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1.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 358-365, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To systema tically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of gen eric and original drugs of atorvastatin , and to provide the latest evidence-based reference for drug selection in clinic. METHODS Retrieved from PubMed ,Cochrane Library,Embase,CNKI,VIP and Wanfang database ,intervention trials and observational studies about generic and original drugs of atorvastatin were collected during the inception to Apr. 2021. After data extraction of literatures met inclusion criteria ,the Cochrane risk bias evaluation tool 5.1.0 was used to evaluate the quality of intervention trials ;Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS)was used to evaluate the quality of observational studies. RevMan 5.4 software was used to conduct meta-analysis ,and descrptive analysis was performed at the same time. RESULTS A total of 24 studies were included ,involving 21 randomized controlled trials (RCTs)and 3 retrospective cohort studies (RCSs),with 20 001 patients involved. Meta-analysis results of RCT showed there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)levels [MD = - 0.05,95% CI(- 0.12,0.02),P=0.16] and increasing Δ 基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(No.2017YFC0910004);山 东省重点研发计划项目(No.2020RKB14165) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)levels [MD = *硕士研究生 。研究方向:临床药学。E-mail:1677032023@qq. - 0.00,95% CI(- 0.02,0.01),P=0.52];the degree of com reducing total cholesterol (TC)level [MD =-0.11,95%CI # 通信作者:主任药师,硕士生导师。研究方向:临床药学、药事 ( - 0.17,- 0.06),P<0.000 1] and triglyceride (TG) 管理。电话:0351-89268349。E-mail:13791120711@126.com level [MD =-0.05,95%CI(-0.09, -0.01),P=0.02] in ·358· China Pharmacy 2022Vol. 33 No. 3 中国药房 2022年第33卷第3期 generic drug group was lower than orig inal drug group ,with statistical significance difference. There was no statistical significance difference in total incidence of adverse drug reaction (ADR)[OR=1.08,95% CI(0.85,1.37),P=0.55] and the incidence of other ADR(P>0.05). The results of subgroup analysis showed that the reductions of TC and TG of generic drugs produced by Beijing Jialin Pharmaceutical Enterprise (hereinafter refer to Jialin generic drugs )were less than those of the original drug ,and the difference was statistically significant ;compared with original drugs ,there was no significant difference in other indexes or all indexes of the generic drugs from other manufacturers. Compared with original drugs ,the reductions of TC and TG in 20 mg/d group of Jialin generic drugs were less than original drug group ;the degree of TC reduction at 12 and 24 weeks of follow-up and TG reduction at 24 weeks of follow-up were less than those of the original drugs ,the difference was statistically significant ;there was no significant difference in other indexes. The qualitative description of RCS showed that for elderly patients with death/acute coronary syndrome ,there was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of cardiovascular events or serious side effects. For the adult patients who switched from original drugs to generic drugs ,the effect of generic drugs instead of original drugs would not be reduced ,but the increase of HDL-C was less than that of original drug. CONCLUSIONS In terms of effectiveness,generic drugs of atorvastatin can replace original drugs and caution should be taken on the levels of HDL-C ,TC and TG for long time use ;in terms of safety ,generic drugs are similar to the original drugs.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of wogonoside on high glucose-induced dysfunction of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hRMECs) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic retinopathy in rats and explore the underlying molecular mechanism.@*METHODS@#HRMECs in routine culture were treated with 25 mmol/L mannitol or exposed to high glucose (30 mmol/L glucose) and treatment with 10, 20, 30, 40 μmol/L wogonoside. CCK-8 assay and Transwell assay were used to examine cell proliferation and migration, and the changes in tube formation and monolayer cell membrane permeability were tested. ROS, NO and GSH-ST kits were used to evaluate oxidative stress levels in the cells. The expressions of IL-1β and IL-6 in the cells were examined with qRT-PCR and ELISA, and the protein expressions of VEGF, HIF-1α and SIRT1 were detected using Western blotting. We also tested the effect of wogonoside on retinal injury and expressions of HIF-1α, ROS, VEGF, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and SIRT1 proteins in rat models of STZ-induced diabetic retinopathy.@*RESULTS@#High glucose exposure caused abnormal proliferation and migration, promoted angiogenesis, increased membrane permeability (P < 0.05), and induced inflammation and oxidative stress in hRMECs (P < 0.05). Wogonoside treatment concentration-dependently inhibited high glucose-induced changes in hRMECs. High glucose exposure significantly lowered the expression of SIRT1 in hRMECs, which was partially reversed by wogonoside (30 μmol/L) treatment; interference of SIRT1 obviously attenuated the inhibitory effects of wogonoside against high glucose-induced changes in proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, membrane permeability, inflammation and oxidative stress in hRMECs. In rat models of STZ-induced diabetic retinopathy, wogonoside effectively suppressed retinal thickening (P < 0.05), alleviated STZ-induced retinal injury, and increased the expression of SIRT1 in the retinal tissues (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#Wogonoside alleviates retinal damage caused by diabetic retinopathy by up-regulating SIRT1 expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetic Retinopathy/metabolism , Endothelial Cells , Flavanones , Glucose/pharmacology , Glucosides , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Streptozocin/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936171

