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1.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 111-119, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Shenyankangfu Tablet (SYKFT) is a Chinese patent medicine that has been used widely to decrease proteinuria and the progression of chronic kidney disease.@*OBJECTIVE@#This trial compared the efficacy and safety of SYKFT, for the control of proteinuria in primary glomerulonephritis patients, against the standard drug, losartan potassium.@*DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION@#This was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Primary glomerulonephritis patients, aged 18-70 years, with blood pressure ≤ 140/90 mmHg, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 45 mL/min per 1.73 m@*MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES@#The primary outcome was change in the 24-hour proteinuria level, after 48 weeks of treatment.@*RESULTS@#A total of 735 participants were enrolled. The percent decline of urine protein quantification in the SYKFT group after 48 weeks was 8.78% ± 2.56% (P = 0.006) more than that in the losartan 50 mg group, which was 0.51% ± 2.54% (P = 1.000) less than that in the losartan 100 mg group. Compared with the losartan potassium 50 mg group, the SYKFT plus losartan potassium 50 mg group had a 13.39% ± 2.49% (P < 0.001) greater reduction in urine protein level. Compared with the losartan potassium 100 mg group, the SYKFT plus losartan potassium 100 mg group had a 9.77% ± 2.52% (P = 0.001) greater reduction in urine protein. With a superiority threshold of 15%, neither was statistically significant. eGFR, serum creatinine and serum albumin from the baseline did not change statistically significant. The average change in TCM syndrome score between the patients who took SYKFT (-3.00 [-6.00, -2.00]) and who did not take SYKFT (-2.00 [-5.00, 0]) was statistically significant (P = 0.003). No obvious adverse reactions were observed in any group.@*CONCLUSION@#SYKFT decreased the proteinuria and improved the TCM syndrome scores of primary glomerulonephritis patients, with no change in the rate of decrease in the eGFR. SYKFT plus losartan potassium therapy decreased proteinuria more than losartan potassium therapy alone.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER@#NCT02063100 on ClinicalTrials.gov.

2.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): E002-E002, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787636

ABSTRACT

To explore and analyze the possible mechanism of liver injury in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (novel coronavirus pneumonia, NCP). The correlation between ALT, AST and other liver enzyme changes condition and NCP patients' disease status reported in the literature was comprehensively analyzed. ACE2 expression in liver tissue for novel coronavirus was analyzed based on single cell sequencing (GSE115469) data. RNA-Seq method was used to analyze Ace2 expression and transcription factors related to its expression in liver tissues at various time-points after hepatectomy in mouse model of acute liver injury with partial hepatectomy. -test or Spearman rank correlation analysis was used for statistical analysis. ALT and AST were abnormally elevated in some patients with novel coronavirus infection, and the rate and extent of ALT and AST elevation in severe NCP patients were higher than those in non-severe patients. Liver tissue results of single cell sequencing and immunohistochemistry showed that ACE2 was only expressed in bile duct epithelial cells of normal liver tissues, and very low in hepatocytes. In a mouse model of acute liver injury with partial hepatectomy, Ace2 expression was down-regulated on the first day, but it was elevated up to twice of the normal level on the third day, and returned to normal level on seventh day when the liver recovered and hepatocyte proliferation stopped. Whether this phenomenon suggests that the bile duct epithelial cells with positive expression of Ace2 participate in the process of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy deserves further study. In RNA-Seq data, 77 transcription factors were positively correlated with the expression of ACE2 (r > 0.2, FDR < 0.05), which were mainly enriched in the development, differentiation, morphogenesis and cell proliferation of glandular epithelial cells. We assumed that in addition to the over activated inflammatory response in patients with NCP, the up-regulation of ACE2 expression in liver tissue caused by compensatory proliferation of hepatocytes derived from bile duct epithelial cells may also be the possible mechanism of liver tissue injury caused by 2019 novel coronavirus infection.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evluated the prognostic potential of preoperative PIVKA-Ⅱ and AFP to the patients of HBV infection-related hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) after radical resection. METHODS: Chronic HBV infection-related HCC patients who undergone resection in the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University from 2009 to 2013 with competed data of clinical information,laboratory results and follow-up records were enrolled our study. Finaly, a total of 107 subjects entered our research. PIVKA-Ⅱ was quantitatively measured by Chemiluminescence methods. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to analyze the factors which can affect patient's post surgery survival. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed that the 1-,2-,3-year survival rate of the patients with high PIVKA-Ⅱ level were 56%, 28% and 16%, respectively, much poor than that of patients with low PIVKA-Ⅱ level, the 1-,2-,3-year survival rate for the latter were 73%, 54% and 46%, respectively(P = 0.002). The 1-,2-,3-year survival rates for patients with high AFP levels were 58%, 35% and 25%, respectively, and the the 1-,2-,3-year survival rates for patients with low AFP levels were 83%, 63% and 51%, respectively(P = 0.006). Multivariate factor results showed that high PIVKA-Ⅱ levels, high AFP levels, the presence of portal vein tumor thrombus and incomplete capsular were independent risk factors for prognosis,HR(95% CI) were 1.99(1.15-3.45), 2.03(110-3.76), 2.72(1.53-4.83) and 2.07(1.07-4.00), respectively. In addition, the prognosis would got worse with the superposition of four independent risk factors. CONCLUSION: Preoperative PIVKA-Ⅱ and AFP levels are associated with HCC patients' s poor post surgery prognosis.

