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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928183

ABSTRACT

In this study, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance(LF-NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) were employed to analyze the water distribution, status, and migration in the moistening process of Arecae Semen. Peleg model was adopted to study the water absorption kinetics of Arecae Semen moistened at different water temperatures(10, 30, and 50 ℃). The Arecae Semen samples soaked at different water temperatures all contained four water states: binding water T_(21), non-flowing water T_(22), free water T_(23), and unbound water T_(24). Non-flowing water had the largest increase in peak area during the moistening process, followed by free water. The peak areas of non-flowing water, free water, and total water were correlated with the water content(P<0.01). Therefore, LF-NMR can quickly and non-destructively predict the water content of Arecae Semen during moistening. The peak area of non-flowing water and the content of free water were correlated with the content of arecoline in the soaking solution(P<0.01), which indicated that the faster flow of non-flowing water and more free water corresponded to more arecoline dissolved. The MRI images showed that the water migration pathway varied at different soaking temperatures, and the moistening degree obtained by this means was consistent with that obtained based on traditional experience. The rate constant K_1 fitted by Peleg model decreased with the increase in water temperature, while the capacity constant K_2 showed an opposite trend. The Arrhenius equation fitting of K_1 with temperature showed that the activation energy of Arecae Semen in the moistening process was 32.98 kJ·mol~(-1). LF-NMR/MRI can be used to analyze the water status and content and determine the end moisturing point of Arecae Semen. Peleg model can accurately describe the water absorption properties of Arecae Semen in the moistening process. The findings of this study can guide the moistening optimization and mechanism research of other seed Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Areca , Arecoline/analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Kinetics , Seeds/chemistry , Water/analysis
2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1301-1313, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887067

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the phenomenon of glass transition has been gradually applied to the field of pharmaceutics. And it exhibits important influences on multiple operating units of pharmaceutical preparations, and the properties and storage of pharmaceutical intermediates and products. At present, it has been widely used in the process of preparations such as drying, granulation, coating, tableting, holt-melt extrusion, cryogenic comminution, and so on. Meanwhile, it showed guiding significance for the process of preparation intermediates and their products, such as solid dispersion, microcapsule, liposome, particle, tablet, and other preparation intermediates and their products. Therefore, this article conducts a detailed analysis and systematic summary of the application guidance of the phenomenon of glass transition in the preparation process, and its influence on the preparation intermediates and products, so as to provide theoretical guidance for preparation production and product storage.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888071

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the statistical distribution characteristics of coating film thickness, so as to present a new method for determining coating endpoint based on 3σ criterion and logic regression. Firstly, the spectrum and thickness of 4 batch samples were collected. Secondly, the spectral range of normal products was obtained by 3σ criterion, with the spectral feature NI as the number of test spectrum in the above range. Then, the model based on 3σ criterion and logic regression was built according to the best condition in K-fold cross-validation and the determined threshold of qualified rate in the coating endpoint. Finally, the qualified rate of test set samples at different time points was calculated by the above model, and the above change trend and the threshold value were combined to determine the coating endpoint. The results of KS analysis showed the distribution of thickness of the qualified products followed the normal distribution(P=0.081>0.05). The accuracy of the coating endpoint determination was as high as 100% by the model based on 3σ criterion and logic regression when the determined threshold of qualified rate was 90%. Therefore, the 3σ criterion was feasible to the research of coating eligibility. This paper reveals certain random phenomena in the coating process, and the method features a high accuracy, quick analysis and a good interpretability, which provides a reference for online detection and qualify evaluation in future.