ABSTRACT

Objective: Using propensity score matching method(PSM) to investigate the clinical effect of surgical plus radio(chemo)therapy and non-surgery chemoradiotherapy treatment strategies for advanced tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of 324 patients diagnosed with advanced tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma and treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2000 to 2018, confirmed by pathology and without distant metastasis. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier estimates, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity score matching(PSM). Results: Of the 324 patients, 102 were treated with non-surgery chemoradiotherapy treatment strategies and 222 with surgical plus radio(chemo)therapy treatment. Cox multivariate analysis showed that the non-surgery treatment group had a favorable prognosis than the surgical treatment group, however, these outcomes were not significantly different [overall survival(OS): adjusted Hazard Ratios(aHR): 0.92, 95% confidence interval(CI): 0.60-1.42; disease-specific survival(DSS): aHR: 0.71, 95%CI: 0.43-1.20; disease-free survival(DFS): aHR: 0.82, 95%CI: 0.53-1.28]. The new patient cohort consisted of 102 subpairs after PSM. There were no significant differences between two groups(OS: aHR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.51-1.40; DSS: aHR: 0.62, 95%CI: 0.35-1.11; DFS: aHR: 0.80, 95%CI: 0.49-1.33). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that patients with non-surgical treatment do not have significantly better survival outcomes compared to surgical treatment group, while non-surgical treatment has advantages in improving the quality of life of patients, so comprehensive treatment based on radiotherapy and chemotherapy may be recommended for advanced tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Chemoradiotherapy , Humans , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Tonsillar Neoplasms/therapy
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923783

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze and compare the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria in Jiaozuo City before and after malaria elimination, so as to provide insights into the malaria surveillance during the post-elimination stage and prevention of re-establishment of imported malaria. Methods Data pertaining to the epidemic situation and individual investigation of malaria in Jiaozuo City before (from 2010 to 2016) and after malaria elimination (from 2017 to November, 2020) were captured from the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System and the Information System for Parasitic Diseases Control and Prevention of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and were analyzed statistically. Results A total of 74 imported malaria cases were reported in Jiaozuo City from 2010 to 2021. Imported cases were predominantly Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases in Jiaozuo City before and after malaria elimination, and there was no significant difference in the proportion of malaria parasite species (χ2 = 0.234, P > 0.05). The imported malaria cases was predominantly reported in Wuzhi County, and was identified in overseas male farmers and businessmen at ages of 20 to 59 years, while the greatest number of imported malaria cases was reported in June and December before and after malaria elimination. The imported malaria cases predominantly acquired malaria parasite infections in sub-Saharan African countries; however, the proportion of imported malaria cases returning from Southeast Asian counties increased after malaria elimination than before malaria elimination (χ2 = 5.989, P < 0.05). The longest duration from onset to definitive diagnosis of malaria reduced from 27 days before malaria elimination to 18 days after malaria elimination, and the median duration reduced from 3 days to 2 days, while the proportion of definitive diagnosis of malaria increased from 60.47% before malaria elimination to 83.87% after malaria elimination (χ2 = 4.724, P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of malaria cases definitively diagnosed and reported by medical institutions increased after malaria elimination than before malaria elimination (χ2 = 5.406, P < 0.05). Conclusions The imported malaria patients were predominantly P. falciparum malaria cases in Jiaozuo City during 2010 to 2021, and the patient’s medical care-seeking awareness and medical staff’s diagnosis and treatment ability have improved after malaria elimination. It is necessary to strengthen and improve malaria surveillance and response system and prevent the re-establishment of overseas imported malaria.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 802-808, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922904