4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 466-473, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs) are a group of post-translational modification proteins extensively expressed in eukaryotes. Abnormal SUMOylation can lead to the development of various diseases. This article summarizes the progress on research of the role of SUMOs in various types of kidney diseases to further increase the understanding of the regulatory functions of SUMOylation in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases.@*DATA SOURCES@#This review was based on articles published in the PubMed databases up to January 2018, using the keywords including "SUMOs," "SUMOylation," and "kidney diseases."@*STUDY SELECTION@#Original articles and critical reviews about SUMOs and kidney disease were selected for this review. A total of 50 studies were in English.@*RESULTS@#SUMO participates in the activation of NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway, playing a central regulatory role in the inflammation and progression of DN, and the secretion of various chemokines in AKI. SUMO involves in the regulation of TG2 and Nrf2 antioxidant stress, affecting renal tubular injury in AKI. SUMO affects the MAPK/ERK pathway, regulating intracellular signal transduction, modulating the transcription and expression of effector molecules in DN. SUMO contributes to the TGF-β/Smad pathway, leading to fibrosis of the kidney. The conjugate combination of SUMO and p53 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis, and participates in the regulation of tumorigenesis. In addition, SUMOylation of MITF modulates renal tumors secondary to melanoma, Similarly, SUMOylation of tumor suppressor gene VHL regulates the occurrence of renal cell carcinoma in VHL syndrome.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Tissue injury, inflammatory responses, fibrosis, apoptosis, and tumor proliferation in kidney diseases all involve SUMOs. Further research of the substrate SUMOylation and regulatory mechanisms of SUMO in kidney diseases will improve and develop new treatment measures and strategies targeting kidney diseases.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Diabetic Nephropathies , Fibrosis , Humans , Kidney , Pathology , Kidney Diseases , Metabolism , Kidney Neoplasms , SUMO-1 Protein , Physiology , Sumoylation
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 512-518, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Accurate estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and staging of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are important. Currently, there is no research on the differences in several estimated GFR equations for staging CKD in a large sample of centenarians. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the differences in CKD staging with the most commonly used equations and to analyze sources of discrepancy.@*METHODS@#A total of 966 centenarians were enrolled in this study from June 2014 to December 2016 in Hainan province, China. The GFR with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Berlin Initiative Study 1 (BIS1) equations were estimated. Agreement between these equations was investigated with the κ statistic and Bland-Altman plots. Sources of discrepancy were investigated by partial correlation analysis.@*RESULTS@#The κ values of the MDRD and CKD-EPI equations, MDRD and BIS1 equations, and CKD-EPI and BIS1 equations were 0.610, 0.253, and 0.381, respectively. Serum creatinine (Scr) explained 10.96%, 41.60% and 17.06% of the variability in these three comparisons, respectively. Serum uric acid (SUA) explained 3.65% and 5.43% of the variability in the first 2 comparisons, respectively. Gender was associated with significant differences in these 3 comparisons (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The strengths of agreement between the MDRD and CKD-EPI equations were substantial, but those between the MDRD and BIS1 equations and the CKD-EPI and BIS1 equations were fair. The difference in CKD staging of the first 2 comparisons strongly depended on Scr, SUA and gender, and that of CKD-EPI and BIS1 equations strongly depended on Scr and gender. The incidence at various stages of CKD staging was quite different. Thus, a new equation that is more suitable for the elderly needs to be built in the future.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Creatinine , Blood , Cystatin C , Blood , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Physiology , Humans , Male , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Blood , Uric Acid , Blood
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 647-652, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common pathological type of glomerular disease. Kidney biopsy, the gold standard for IgAN diagnosis, has not been routinely applied in hospitals worldwide due to its invasion nature. Thus, we aim to establish a non-invasive diagnostic model and determine markers to evaluate disease severity by analyzing the serological parameters and pathological stages of patients with IgAN.@*METHODS@#A total of 272 biopsy-diagnosed IgAN inpatients and 518 non-IgA nephropathy inpatients from the Department of Nephrology of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital were recruited for this study. Routine blood examination, blood coagulation testing, immunoglobulin-complement testing, and clinical biochemistry testing were conducted and pathological stages were analyzed according to Lee grading system. The serological parameters and pathological stages were analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to estimate the diagnostic value of the clinical factors. Logistic regression was used to establish the diagnostic model.@*RESULTS@#There were 15 significantly different serological parameters between the IgAN and non-IgAN groups (all P < 0.05). The ROC analysis was performed to measure the diagnostic value for IgAN of these parameters and the results showed that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of total protein (TP), total cholesterol (TC), fibrinogen (FIB), D-dimer (D2), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were more than 0.70. The AUC of the "TC + FIB + D2 + IgA + age" combination was 0.86, with a sensitivity of 85.98% and a specificity of 73.85%. Pathological grades of I, II, III, IV, and V accounted for 2.21%, 17.65%, 62.50%, 11.76%, and 5.88%, respectively, with grade III being the most prevalent. The levels of urea nitrogen (UN) (13.57 ± 5.95 vs. 6.06 ± 3.63, 5.92 ± 2.97, 5.41 ± 1.73, and 8.41 ± 3.72 mmol/L, respectively) and creatinine (Cr) (292.19 ± 162.21 vs. 80.42 ± 24.75, 103.79 ± 72.72, 96.41 ± 33.79, and 163.04 ± 47.51 μmol/L, respectively) were significantly higher in grade V than in the other grades, and the levels of TP (64.45 ± 7.56, 67.16 ± 6.94, 63.22 ± 8.56, and 61.41 ± 10.86 vs. 37.47 ± 5.6 mg/d, respectively), direct bilirubin (DB) (2.34 ± 1.23, 2.58 ± 1.40, 1.91 ± 0.97, and 1.81 ± 1.44 vs. 0.74 ± 0.57 μmol/L, respectively), and IgA (310.35 ± 103.78, 318.48 ± 107.54, 292.58 ± 81.85, and 323.29 ± 181.67 vs. 227.17 ± 68.12 g/L, respectively) were significantly increased in grades II-V compared with grade I (all P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The established diagnostic model that combined multiple factors (TC, FIB, D2, IgA, and age) might be used for IgAN non-invasive diagnosis. TP, DB, IgA, Cr, and UN have the potential to be used to evaluate IgAN disease severity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biomarkers , Blood , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Cholesterol , Blood , Creatinine , Blood , Female , Fibrinogen , Metabolism , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , Blood , Diagnosis , Pathology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Blood , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , ROC Curve
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773973

