a pacientes com ES, sugerindo um efeito protetor do EI contra o desenvolvimento da ES. Outros estudos, porém, devem ser realizados para confirmar nossos dados.

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown an increased expression of natural killer (NK) cells in the peripheral blood of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). NK cells are part of innate immunity, recognizing infected cells through killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), which show marked polymorphism. A novel model has been proposed predicting the activity of NK cells, evaluating whether there is excessive activation (EA), excessive inhibition (EI) or balance (B) (neutral). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the activity of NK cells in patients with SSc and compare it with that of a control group. METHOD: This study comprised 110 patients with SSc and 115 healthy controls. A novel model that predicts the activity of NK cells was used. For that, cells with their respective KIR/HLA-C and Bw4 ligands were considered. The activity of NK cells was defined as EA, EI, or B. RESULTS: Our results showed that 63.5% of healthy controls had the KIR phenotype characterized by EI, as compared with 39.1% of the patients with SSc (P = 0.001). Considering only KIR2DL2-positive individuals, 34.7% of EI was found in healthy controls and 10.9% in patients with SSc (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In our study, the model that predicts the action of NK cells showed that healthy controls have higher frequency of EI as compared with SSc patients, suggesting a protective effect of the EI profile against the development of SSc. These results suggest a potential role of NK cells in the pathogenesis of SSc, but further studies should be conducted to confirm our data.

Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Scleroderma, Systemic/immunology