ABSTRACT

A blood-brain barrier microfluidic chip platform for studying the permeability of active components in traditional Chinese medicine was developed. This model used primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells on a microfluidic chip consisting of two perpendicularly-crossing channels and a single layer porous polycarbonate membrane. The physiological shear stress in the human vasculature was also modeled in this device. Cell viability on the chip was monitored by cell staining and immunofluorescence staining. The cells spread well and the structure of an intercellular adhesion protein was satisfactory. The permeability of fluorescent tracers and three model drugs and the functional expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)on the blood-brain barrier were investigated. The results show that the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of the fluorescent tracers and three model drugs were consistent with those reported in the literature, and P-gp on the chip showed normal function, indicating that there was a complete structure and a functional BBB. The permeability of six active components of traditional Chinese medicine was investigated through this microfluidic chip and the drug concentration was determined by HPLC-MS/MS to obtain the Papp of each component. The Papp of corydaline was (4.51 ± 1.90)×10-7 cm·s-1, the Papp of tetrahydropalmatine was (9.10 ± 6.59)×10-7 cm·s-1, and the Papp of imperatorin was (9.38 ± 2.53)×10-7 cm·s-1; the concentration of isoimperatorin, baicalin and chlorogenic acid was below the limit of quantification, which suggested that isoimperatorin, baicalin and chlorogenic acid have poor permeability in this BBB chip. This blood-brain barrier microfluidic platform possesses a complete barrier function and near-physiological conditions and could be a valuable in vitro tool for drug permeability evaluation.

6.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 163-172, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929221

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Moxibustion, a common therapy in traditional Chinese medicine, has potential benefits for treating decreased ovarian reserve (DOR). The present study investigates the protective effect of moxibustion in a rat model of DOR and explores the possible mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Sixty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, DOR, moxibustion (MOX), and hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The DOR rat model was established by intragastric administration of 50 mg/kg Tripterygium glycoside suspension (TGS), once daily for 14 days. MOX and HRT treatments were given from the day TGS administration was initiated. The ovarian reserve function was evaluated by monitoring the estrus cycle, morphological changes in ovaries, levels of serum estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), pregnancy rate and embryo numbers. Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end-labeling staining was used to identify ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis, while the protein and mRNA expressions of Bax, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT) in ovarian tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the DOR group, MOX improved the disordered estrous cycle, promoted follicular growth, reduced the number of atresia follicles, increased the concentrations of serum E2 and AMH, and decreased serum FSH and LH concentrations. More importantly, the pregnancy rate and embryo numbers in DOR rats were both upregulated in the MOX treatment group, compared to the untreated DOR model. Further, we found that the MOX group had reduced apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells, increased Bcl-2 expression and reduced expression of Bax. Furthermore, the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was triggered by the moxibustion treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#Moxibustion improved ovarian function and suppressed apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells in a rat model of DOR induced by TGS, and the mechanism may involve the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Luteinizing Hormone , Moxibustion , Ovarian Reserve , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Pregnancy , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/genetics
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2000 scoring system classifies gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) patients into low- and high-risk groups, so that single- or multi-agent chemotherapy can be administered accordingly. However, a number of FIGO-defined low-risk patients still exhibit resistance to single-agent regimens, and the risk factors currently adopted in the FIGO scoring system possess inequable values for predicting single-agent chemoresistance. The purpose of this study is therefore to evaluate the efficacy of risk factors in predicting single-agent chemoresistance and explore the feasibility of simplifying the FIGO 2000 scoring system for GTN.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 578 GTN patients who received chemotherapy between January 2000 and December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify risk factors associated with single-agent chemoresistance in low-risk GTN patients. Then, simplified models were built and compared with the original FIGO 2000 scoring system.@*RESULTS@#Among the eight FIGO risk factors, the univariate and multivariate analyses identified that pretreatment serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level and interval from antecedent pregnancy were consistently independent predictors for both first-line and subsequent single-agent chemoresistance. The simplified model with two independent factors showed a better performance in predicting single-agent chemoresistance than the model with the other four non-independent factors. However, the addition of other co-factors did improve the efficiency. Overall, simplified models can achieve favorable performance, but the original FIGO 2000 prognostic system still features the highest discrimination.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Pretreatment serum hCG level and interval from antecedent pregnancy were independent predictors for both first-line and subsequent single-agent chemoresistance, and they had greater weight than other non-independent factors in predicting single-agent chemoresistance. The simplified model composed of certain selected factors is a promising alternative to the original FIGO 2000 prognostic system, and it shows comparable performance.


Subject(s)
Female , Gestational Trophoblastic Disease/drug therapy , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941006