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the protective effects and potential mechanisms of Shenhua Tablet (, SHT) on the toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated signaling pathways in a rat model of kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI).@*METHODS@#Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham surgery, model control, astragaloside (150 mg•kg•d), low- and high-dose SHT (1.5 and 3.0 g•kg•d, repectively) groups. One week after drug treatment, rats underwent surgery to establish the IRI models. At 24 h and 72 h after the modeling, serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were analyzed; pathological damage were scored after periodic acid-Schiffstaining. TLR2, TLR4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) protein and mRNA expressions were detected by inmmunohistochemistry, Western blot and qPCR. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) protein expressions were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham group, the model group exhibited severe change in renal function (Scr: 189.42±21.50, P<0.05), pathological damage (damage score: 4.50±0.55, P<0.05), and the expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, TNF-α, IL-6 were significantly higher than other groups. Meanwhile, the levels of TLRs in model group showed upward tendency from 24 to 72 h, unparalleled with pathological and functional changes. The aforementioned parameters were alleviated to a certain extent, and, in addition to TLRs, presented the obvious downward trending from the 24 to 72 h after the intervention in the SHT and astragaloside groups relative to the model (P<0.05); in particular, the most significant mitigation of these changes was observed in the SHT-H group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#TLRs may be an important spot to treat and research in acute kidney injury. SHT could effectively mitigate renal injuries and promote recovery of IRI injuries through suppression of degeneration induced by up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 expression levels in the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway and exhibit some dose dependence.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Kidney , Male , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Genetics , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reperfusion Injury , Signal Transduction , Tablets , Toll-Like Receptors , Genetics
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776614