Subject(s)
Endpoint Determination , Logic , Research Design , Tablets
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873097

ABSTRACT

Objective::Near infrared spectroscopy was used to detect the concentration density (25 ℃), solid-containing content, rhein content and glycyrrhizic acid content of compound Dahuang decoction. Method::The concentrated liquid of compound Dahuang decoction was determined by near infrared optical fiber transmission spectrometry. The contents of rhein and glycyrrhizic acid were determined by HPLC. Fifty-one samples were used for internal cross-validation, and partial least square regression was used to establish correction models between near-infrared spectrum and density, solid-containing content, rhein content and glycyrrhizic acid content, respectively. Ten unknown concentrated liquid samples were collected for external validation and prediction. Result::The external validation complex correlation coefficients between near-infrared spectra and density, solid-containing content, rhein content and glycyrrhizic acid content of the concentrated liquid of compound Dahuang decoction were 0.995 9, 0.999 6, 0.997 0 and 0.992 2, and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values were 2.50×10-3, 0.17, 7.57 and 67.10, respectively. Conclusion::The near infrared spectroscopy is suitable for the determination of evaluation indexes of the concentrated liquid index of compound Dahuang decoction, and has the characteristics of rapid, simple, stable and reliable.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872775

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the moisture adsorption and thermodynamic characteristics of raw products, wine-processed products and fried charcoal products of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, in order to guide their drying and storage. Method:Static isotherm weighing method was used to determine the adsorption isotherm curves of three Rhei Radix et Rhizoma decoction pieces at 25, 35, 45 ℃, and the test data were fitted with 7 commonly used water adsorption models to determine the best model for studying the adsorption thermodynamic parameters of these decoction pieces. Result:The best adsorption models of these three decoction pieces were all GAB model. At 25, 35, 45 ℃, the absolute safe moisture content of fried charcoal products was 7.43%, 6.79% and 6.20%, of wine-processed products was 8.68%, 8.17% and 7.03%, of raw products was 9.88%, 9.36% and 7.77%, respectively. At 25, 35, 45 ℃, the relative safe moisture content of fried charcoal products was 9.46%, 8.63% and 8.21%, of wine-processed products was 11.49%, 11.03% and 9.74%, of raw products was 13.49%, 12.66% and 11.14%, respectively. The net equivalent heat of adsorption (Qst) and differential entropy (Sd) of these three kinds of decoction pieces all decreased with the increase of equilibrium moisture content, Qst and Sd were in accordance with the entropy-enthalpy complementary theory. The constant velocity temperatures of raw products, wine-processed products and fried charcoal products of Rhei Radix et Rhizoma were 386.66, 391.15, 394.34 K (unit conversion of 1 K=-272.15 ℃), their Gibbs free energies were 0.372 2, 0.406 0, 0.372 2 kJ·mol-1, respectively. Their adsorption processes were an unspontaneous process driven by enthalpy. Conclusion:The orders of equilibrium moisture content, monomolecular layer moisture content, Qst and Sd of three Rhei Radix et Rhizoma decoction pieces are all raw products>wine-processed products>fried charcoal products. The moisture absorption capacity of the decoction pieces is ranked as raw products>wine-processed products>fried charcoal products. The frying and roasting process significantly affects the hygroscopicity and thermodynamic properties of the three decoction pieces, the reason for this difference may be that the high temperature of the stir-frying results in the decrease of the hygroscopic groups and the increase of the hydrophobic materials in raw products, and the change in the texture of the decoction pieces. The research on the water adsorption characteristics of three Rhei Radix et Rhizoma decoction pieces can provide reference for selecting their storage conditions and drying process.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773257