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the mechanism by which inositol-requiring enzyme-1α (IRE1α) regulates autophagy function of chondrocytes through calcium homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP).@*METHODS@#Cultured human chondrocytes (C28/I2 cells) were treated with tunicamycin, 4μ8c, rapamycin, or both 4μ8c and rapamycin, and the expressions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress- and autophagy-related proteins were detected with Western blotting. Primary chondrocytes from ERN1 knockout (ERN1 CKO) mice and wild-type mice were examined for ATG5 and ATG7 mRNA expressions, IRE1α and p-IRE1α protein expressions, and intracellular calcium ion content using qPCR, Western blotting and flow cytometry. The effect of bafilomycin A1 treatment on LC3 Ⅱ/LC3 Ⅰ ratio in the isolated chondrocytes was assessed with Western blotting. Changes in autophagic flux of the chondrocytes in response to rapamycin treatment were detected using autophagy dual fluorescent virus. The changes in autophagy level in C28/I2 cells overexpressing CHERP and IRE1α were detected using immunofluorescence assay.@*RESULTS@#Tunicamycin treatment significantly up-regulated ER stress-related proteins and LC3 Ⅱ/LC3 Ⅰ ratio and down-regulated the expression of p62 in C28/I2 cells (P < 0.05). Rapamycin obviously up-regulated LC3 Ⅱ/LC3 Ⅰ ratio (P < 0.001) in C28/I2 cells, but this effect was significantly attenuated by co-treatment with 4μ8c (P < 0.05). Compared with the cells from the wild-type mice, the primary chondrocytes from ERN1 knockout mice showed significantly down-regulated mRNA levels of ERN1 (P < 0.01), ATG5 (P < 0.001) and ATG7 (P < 0.001), lowered or even lost expressions of IRE1α and p-IRE1α proteins (PP < 0.01), and increased expression of CHERP (P < 0.05) and intracellular calcium ion content (P < 0.001). Bafilomycin A1 treatment obviously increased LC3 Ⅱ/ LC3 Ⅰ ratio in the chondrocytes from both wild-type and ERN1 knockout mice (P < 0.01 or 0.05), but the increment was more obvious in the wild-type chondrocytes (P < 0.05). Treatment with autophagy dual-fluorescence virus resulted in a significantly greater fluorescence intensity of LC3-GFP in rapamycin-treated ERN1 CKO chondrocytes than in wild-type chondrocytes (P < 0.05). In C28/I2 cells, overexpression of CHERP obviously decreased the fluorescence intensity of LC3, and overexpression of IRE1α enhanced the fluorescence intensity and partially rescued the fluorescence reduction of LC3 caused by CHERP.@*CONCLUSION@#IRE1α deficiency impairs autophagy in chondrocytes by upregulating CHERP and increasing intracellular calcium ion content.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autophagy , Calcium/metabolism , Chondrocytes , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoribonucleases/pharmacology , Homeostasis , Inositol , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Tunicamycin/pharmacology
9.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 581-586, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940926

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the pathological characteristics and clinical prognosis of nodular sclerosis grade 2 of classic Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL-NS2) in our cancer center. Methods: A retrospective collection of 23 cases of cHL-NS2 admitted in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College from July 2008 to April 2019 was performed. Fifty-five cases of nodular sclerosis grade 1 of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL-NS1) during the same period were selected as control group. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors for survival. Results: The median age of 23 cases of cHL-NS2 was 30 years old. Five cases had extra nodal invasion, and 19 cases were Ⅰ-Ⅱ stage based on Ann Arbor system. The pathological morphology of cHL-NS2 showed that the lymph node structure was completely destroyed and was divided into nodules by thick collagen. The tumor cells in the nodules were abundant and proliferated in sheets. The boundaries between the tumor cells were not clear. The incidence of tumor necrosis in cHL-NS2 was 43.5% (10/23), which was significantly higher than 18.2% (10/55) in cHL-NS1 (P=0.040). The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate of patients in the cHL-NS2 group was 58.1%, which was significantly lower than 89.7% in the cHL-NS1 group (P=0.002). In all of 78 cases, the 3-year PFS rate of patients who did not obtain complete response (CR) was 67.1%, which was significantly lower than 92.2% in patients who achieved CR (P=0.030). Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that both cHL-NS2 and failure to obtain CR by first-line treatment were independent indicators for short PFS time (P<0.05). Conclusions: In cHL-NS2, the morphology of tumor cells are diverse, and tumor necrosis can be easily found. Under the current first-line treatments of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) or bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPP), cHL-NS2 is an independent indicator for worse PFS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Bleomycin/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Dacarbazine/therapeutic use , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , Etoposide/therapeutic use , Hodgkin Disease/drug therapy , Humans , Necrosis/drug therapy , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Sclerosis/drug therapy , Vinblastine/therapeutic use , Vincristine/therapeutic use
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940716