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To follow up the participants of the randomized clinical trial "Efficacy and Safety of Niaoduqing Particles () for Delaying Moderate-to-Severe Renal Dysfunction", and assess the long-term effects of Niaoduqing Particles on delaying the progression of renal dysfunction.@*METHODS@#Participants, who had previously been randomly assigned to receive Niaoduqing Particles or placebo for 24 weeks (146 cases in each group), were invited to follow-up and all were administered Niaoduqing Particles 5 g thrice daily and 10 g before bedtime for 24 weeks. The primary endpoints were changes in baseline serum creatinine (Scr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after completion of the open-label treatment period.@*RESULTS@#After the double-blind period, the median (interquartile range) changes in Scr were 1.1 (-13.0-24.1) and 11.7 (-2.6-42.9) μmol/L for the Niaoduqing Particle and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.008), and the median changes in eGFRs were-0.2 (-4.3-2.7) and-2.21 (-5.7-0.8) mL•min•1.73 m, respectively (P=0.016). There were significant differences in the double-blind period changes in renal function between groups. After the open-label period, the median changes in Scr were 9.0 (-10.0-41.9) and 17.5 (-6.0-50.0) μmol/L for the Niaoduqing Particle and placebo groups according to baseline grouping, respectively (P=0.214), and the median changes in eGFRs were-2.3 (-6.4-1.9) and-3.7 (-7.5-1.1) mL•min•1.73 m, respectively (P=0.134). There were no statistical differences in the open-label period changes in renal function between groups. The eGFR reduction of participants who accepted Niaoduqing Particle treatment for 48 weeks was projected to 2.5 mL•min•1.73 m per year.@*CONCLUSION@#Niaoduqing Particles appear to have long-term efficacy for patients with moderate-to-severe renal dysfunction. Although there was no statistical difference, the early use of Niaoduqing Paticles seems to ameliorate the worsening of renal function. (Trial registration No. ChiCTR-TRC-12002448).


Subject(s)
Adult , Disease Progression , Double-Blind Method , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Kidney Diseases , Drug Therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2666-2675, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775036

ABSTRACT

Background@#Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a kidney disease that is commonly associated with proteinuria and the progressive loss of renal function, which is characterized by podocyte injury and the depletion and collapse of glomerular capillary segments. The pathogenesis of FSGS has not been completely elucidated; however, recent advances in molecular genetics have provided increasing evidence that podocyte structural and functional disruption is central to FSGS pathogenesis. Here, we identified a patient with FSGS and aimed to characterize the pathogenic gene and verify its mechanism.@*Methods@#Using next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing, we screened the causative gene that was linked to FSGS in this study. The patient's total blood RNA was extracted to validate the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of coenzyme Q monooxygenase 6 (COQ6) and validated it by immunohistochemistry. COQ6 knockdown in podocytes was performed in vitro with small interfering RNA, and then, F-actin was determined using immunofluorescence staining. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry, the expression of active caspase-3 was determined by Western blot, and mitochondrial function was detected by MitoSOX.@*Results@#Using whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing, we screened a new causative gene, COQ6, NM_182480: exon1: c.G41A: p.W14X. The mRNA expression of COQ6 in the proband showed decreased. Moreover, the expression of COQ6, which was validated by immunohistochemistry, also had the same change in the proband. Finally, we focused on the COQ6 gene to clarify the mechanism of podocyte injury. Flow cytometry showed significantly increased in apoptotic podocytes, and Western blotting showed increases in active caspase-3 in si-COQ6 podocytes. Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were increased and F-actin immunofluorescence was irregularly distributed in the si-COQ6 group.@*Conclusions@#This study reported a possible mechanism for FSGS and suggested that a new mutation in COQ6, which could cause respiratory chain defect, increase the generation of ROS, destroy the podocyte cytoskeleton, and induce apoptosis. It provides basic theoretical basis for the screening of FSGS in the future.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Apoptosis , Genetics , Physiology , Cell Line , Female , Flow Cytometry , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental , Genetics , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Mice , Mutation , Genetics , Podocytes , Metabolism , Pathology , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , RNA, Small Interfering , Genetics , Metabolism , Ubiquinone , Genetics , Metabolism
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2734-2740, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775029

ABSTRACT

Background@#Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients are susceptible to Helicobacter pylori (HP), and it has been reported that the occurrence of proteinuria is associated with HP infection in T2DM patients; however, this view remains controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the association between HP infection and the occurrence of proteinuria in T2DM patients. In addition, we hope to provide some recommendations to readers in clinical or related fields.@*Methods@#Our meta-analysis was conducted with the methodology of the Cochrane Collaboration. Search strategies were formulated by relevant professionals. Case-control studies that compared the occurrence of proteinuria in T2DM patients with and without HP infection were involved in our meta-analysis. Relevant English or Chinese studies were searched on online databases before 2018, including PubMed, the Cochrane library, Medline, Google Scholar, the China National Infrastructure, and Wanfang database. The search strategies were "diabetic proteinuria, diabetic microalbuminuria, diabetic albuminuria, diabetic kidney disease, diabetic renal dysfunction, diabetic renal disease, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic complications, and diabetic mellitus, combined with HP." The quality of these involved articles was separately assessed by two investigators using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and pooled using fixed-effects models.@*Results@#Seven studies involving 1029 participants were included. The quality of these seven articles was all above five stars as assessed by NOS, and there was no significant publication bias in our meta-analysis. We found that T2DM patients with HP infection had a 2.00 times higher risk of the occurrence of proteinuria than patients without HP infection (OR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.48-2.69).@*Conclusions@#Our analysis showed that HP infection was associated with the occurrence of proteinuria in T2DM patients. HP radical surgery might be a therapeutic option for protecting kidney function in patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
Confidence Intervals , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metabolism , Microbiology , Helicobacter Infections , Metabolism , Microbiology , Humans , Kidney , Metabolism , Proteinuria , Metabolism , Microbiology
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2785-2791, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772920