ABSTRACT

To establish and validate the design space of the Digeda-4 flavored decoction( DGD-4D) extraction process by using the quality by design( Qb D) concept. With DGD-4D decoction pieces as a model drug,with the transfer rate of aesculin,picroside I,picroside Ⅱ,geniposide and the yield of extract as critical quality attributes( CQAs),the single factor experiment design was used to determine the level of each factor; the Plackett-Burman experiment design was used to select the critical process parameters( CPPs);and the Box-Behnken experiment design was used to optimize the extraction process. The design space of the DGD-4D extraction process was established,and finally,four experimental points were selected to verify the established model. The single factor experiment determined the levels of each factor,including soaking time 60 min and 30 min,water adding volume 12 times and 8 times,extraction time 90 min and 30 min,number of extraction times 3 times and 1 time,as well as extraction temperature 100 ℃ and 90 ℃.By Plackett-Burman experimental design,the DGD-4D water addition,extraction time and number of extraction times were determined to be CPPs. The Box-Behnken experimental variance analysis showed that P of the regression model was less than 0. 01 and the misstated value was more than 0. 01,indicating that the model had good predictive ability,and the operation space of CPPs in the DGD-4D extraction process was determined as follows: the amount of water addition was 10-12 times; extraction time 50-80 min; and number of extraction times was 3 times. The design space of DGD-4D extraction process based on the concept of Qb D is conducive to improving the stability of product quality and laying a foundation for the future development of DGD-4D.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Research Design
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802280

ABSTRACT

Objective:To optimize the decoction process of Digda-4 decoction(DGD-4D), and provide reference for the standardization study of decoction of Mongolian medicine decoction. Method:Taking DGD-4D as model drug, different decoction methods of Mongolian medicine were compared, HPLC was used to determine contents of aesculetin, geniposide, picroside Ⅰ and picroside Ⅱ.On the basis of single factor tests, central composite design-response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the decoction process of DGD-4D with transfer rates of 4 components and dry extract rate as indexes, regression model fitting was carried out by Design-Expert 8.0.6 software, prediction model of process parameters was established, and the optimal process was verified. Result:The optimal decoction condition of DGD-4D was determined to be adding 40 times the amount of water and decocting for 17 min, decocting once.Transfer rates of aesculetin, geniposide, picroside Ⅰ, picroside Ⅱ and dry extract rate were 70.01%, 94.11%, 61.23%, 92.32%, 32.89%, respectively. Conclusion:The optimum decoction process of DGD-4D is established, it has important reference significance for excavating, sorting, improving the level of Mongolian medicine preparations and ensuring the consistency of their clinical efficacy.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775391

ABSTRACT

To establish the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint for Digeda-4 decoction (DGD-4D), determine the contents of aesculetin, geniposide, picroside Ⅰ, picroside Ⅱ and ellagicacid in DGD-4D, and provide the scientific foundation for quality control of DGD-4D. The analysis was performed on Diamonsil(2) C₁₈ (4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm) column, with methanol-0.1% phosphoric acid aqueous solution as mobile phase for gradient elution. The flow rate was 1.0 mL·min⁻¹; injection size was 10 μL; temperature was maintained at 30 °C, and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The common mode of DGD-4D HPLC fingerprint was established, and the hidden information was analyzed by Chemometrics. Chromatographic peaks for DGD-4D were identified by HPLC and quantitative analysis was conducted for characteristic peaks. There were 17 common peaks in the fingerprints and the similarity of the fingerprints was over 0.9 in all 15 batches. The samples were broadly divided into four kinds by principal component analysis and clustering analysis. Four marker compounds were verified by partial least squares discriminant analysis, and No. 9, 12 and 14 peaks were identified as geniposide, picroside Ⅱ, and picroside Ⅰ respectively. The average recoveries were in the range of 95.91%-97.31%. The HPLC fingerprint method for content determination is reliable, accurate, rapid, simple, and reproducible, and can be used as one of the effective methods to control the quality of DGD-4D.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cinnamates , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Iridoid Glucosides , Iridoids , Methanol , Principal Component Analysis , Quality Control
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230971

ABSTRACT

Glass transition theory is an important theory in polymer science, which is used to characterize the physical properties. It refers to the transition of amorphous polymer from the glassy state to the rubber state due to heating or the transition from rubber state to glassy state due to cooling. In this paper, the glassy state and glass transition of food and the similar relationship between the composition of Chinese medicine extract powder and food ingredients were described; the determination method for glass transition temperature (Tg) of Chinese medicine extract powder was established and its main influencing factors were analyzed. Meanwhile, the problems in drying process, granulation process and Chinese medicine extract powder and solid preparation storage were analyzed and investigated based on Tg, and then the control strategy was put forward to provide guidance for the research and production of Chinese medicine solid preparation.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230071