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which owns abundant chemical components and complex action pathways, has been widely recognized in the prevention and treatment of diseases. Some analysis methods have been emerged in order to ensure the quality of TCM and to develop new TCM drugs. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a soft ionization mass spectrometric technique with the advantages of high throughput, high sensitivity, low cost and so on. It provides technical support for the molecular level study on TCM. At present, this technique has been used in the field of composition analysis and metabonomics research of TCM, and plays an important role in the identification of Chinese herbal medicines, real-time molecular screening and the construction of metabolic network pathway of active ingredients. Among them, the selection of appropriate matrix and sample preparation technology is the key to ensure the detection effect of MALDI-MS. With the development and optimization of new matrix, the continuous improvement of sample preparation technology and the combination of MALDI-MS with various analytical methods will greatly improve the detection effect. Based on this, this paper discusses the application of MALDI-MS in TCM, including high-throughput detection of active ingredients in TCM, monitoring of the original medicines and their metabolites in vivo, and in situ visualization and characterization of tissue distribution information of active ingredients in TCM. It also discusses the application prospect and existing problems of MALDI-MS in TCM, so as to provide technical support for the identification of active ingredients in TCM, drug utilization and metabolism.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940618

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo explore whether Hei Xiaoyaosan can inhibit the inflammatory response in the hippocampi of Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats by regulating and activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway to improve the cognitive and memory dysfunction. MethodAmong the 90 male Wistar rats, 12 were randomly selected as the blank group (normal saline) and 12 as the sham operation group (normal saline). For the remainder, amyloid β-protein42 (Aβ42) was injected in the left and right hippocampus to induce AD, and then the AD rats were randomized into model group, low-, medium-, and high-dose Hei Xiaoyaosan groups (corresponding doses of Hei Xiaoyaosan, ig), and donepezil group (donepezil hydrochloride,ig), with 12 in each group. The administration lasted 42 days. The pathological changes of hippocampal CA1 region was observed based on Nissl staining. The escape latency on the 1st to 5th day in Morris water maze was recorded and the spatial memory on the 6th day was tested. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to detect the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in rat hippocampus and serum, Western blotting to examine the protein expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), β-catenin, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) to determine the mRNA expression of rat GSK-3β, β-catenin, and PPARγ. ResultCompared with the blank group, the number of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 area of model group was significantly reduced, the arrangement was uneven, the cell body was damaged more obviously, and the Neisser body was unclear. The treatment group was significantly prolonged (P<0.01), and the number of crossing stations was significantly reduced (P<0.01), the levels of IL-10 in serum and hippocampus of rats in the model group were significantly decreased, while the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased (P<0.01), the GSK-3β protein and mRNA in the model group were significantly increased, and the protein expressions of β-catenin and PPARγ were significantly decreased (P<0.01), and the difference was more obvious. The number of neurons in the donepezil group was more distributed, neatly arranged, the structure was intact, and the Nissl bodies were clear and definite, the escape latency on the 3rd to 5th days in middle and high dose groups of Hei Xiaoyaosan and the donepezil group was significantly shortened (P<0.01), the number of crossing platforms increased significantly (P<0.01), the expression levels of IL-10 in the rat hippocampus and serum were significantly increased, while IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly decreased (P<0.01), GSK-3β in the rat hippocampus was significantly increased. The expressions of GSK-3β protein and mRNA were significantly decreased, while the expression levels of β-catenin and PPARγ protein and mRNA were significantly increased (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in each index between the donepezil hydrochloride group and the high-dose Hei Xiaoyaosan group. ConclusionHei Xiaoyaosan can inhibit the inflammatory response in the hippocampus of AD rats by regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, thereby alleviating the cognitive and memory impairment of AD rats.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940481

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of Shaoyaotang on diarrhea, inflammation, and intestinal flora in rats with dampness-heat diarrhea and explore the mechanism of therapeutic principle "treating incontinent syndrome with dredging method" of Shaoyaotang. MethodThe dampness-heat diarrhea model was induced by high temperature, high humidity, high sugar and fat diet, and pathogenic factors. The rats were divided into normal group, model group (normal saline), Shaoyaotang group (5.62 g·kg-1), Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (RRER)-free Shaoyaotang group (5.15 g·kg-1), and RRER group (0.01 g·kg-1). The rats were treated correspondingly for five days, twice a day in the morning and evening. The diarrhea index was used to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of each group three hours after the administration in the evening. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-6 in the serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) three hours after the last administration. The structure of intestinal flora in feces was characterized by 16sDNA. ResultCompared with the model group, the Shaoyaotang group, the RRER-free Shaoyaotang group, and the RRER group showed reduced diarrhea index (P<0.01), with the onset rates ranking as the Shaoyaotang group>the RRER-free Shaoyaotang group>the RRER group. Those three groups with drug intervention all showed decreased levels of inflammatory factors (P<0.01), especially the Shaoyaotang group, and no significant difference was observed between the RRER group and the RRER-free Shaoyaotang group. The abundance of pathogenic bacteria and conditioned pathogens (e.g. Escherichia-Shigella, Prevotella, Enterorhabdus, and Bacteroides) was reduced and the proliferation of probiotics (such as Ruminococcus, Turicibacter, and Lachnospiraceae) was increased in the groups with drug intervention (P<0.01). For the structure of intestinal flora, the RRER group and the Shaoyaotang group were close to the normal group, and the RRER-free Shaoyaotang group was different from the other three groups (P<0.01). ConclusionShaoyaotang can improve the outcome of rats with dampness-heat diarrhea through anti-inflammation and regulation of intestinal flora disorders. RRER in the prescription plays a key role in reducing the abundance of harmful bacteria and promoting the proliferation of probiotics, which is the key of Shaoyaotang in promoting the re-balance of intestinal flora. It also confirms the scientificity of treating dampness-heat diarrhea with RRER following the therapeutic principle "treating incontinent syndrome with dredging method".