ABSTRACT

Background@#Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) can cater to individual needs, provide treatment while asleep, take into account the adequacy of dialysis, and improve the quality of life. Currently, independent research and development of APD machines made in China are more conducive to patients. A randomized, multicenter, crossover study was conducted by comparing an APD machine made in China with an imported machine. The safety, effectiveness, and manipulability of the two machines were compared.@*Methods@#Two hundred and sixty patients who underwent peritoneal dialysis (PD) on a regular basis in 18 centers between August 2015 and February 2016 were included. The inclusion criteria include age ≥18 years and PD ≥30 days. The exclusion criteria were as follows: hemodialysis; exit site or tunnel infection; and peritonitis ≤30 days. The patients were randomly divided into Group A, who were first treated with a FM machine made in China, then changed to an imported machine; and Group B, who were treated using the reverse sequence. APD treatment was performed with 10 L/10 h and 5 cycles of exchange. After 72 h, the daily peritoneal Kt/V, the accuracy of the injection rate, accuracy of the injection temperature, safety, and manipulability of the machine were assessed. Noninferiority test was conducted between the two groups.@*Results@#The daily peritoneal Kt/V in the APD machine made in China and the imported APD machine were 0.17 (0.14, 0.25) and 0.16 (0.13, 0.23), respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups (Z = 0.15, P = 0.703). The lower limit of the daily Kt/V difference between the two groups was 0.0069, which was greater than the noninferiority value of -0.07 in this study. The accuracy of the injection rate and injection temperature was 89.7% and 91.5%, respectively, in the domestic APD machine, which were both slightly better than the accuracy rates of 84.0% and 86.8% in the imported APD machine (89.7% vs. 84.0%, P = 0.2466; 91.5% vs. 86.8%, P = 0.0954). Therefore, the APD machine made in China was not inferior to the imported APD machine. The fuselage of the imported APD machine was space-saving, while the APD machine made in China was superior with respect to body mobility, man-machine dialog operation, alarm control, and patient information recognition.@*Conclusions@#The FM machine made in China was not inferior to the imported APD machine. In addition, the FM machine made in China had better operability.@*Trial Registration@#Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02525497; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?cond=&term=NCT02525497&cntry=& state=&city=&dist=.


Subject(s)
Adult , China , Cross-Over Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Peritoneal Dialysis , Methods , Quality of Life , Temperature
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2953-2959, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772888

ABSTRACT

Background@#Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nondiabetic renal diseases (NDRDs) have different clinicopathological features and prognosis from those of diabetic nephropathy. Our study sought to analyze the clinical and pathological features of NDRDs, in different age groups through a cross-sectional study.@*Methods@#All patients with type 2 DM at our center who underwent renal biopsy between March 1997 and March 2017 were screened and divided into three groups by age: Group 1 (youth group), 18-44 years old; Group 2 (middle-aged group), 45-59 years old; and Group 3 (elderly group), ≥60 years old. We analyzed the clinicopathological data and risk factors by univariate and multivariate logistic regression for NDRD of the patients to identify the features of NDRD in different age groups.@*Results@#We included 982 patients in the final analysis. Patients with NDRD accounted for 64.4% of all patients. IgA nephropathy (IgAN) was the most common pathological pattern in young patients with NDRD, accounting for 26.3%. In the middle-aged group, the two most common pathological patterns were IgAN and membranous nephropathy. Membranous nephropathy was the most common pathological pattern in elderly patients with NDRD, accounting for 29.3%. Consistent with pathological features, glomerular hematuria is a risk factor for NDRD in Group 1 (odds ratio [OR], 26.514; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.503-280.910; P = 0.006). On the other hand, rapidly increasing proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome is a risk factor for NDRD in Group 2 (OR, 5.921; 95% CI, 2.061-17.013; P = 0.001) and Group 3 (OR, 90.409; 95% CI, 6.198-1318.826; P = 0.001).@*Conclusions@#This single-center study showed that the proportion and composition of NDRD differ among different age groups. Consistent with pathological features, some clinical indices such as hematuria and proteinuria showed different features among different age groups.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetic Nephropathies , Pathology , Female , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , Pathology , Humans , Kidney Diseases , Pathology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 180-187, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342069