ABSTRACT

To study the characteristics of adsorption and desorption of Scutellaria baicalensis pieces. On the basic thermodynamic theory, thestatic method was adopted to obtain S. baicalensis pieces' isothermal adsorption and desorption data at 25, 35, 45 ℃, with the water activity between 0.10 and 0.85. Eight moisture models were selected to fit the data and then evaluated to determine the thermodynamic properties of S. baicalensis pieces. The results show that, among the eight adsorption models, Peleg fit the best, in which absolutely-safe and the relatively-safe moisture contents of S. baicalensis pieces were around 9.22% and 13.51% respectively; the net equivalent heat adsorption and desorption and the differential entropy of S. baicalensis pieces were closely related to moisture content, and decrease within crease of water content; when drying the pieces, 12.0% of moisture content can be taken as the drying end; both of adsorption and desorption processes were driven by enthalpy and non-spontaneous. The study on S. baicalensis pieces' isothermal adsorption and desorption rules can help advance studies on adsorption and desorption rules of Chinese herbal pieces, and play a good guiding role in optimizing storage conditions and drying process of Chinese herbal pieces.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307132

ABSTRACT

Based on the basic theory of thermodynamics, the thermodynamic parameters and related equations in the process of water adsorption and desorption of Chinese herbal decoction pieces were established, and their water absorption and desorption characteristics were analyzed. The physical significance of the thermodynamic parameters, such as differential adsorption enthalpy, differential adsorption entropy, integral adsorption enthalpy, integral adsorption entropy and the free energy of adsorption, were discussed in this paper to provide theoretical basis for the research on the water adsorption and desorption mechanism, optimum drying process parameters, storage conditions and packaging methods of Chinese herbal decoction pieces.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258426

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of different DE values of malto-dextrin on Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus spray-dried powder. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the spray-dried powder, powder properties and microscopic morphology were determined, and then the moisture absorption isotherms and the glass transition temperature were used to predict its storage stability. The study showed that after adding malto-dextrin, the powder rate was increased; moisture content was decreased; Tg was increased; mobility got better; produced spherical microstructure; and Tg was increased with the decrease of DE value. The water activity-equilibrium moisture content (aw-EMC) relationship in GAB models showed, the moisture absorption of powder was increased with the rising of DE value; and the equilibrium moisture content-glass transition temperature (EMC-Tg) relationship in Gordon-Taylor models showed that, Tg was decreased with the increase of moisture content. As a result, the storage critical condition of the spray-dried powder was improved, and along with the decrease of DE value, the critical water activity and the critical water content were increased. Therefore, the smaller the DE value, the greater the stability of the spray-dried powder.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330260

ABSTRACT

In order to solve the adhesion and the softening problems of traditional Chinese medicine extract during spray drying, a new method of adding dehumidified air into spray drying process was proposed, and the storage stability conditions of extract powder could be predicted. Kouyanqing extract was taken as model drug to investigate on the wet air (RH = 70%) and dry air conditions of spray drying. Under the dry air condition, the influence of the spray drying result with different air compression ratio and the spray-dried powder properties (extract powder recovery rate, adhesion percentage, water content, angle of repose, compression ratio, particle size and distribution) with 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 °C inlet temperature were studied. The hygroscopic investigation and Tg value with different moisture content of ideal powder were determined. The water activity-equilibrium moisture content (aw-EMC) and the equilibrium moisture content-Tg (EMC-Tg) relationships were fitted by GAB equation and Gordon-Taylor model respectively, and the state diagram of kouyanqing powder was obtained to guide the rational storage conditions. The study found that in the condition of dry air, the extract powder water content decreased with the increase of air compression ratio and the spray drying effect with air compression ratio of 100% was the best performance; in the condition of wet air, the extract powder with high water content and low yield, and the value were 4.26% and 16.73 °C, while, in the dry air condition the values were 2.43% and 24.86 °C with the same other instru- ment parameters. From the analysis of kouyanqing powder state diagram, in order to keep the stability, the critical water content of 3.42% and the critical water content of 0.188. As the water decreased Tg value of extract powder is the major problem of causing adhesion and softening during spray drying, it is meaningful to aid dehumidified air during the process.