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940456

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo study the effect of Longshengzhi capsule (LSZC) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis (AS) in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice. MethodApoE-/- mice were fed with HFD for 8 weeks to induce AS. Then the mice were randomized into model group, simvastatin group (4 mg·kg-1), high-dose LSZC group (1.6 g·kg-1), medium-dose LSZC group (0.8 g·kg-1), and low-dose LSZC group (0.4 g·kg-1). C57BL/6J Mice with normal diet were used as the blank control. After 10 weeks, serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and oil red O were used to detect aortic plaque in each group. The levels of CD34 and F4/80 in aorta were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). ResultCompared with the blank control, the model group demonstrated obvious aortic plaque, a large amount of lipid accumulation, serious damage of aortic intima, increase in serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, MDA, IL-1β, and IL-6 (P<0.01), decrease in SOD level (P<0.01), and rise of the expression of CD34 and F4/80 (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, LSZC of the three doses all decreased the serum levels of TG and LDL-C (P<0.05), and the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the high-dose and medium-dose LSZC improved SOD level, decreased MDA content (P<0.05, P<0.01), and reduced the expression of the CD34 and F4/80 in blood vessels (P<0.05, P<0.01). ConclusionLSZC has certain intervention effect on the formation of aortic plaque in atherosclerosis ApoE-/- mice. The mechanism is that it reduces the levels of serum TG and LDL-C to lower blood lipid, decreases MDA level and improves SOD activity to inhibit lipid peroxidation, lowers the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 and down-regulates the expression of CD34 and F4/80 to protect blood vessels from inflammatory damage.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940443

ABSTRACT

Since ancient times, delaying aging, health, and longevity have been the universal wish of people. Nowadays, China gives top strategic priority to the development of people's health. How to maintain a healthy life and slow down the aging of the human body is a problem worthy of our attention. Human aging can be shown as cell senescence from the microscopic level. Cell senescence is a process in which cell proliferation and differentiation and physiological function gradually decline. It is a normal physiological function responsible for the removal of damaged cells and is the regeneration and recovery of tissues after injury or acute stress. Aging is an irresistible natural law. Although it is inevitable, it is possible to delay aging. Energy metabolism is an important basis of cell function, in which cells use nutrients such as sugar and fat to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria serve as the cell's power stations, where sugars, fats, and amino acids are eventually oxidized to release energy. Mitochondrial function decreases with age. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics, reactive oxygen species content, autophagy, and metabolites can cause dysfunction of electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, and induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the internal causes of many aging-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer′s disease, and atherosclerosis. Chinese medicine with few side effects and rich ingredients and health care moxibustion with safety and efficacy have been widely applied to the field of anti-aging. This study reviewed the effect of mitochondrial function on cell senescence, and retrieved, analyzed, and summarized research papers on the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and moxibustion in delaying aging by affecting mitochondrial function, which is expected to provide new insights for further research in this field.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940376

ABSTRACT

Sichuan province is extremely rich in Chinese herbal medicine resources,and the Chinese herbal medicine industry is an integral part of the "10+3" industrial system of modern agriculture. However,it has been long constrained by factors such as hilly terrain and scattered planting patterns,which hinders the mechanization development of the Chinese herbal medicine planting industry. Committed to promoting the application and development of the whole-process mechanization of Chinese herbal medicine production, the research group investigated the current situation and mechanization application of the Chinese herbal medicine planting industry in Sichuan province,and clarified the core advantages of the industry in Sichuan province and the urgent need for mechanization production. The current situation of mechanization of key links in producing rhizome-type Chinese herbal medicines such as planting,fertilization,pest and weed controlling,harvesting,and primary processing in production areas were analyzed. The key factors and existing problems in the whole-process mechanization development as well as the key future research directions were discussed,and the mechanization development trend of Ophiopogonis Radix,Chuanxiong Rhizoma and other herbal medicines in the Chinese herbal medicine planting areas of Chengdu Plain were forecasted. This paper focused on the bottleneck of the mechanization application in producing Chinese herbal medicines in Sichuan province,and introduced key technologies and equipment for the whole-process mechanization of rhizome-type Chinese herbal medicine production,which is conducive to transforming and upgrading the Chinese herbal medicine production industry,accelerating the application of high-tech information technology,and promoting the mechanization and intelligentization of the planting industry.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940354