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common and serious microvascular complication of diabetes. To date, the gold standard for identifying DN and nondiabetic renal disease (NDRD) is a renal biopsy; however, there is currently no reliable diagnostic marker to identify DN and NDRD in a noninvasive manner. This study aimed to investigate the different glycopatterns in urine specimens of DN patients and NDRD patients for a differential diagnosis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In total, 19 DN patients and 18 NDRD patients who underwent renal biopsies between March 2015 and March 2016 at the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital were enrolled in this study. A lectin microarray was used to investigate the glycopatterns in the urinary protein of the 37 patients. Ratio analysis and one-way analysis of variance were used to screen altered glycopatterns. Then, the altered glycopatterns between the DN and NDRD groups were verified by a urinary protein microarray among another 32 patients (15 with DN and 17 with NDRD), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic value of the altered glycopatterns in differentiating DN and NDRD. Finally, lectin blotting was used to evaluate the altered glycosylation in protein level.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The result of lectin microarrays revealed that the relative abundance of the (β-1,4)-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) recognized by lectin Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA) was significantly higher in urinary protein in DN patients than that in NDRD patients (fold change >1.50, P < 0.001). Subsequently, the results of urinary protein microarrays were consistent with lectin microarrays (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the ROC curve showed that glycopatterns could effectively distinguish DN from NDRD patients (area under the ROC curve = 0.94, P < 0.001). DSA lectin blotting showed that glycoproteins, with a molecular weight of approximately 50,000, demonstrated a difference in urine samples between DN patients and NDRD patients.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The relative abundance of (β-1,4)-linked GlcNAc recognized by lectin DSA and urinary glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately 50,000 are significantly different between DN and NDRD patients, indicating that the glycopatterns could be used as potential biomarkers for a differential diagnosis.</p>

14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 885-891, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266889

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Patients on hemodialysis have a high-mortality risk. This study analyzed factors associated with death in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). While some studies used baseline data of MHD patients, this study used the most recent data obtained from patients just prior to either a primary endpoint or the end of the study period to find the characteristics of patients preceding death.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Participants were selected from 16 blood purification centers in China from January 2012 to December 2014. Patients' data were collected retrospectively. Based on survival status, the participants were divided into two groups: survival group and the death group. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with all-cause mortality.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In total, 4104 patients (57.58% male, median age 59 years) were included. Compared with the survival group, the death group had more men and more patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and hypertensive nephropathy. The patients preceding death also had lower levels of diastolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, serum albumin, serum calcium, serum phosphate, Kt/V, and higher age. Multivariate analysis revealed that male sex (odd ratio [OR]: 1.437, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.094-1.886), age (OR: 1.046, 95% CI: 1.036-1.057), and presence of DN (OR: 1.837, 95% CI: 1.322-2.552) were the risk factors associated with mortality. High serum calcium (OR: 0.585, 95% CI: 0.346-0.989), hemoglobin (OR: 0.974, 95% CI: 0.967-0.981), albumin (OR: 0.939, 95% CI: 0.915-0.963) levels, and dialysis with noncuffed catheter (OR: 0.165, 95% CI: 0.070-0.386) were protective factors based on a multivariate analysis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Hemodialysis patients preceding death had lower hemoglobin, albumin, and serum calcium levels. Multivariate analysis showed that male sex, age, DN, low hemoglobin, low albumin, and low serum calcium were associated with death in hemodialysis patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Renal Dialysis , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812626

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to determine the mechanism underlying the treatment of nephrotic syndrome using astragaloside by observing the effects of astragaloside on the expression of nephrin and podocin proteins and genes in kidneys of rats with adriamycin nephropathy. The rats were injected with adriamycin and, after successful model establishment, randomly divided into a model group, a Methylprednisolone (MP) group, and an astragaloside group. The 24-h complete urine samples were collected. Biochemical indicators were monitored, and kidney tissues were collected for pathological analysis using light microscopy and electron microscopy. The mRNA expression of nephrin and podocin was measured in the kidney tissues using the real-time qPCR, and the protein expression levels of nephrin and podocin were detected using Western blot analysis. At the end of 12 weeks of drug intervention, the urinary protein level was lower in the MP and astragaloside groups than that in the model group (P = 0.008 and P = 0.01, respectively). Serum albumin was higher in the MP and astragaloside groups than in the model group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.012, respectively). Podocytes in the MP group were nearly normal, and fusion of podocytes in the astragaloside group was significantly less than that in the control group. The nephrin and podocin mRNA and protein expression levels in the intervention groups were higher (P < 0.05) than that in the model group. Due to the increased expression of podocyte-related nephrin and podocin proteins, astragaloside maintained slit diaphragm integrity and decreased the level of proteinuria in rats with adriamycin nephropathy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astragalus Plant , Chemistry , Doxorubicin , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glucosides , Humans , Kidney , Metabolism , Kidney Diseases , Drug Therapy , Male , Podocytes , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1894-1903, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-251277

