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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 171-185, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781543

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of obesity-associated conditions raises new challenges in clinical medication. Although altered expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) has been shown in obesity, the impacts of obese levels (overweight, obesity, and severe obesity) on the expression of DMEs have not been elucidated. Especially, limited information is available on whether parental obese levels affect ontogenic expression of DMEs in children. Here, a high-fat diet (HFD) and three feeding durations were used to mimic different obese levels in C57BL/6 mice. The hepatic expression of five nuclear receptors (NRs) and nine DMEs was examined. In general, a trend of induced expression of NRs and DMEs (except for and ) was observed in HFD groups compared to low-fat diet (LFD) groups. Differential effects of HFD on the hepatic expression of DMEs were found in adult mice at different obese levels. Family-based dietary style of an HFD altered the ontogenic expression of DMEs in the offspring older than 15 days. Furthermore, obese levels of parental mice affected the hepatic expression of DMEs in offspring. Overall, the results indicate that obese levels affected expression of the DMEs in adult individuals and that of their children. Drug dosage might need to be optimized based on the obese levels.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 659-674, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774953

ABSTRACT

Precision medicine is a rapidly-developing modality of medicine in human healthcare. Based on each patient׳s unique characteristics, more accurate dosages and drug selection can be made to achieve better therapeutic efficacy and less adverse reactions in precision medicine. A patient׳s individual parameters that affect drug transporter action can be used to develop a precision medicine guidance, due to the fact that therapeutic efficacy and adverse reactions of drugs can both be affected by expression and function of drug transporters on the cell membrane surface. The purpose of this review is to summarize unique characteristics of human breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) and the genetic variability in the BCRP encoded gene in the development of precision medicine. Inter-individual variability of BCRP/ can impact choices and outcomes of drug treatment for several diseases, including cancer chemotherapy. Several factors have been implicated in expression and function of BCRP, including genetic, epigenetic, physiologic, pathologic, and environmental factors. Understanding the roles of these factors in controlling expression and function of BCRP is critical for the development of precision medicine based on BCRP-mediated drug transport.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 241-248, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-256758

ABSTRACT

Variations in drug metabolism may alter drug efficacy and cause toxicity; better understanding of the mechanisms and risks shall help to practice precision medicine. At the 21International Symposium on Microsomes and Drug Oxidations held in Davis, California, USA, in October 2-6, 2016, a number of speakers reported some new findings and ongoing studies on the regulation mechanisms behind variable drug metabolism and toxicity, and discussed potential implications to personalized medications. A considerably insightful overview was provided on genetic and epigenetic regulation of gene expression involved in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) and drug response. Altered drug metabolism and disposition as well as molecular mechanisms among diseased and special populations were presented. In addition, the roles of gut microbiota in drug metabolism and toxicology as well as long non-coding RNAs in liver functions and diseases were discussed. These findings may offer new insights into improved understanding of ADME regulatory mechanisms and advance drug metabolism research.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 384-392, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309944

ABSTRACT

Isoniazid (INH) is highly effective for the management of tuberculosis. However, it can cause liver injury and even liver failure. INH metabolism has been thought to be associated with INH-induced liver injury. This review summarized the metabolic pathways of INH and discussed their associations with INH-induced liver injury.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 453-459, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309937

ABSTRACT

The expression of phase-I drug metabolizing enzymes in liver changes dramatically during postnatal liver maturation. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is critical for bile acid and lipid homeostasis in liver. However, the role of FXR in regulating ontogeny of phase-I drug metabolizing genes is not clear. Hence, we applied RNA-sequencing to quantify the developmental expression of phase-I genes in both-null and control (C57BL/6) mouse livers during development. Liver samples of male C57BL/6 and-null mice at 6 different ages from prenatal to adult were used. The-null showed an overall effect to diminish the "day-1 surge" of phase-I gene expression, including cytochrome P450s at neonatal ages. Among the 185 phase-I genes from 12 different families, 136 were expressed, and differential expression during development occurred in genes from all 12 phase-I families, including hydrolysis: carboxylesterase (), paraoxonase (), and epoxide hydrolase (); reduction: aldoketo reductase (), quinone oxidoreductase (), and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (); and oxidation: alcohol dehydrogenase (), aldehyde dehydrogenase (), flavin monooxygenases (), molybdenum hydroxylase (and), cytochrome P450 (P450), and cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (). The data also suggested new phase-I genes potentially targeted by FXR. These results revealed an important role of FXR in regulation of ontogeny of phase-I genes.

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