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo study the effect of Longshengzhi capsules on the cognitive function of vascular dementia (VD) rats and reveal the underlying mechanism. MethodA VD rat model was established by permanent ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries. The model rats were randomly assigned into the model group (normal saline for gavage), Hydergine (0.54 mg·kg-1) group, and high-, medium-, and low-dose (2.16, 1.08, and 0.54 g·kg-1, respectively) Longshengzhi capsules groups, with 15 rats each group. Additionally, a sham group (normal saline for gavage) was designed in this study. Morris water maze test was conducted in the last week. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was employed for observation of the pathological changes in the hippocampal area of rat brain. Serum oxidative stress indicators including superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were examined. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression levels of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), protein kinase B (Akt), p-Akt, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) were determined by Western blot. ResultMorris water maze results showed that compared with sham operation group, the escape latency of rats in model group was significantly prolonged, and the number of crossing platform was significantly reduced. Compared with model group, the time of escape latency in Longshengzhi capsules high- and medium-dose groups was significantly shortened, and the number of crossing platform was significantly increased. Compared with sham operation group, SOD and GSH-Px levels in model group were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), MDA levels were significantly increased (P<0.05), TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β levels were significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with model group, the level of SOD in serum of Longshengzhi capsules high-dose group was significantly increased (P<0.05), the level of GSH-Px in serum of Longshengzhi capsules high-, medium- and low-dose groups was significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the level of MDA was significantly decreased (P<0.05). TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β levels were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). HE staining showed that Longshengzhi capsules could improve pathological damage in hippocampus of VD rats. Western blot results showed that compared with sham operation group, the protein expressions of Bax, NF-κB, MMP-9 and ICAM-1 in model group were significantly increased (P<0.01), and the protein expressions of Bcl-2, Akt and p-Akt were significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). The protein expression of Bax, NF-κB, MMP-9 and ICAM-1 in Longshengzhi capsules high-, medium- and low-dose groups was significantly decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the protein expression of Bcl-2 was significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01). The protein expression of Akt in Longshengzhi capsules high- and medium-dose groups was significantly increased (P<0.05). The expression of p-Akt protein in Longshengzhi capsules high-dose group was significantly increased (P<0.01). ConclusionLongshengzhi capsules can improve the cognitive function of VD rats, and its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of oxidative stress, inflammatory response and apoptosis. ConclusionLongshengzhi capsules can improve the cognitive function of VD rats by inhibiting oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction, and neuronal apoptosis.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This paper puts forward suggestions on the development of in vitro diagnostic reagents and supervision measures for the post-marketing products, so as to further improve the quality of in vitro diagnostic reagents and ensure the safety use of medical device.@*METHODS@#This paper summarizes the quality of in vitro diagnostic reagents and analyzes the causes of the problems, according to the results of the national medical device supervision and inspection in 2020.@*RESULTS@#The overall quality of in vitro diagnostic reagents for national medical device supervision and inspection in 2020 is stable and the unqualified detection rate is 1.6%. However, there are some problems. For example, the management of raw materials is unscientific, the faultiness in the preparation of reference materials, the understanding of standards is unthorough, and the management of instructions is unimportance.@*CONCLUSIONS@#It is suggested that manufacturers of in vitro diagnostic reagents should improve the binding force of the quality management system, strengthen the awareness of risk management, attach importance to communicate with regulatory authorities, study standards sufficiently and strengthen the management of instructions. It is also suggested that the regulatory authorities should strengthen supervision and inspection, and further complete the evaluation guidance and standard publicity and implementation.