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The efficacy and safety of telmisartan combined with clopidogrel, leflunomide, or both drugs for immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) are unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of telmisartan combined with clopidogrel, leflunomide, or both drugs for IgAN.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>It is a multicenter, prospective, double-dummy randomized controlled trial. Primary IgAN patients were recruited in 13 renal units across Beijing, China, from July 2010 to June 2012. After a 4-week telmisartan (80 mg/d) wash-in, 400 patients continuing on 80 mg/d telmisartan were randomly assigned to additionally receive placebo (Group A), 50 mg/d clopidogrel (Group B), 20 mg/d leflunomide (Group C), or 50 mg/d clopidogrel and 20 mg/d leflunomide (Group D). The 24-week intervention was completed by 360 patients. The primary endpoint was change in 24-h proteinuria at 24 weeks. A linear mixed-effect model was used to analyze the changes at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate changes in hematuria grade. This trial was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The effects of telmisartan combined with leflunomide on changes in proteinuria (0.36 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18-0.55] g/d, P < 0.001), in serum uric acid (76.96 [95% CI 57.44-96.49] μmol/L, P < 0.001), in serum creatinine (9.49 [95% CI 6.54-12.44] μmol/L, P < 0.001), and in estimated glomerular filtration rate (-6.72 [95% CI-9.46 to -3.98] ml·min-1·1.73 m-2, P < 0.001) were statistically significant, whereas they were not statistically significant on changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and weight (P > 0.05). Telmisartan combined with clopidogrel had no statistical effect on any outcome, and there was no interaction between the interventions. No obvious adverse reactions were observed.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Telmisartan combined with leflunomide, not clopidogrel, is safe and effective for decreasing proteinuria in certain IgAN patients.</p><p><b>TRIAL REGISTRATION</b>chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR-TRC-10000776; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=8760.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Benzimidazoles , Therapeutic Uses , Benzoates , Therapeutic Uses , Blood Pressure , China , Creatinine , Blood , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , Blood , Drug Therapy , Humans , Isoxazoles , Therapeutic Uses , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Ticlopidine , Therapeutic Uses , Treatment Outcome , Uric Acid , Blood , Young Adult
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 392-398, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310642

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a public health problem. New interventions to slow or prevent disease progression are urgently needed. In this setting, cell therapies associated with regenerative effects are attracting increasing interest. We evaluated the effect of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) on the progression of CKD.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy. We used pedicled greater omentum flaps packing ESC-loaded gelatin microcryogels (GMs) on the 5/6 nephrectomized kidney. The viability of ESCs within the GMs was detected using in vitro two-photon fluorescence confocal imaging. Rats were sacrificed after 12 weeks. Renal injury was evaluated using serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, 24 h protein, renal pathology, and tubular injury score results. Structural damage was evaluated by periodic acid-Schiff and Masson trichrome staining.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In vitro, ESCs could be automatically loaded into the GMs. Uniform cell distribution, good cell attachment, and viability were achieved from day 1 to 7 in vitro. After 12 weeks, in the pedicled greater omentum flaps packing ESC-loaded GMs on 5/6 nephrectomized rats group, the plasma urea nitrogen levels were 26% lower than in the right nephrectomy group, glomerulosclerosis index was 62% lower and tubular injury index was 40% lower than in the 5/6 nephrectomized rats group without GMs.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>In a rat model of established CKD, we demonstrated that the pedicled greater omentum flaps packing ESC-loaded GMs on the 5/6 nephrectomized kidney have a long-lasting therapeutic rescue function, as shown by the decreased progression of CKD and reduced glomerular injury.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Proliferation , Cryogels , Disease Progression , Embryonic Stem Cells , Transplantation , Gelatin , Kidney , Pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Pathology , Therapeutics
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310877