Subject(s)
Indicators and Reagents , Marketing , Reference Standards
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939683

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of hnRNPK/Beclin1 signaling on the drug resistance of imatinib in Ph+ leukemia.@*METHODS@#Expression level of hnRNPK was verified in the imatinib resistant and sensitive Ph+ leukemia cell lines by using Western blot. hnRNPK expression was down-regulated by using RNAi. Expression level of LC3I/II and Beclin1 were detected by Western blot and the sensitivity of imatinib was analyzed by CCK-8 assay before and after modulation of hnRNPK expression.@*RESULTS@#hnRNPK showed overexpressed in imatinib resistant leukemia cell line. After the expression level of hnRNPK was down-regulated by RNAi, the sensitivity of drug resistance lines to imatinib restored, while the expression level of LC3I/II and Beclin1 were consistant with the modulation of hnRNPK expression.@*CONCLUSION@#hnRNP K/Beclin1 signaling may be involved in the development of imatinib resistance in Ph+ leukemia through the regulation of autophagy.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Beclin-1 , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacology , Leukemia
19.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 370-380, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939572

ABSTRACT

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disease caused by complex endocrine and metabolic abnormalities in women of childbearing age. Metformin is the most widely used oral hypoglycemic drug in clinic. In recent years, metformin has been used in the treatment of PCOS, but its mechanism is not clear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of metformin on PCOS and its mechanism through PCOS mouse model. Female C57BL/6J mice aged 4-5 weeks were intragastrically given letrozole (1 mg/kg daily) combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 21 days to establish the PCOS model. After modeling, metformin (200 mg/kg daily) was intragastrically administered. One month later, the body weight and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured. Hematoxylin eosin (H&E) staining was used to detect the pathological changes of ovary. The serum levels of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), E2 and testosterone (T) were measured by ELISA. The expression of DDX4/MVH was detected by immunohistochemistry. DDX4/MVH and PCNA were co-labeled by immunofluorescence. The protein levels of DDX4/MVH, PCNA, cyclin D2, AMPK and mTOR were detected by Western blot. The results showed that after metformin treatment, the body weights of PCOS mice were gradually returned to normal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved, serum E2 levels were increased, while AMH, LH, T levels and LH/FSH ratio were decreased. Ovarian polycystic lesions were reduced with reduced atresia follicles. Furthermore, the number of proliferative female germline stem cells (FGSCs) and levels of proliferation related proteins (PCNA, cyclin D2) were significantly increased, and the p-mTOR and p-AMPK levels were markedly up-regulated. These results suggest that metformin treatment not only improves hyperandrogenemia, glucose intolerance and polycystic ovarian lesions in PCOS, but also activates the function of FGSCs. The underlying mechanism may be related to the phosphorylation of AMPK and mTOR. These findings provide new evidence to use metformin in the treatment of PCOS and follicular development disorder.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Animals , Cyclin D2 , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/therapeutic use , Humans , Luteinizing Hormone/therapeutic use , Metformin/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oogonial Stem Cells/metabolism , Ovarian Cysts/drug therapy , Ovarian Neoplasms , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/drug therapy , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936106

ABSTRACT

Some kinds of chronic sialadenitis were recognized during the recent years. They have specific pathogenesis, clinical and histopathologic appearances, and require specific treatment. IgG4-related sialadenitis (IgG4-RS) is one of the immune-mediated diseases, characterized by tumefactive lesions. The incidence of IgG4-RS obviously increased during the past 30 years. The study on the potential relationship between occupational exposure to chemical substances and the incidence of IgG4-RS showed that subjects with occupational exposure to agents known to cause IgG4-RD had an increased risk for IgG4-RS. Surgical excision of involved SMG could not control the disease progression, which is not recommended for treatment of IgG4-RS. The combination of glucocorticoid and steroid-sparing agents is effective for treating IgG4-RS, and restores salivary gland function. Radioiodine induced sialadenitis (RAIS) is one of the common complications of postoperative adjuvant treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer by 131I. The incidence of the disease is related to radiation dosage. Clinically, the patients suffered from swelling and tenderness in the buccal or submandibular regions, especially during the mealtime. Imaging appearances are similar to those of chronic obstructive sialadenitis. Conservative managements, such as gland massage, sialagogues, are the mainstream methods in the treatment of RAIS. Sialendoscopy is feasible for RAIS, but not as effective as conventional obstructive sialadenitis (COS). Therefore the prevention of RAIS is crucial. Eosinophilic sialodochitis (ES) is a new type of chronic inflammatory disease of the salivary gland related to allergy. It has characteristics of swelling of multiple major salivary glands, strip-like gelatinous plugs discharged from the duct orifice of the gland, elevated level of serum IgE and eosinophils in peripheral blood, infiltration of eosinophils and IgE positive plasma cells in the tissues, allergic history, increased expression of allergy-related cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin, which suggest allergic reactions as a potential pathogenesis of the disease. The clinical, laboratory, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics of ES are significantly different from conventional obstructive sialadenitis (COS). Therefore, it is suitable to separate ES from COS. Conservative managements, such as self-maintenance therapy and anti- allergic modality are the choices of treatment for ES. Based on the results of our comprehensive studies a new classification of chronic sialadenitis is suggested.


Subject(s)
Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Iodine Radioisotopes , Salivary Glands , Sialadenitis/etiology , Submandibular Gland
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