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Flos Abelmoschus manihot (Malvaceae) on type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The Cochrane Library, PubMed/MEDLINE, Excerpta Medical Database, Chinese electronic literature databases, and the references of relevant articles were searched in March 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported the effects of Flos A. manihot on type 2 DN patients with overt but subnephrotic-range proteinuria (500-3,500 mg/24 h). The quality of trials was evaluated using the Cochrane-recommended method. The results were summarized as risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes or mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcomes.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Seven trials (531 patients) were included. Flos A. manihot significantly decreased proteinuria [MD -317.32 mg/24 h, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-470.48, -164.17],P<0.01]. After excluding a trial that only included patients with well-preserved renal function, Flos A. manihot was associated with a significant decrease in serum creatinine (MD -11.99 μmol/L, 95% CI [-16.95, -7.04],P<0.01). Serious adverse events were not observed. The most common adverse event was mild to moderate gastrointestinal discomfort; however, patients receiving this herb did not have an increased risk for tolerated gastrointestinal discomfort (RR 1.48, 95% CI [0.39, 5.68],P=0.57).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Flos A. manihot may be considered as an important adjunctive therapy with the first-line and indispensable therapeutic strategies for type 2 DN. High-quality RCTs are urgently needed to confirm the effect of Flos A. manihot on definite endpoints such as end-stage renal disease.</p>


Subject(s)
Abelmoschus , Chemistry , Clinical Trials as Topic , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies , Drug Therapy , Flowers , Chemistry , Humans , Plant Extracts , Therapeutic Uses , Proteinuria , Publication Bias , Treatment Outcome
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310871

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effects of Biejia Ruangan Tablet ([symbol in text], BRT)-containing serum on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) in cultured renal interstitial fibroblasts.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Different BRT-containing sera were prepared by gastric gavages to rats with the high-dose (7 g/kg), mid-dose (3.5 g/kg), and low-dose (1.75 g/kg) BRT respectively. The expression of extracellular matrix in NRK-49F cells was induced by treatment with human transforming growth factor-β1 (recombined human TGF-β1), and BRT-containing serum. Western blotting and Northern blotting were used to measure type I and III procollagen, MMP-9, and TIMP-1.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The high dose BRT-containing serum could decrease the type I and III procollagen gene expression which boosted by TGF-β1, at the same time cut down TIMP-1 protein and gene expression which increased by TGF-β1 (P <0.05). Treatment of cells with recombined human TGF-β1 had no significant effect on MMP-9 expression and BRT-containing serum also had no effect on MMP-9 expression.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>High dose BRT has anti-fibrosis effects in NRK-49F cells, as indicated by its inhibition of type I and III procollagen and TIMP-1 expression.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Collagen Type I , Genetics , Metabolism , Collagen Type III , Genetics , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fibroblasts , Metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Kidney , Cell Biology , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Genetics , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serum , Metabolism , Tablets , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Pharmacology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267162

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of Compound Shenhua Tablet (, SHT) on the sodium-potassium- exchanging adenosinetriphosphatase (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) in the renal tubular epithelial cells of rats with acute ischemic reperfusion and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of SHT on renal ischemic reperfusion injury (RIRI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the sham surgery group, model group, astragaloside group [150 mg/(kg·d)], SHT low-dose group [1.5 g/(kg·d)] and SHT high-dose group [3.0 g/(kg·d)], with 10 rats in each group. After 1 week of continuous intragastric drug administration, surgery was performed to establish the model. At either 24 or 72 h after the surgery, 5 rats in each group were sacrificed, blood biochemistry, renal pathology, immunoblot and immunohistochemical examinations were performed, and double immunofluorescence staining was observed under a laser confocal microscope.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the sham surgery group, the serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were significantly increased, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase protein level was decreased, and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) protein level was increased in the model group after the surgery (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the SCr, BUN, pathological scores, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, and the KIM-1 protein level of the three treatment groups were significantly improved at 72 h after the surgery (P<0.05 or P<0.01). And the SCr, BUN of the SHT low- and high-dose groups, and the pathological scores of the SHT high-dose group were significantly lower than those of the astragaloside group (P<0.05). The localizations of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and megalin of the model group were disrupted, with the distribution areas overlapping with each other and alternately arranged. The severity of the disruption was slightly milder in three treatment groups compared with that of the model group. The results of immunofluorescence staining showed that the SHT high-dose group had a superior effect as compared with the astragaloside group and the SHT low-dose group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The SHT effectively alleviated RIRI caused by ischemic reperfusion, promoted the recovery of the polarity of renal tubular epithelial cells, and protected the renal tubules. The therapeutic effects of SHT were superior to those of astragaloside as a single agent.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Animals , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Metabolism , Chromatography, Liquid , Creatinine , Blood , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Immunoblotting , Kidney Function Tests , Kidney Tubules , Pathology , Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-2 , Metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reperfusion Injury , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Saponins , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Metabolism , Staining and Labeling , Tablets
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