Subject(s)
Drug Stability , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Humidity , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Powders , Temperature
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-300223

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the equilibrium solubility of pulchinenosiden D in different solvents and its n-octanol/water partition coefficients.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Combining shaking flask method and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect the n-octanol/water partition coefficients of pulchinenosiden D, the equilibrium solubility of pulchinenosiden D in six organic solvents and different pH buffer solution were determined by HPLC analysis.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>n-Octanol/water partition coefficients of pulchinenosiden D in different pH were greater than zero, the equilibrium solubility of pulchinenosiden D was increased with increase the pH of the buffer solution. The maximum equilibrium solubility of pulchinenosiden D was 255.89 g x L(-1) in methanol, and minimum equilibrium solubility of pulchinenosiden D was 0.20 g x L(-1) in acetonitrile.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Under gastrointestinal physiological conditions, pulchinenosiden D exists in molecular state and it has good absorption but poor water-solubility, so increasing the dissolution rate of pulchinenosiden D may enhance its bioavailability.</p>


Subject(s)
1-Octanol , Chemistry , Acetonitriles , Chemistry , Biological Availability , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Gastrointestinal Tract , Metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Intestinal Absorption , Kinetics , Methanol , Chemistry , Pulsatilla , Chemistry , Solubility , Solvents , Chemistry , Water , Chemistry
15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1144-1149, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-233021

ABSTRACT

The free membrane of Eudragit L100/S100 which is pH-sensitive, colon-specific was prepared by plane casting films. The film humidity, species and amount of plasticizers, the ratio of membrane material was investigated. The rate of membrane permeability and mechanical properties were used as indicators of orthogonal experiment, and its related properties were studied. The results show that the mechanical properties of the membrane and phragmoid capacity are the best when 30% TEC was used as plasticizer; the ratio of membrane material have little effect on the rate of membrane permeability and mechanical properties. By adjusting the species and amount of plasticizers, the ratio of Eudragit L100/S100, the free membrane which is colon-specific can be obtained.


Subject(s)
Citrates , Chemistry , Humidity , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Permeability , Phthalic Acids , Chemistry , Plasticizers , Chemistry , Polymethacrylic Acids , Chemistry , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Methods , Tensile Strength , Transition Temperature , Triacetin , Chemistry
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295430

ABSTRACT

Effervescent technique, which can accelerate drug disintegration and dissolution, is usually applied in quick release preparations. Along with the development of pharmaceutical technique and theory, effervescent technique is used more and more extensively to adjust the behavior of drug release, such as in sustained and controlled release preparations, pulsatile drug delivery systems, and so on. This review demonstrated the new applying of effervescent technique in effervescent tablets, stomach floating forms, osmotic pump tablets and pulsatile drug delivery systems, adding to the critical common technique of effervescent forms in drug research. This will be benefit for the further research and development of effervescent technique.


Subject(s)
Dosage Forms , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Osmosis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Tablets
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264870

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the conditions and parameters of roller compaction of Banlangen effervsce tablet.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The experimentation adopts L9 (3(4)) orthogonal experiment to study the conditions and parameters of roller compaction of Banlangen effervsce tablet; studied factors that included roller pressure, roller speed and moisture content of power, which influence the result of granule yield and granule friability.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The optimal technique is: roller pressure at 1.5 MPa; roller speed at 15 Hz; moisture content of power at 1.5%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The study of roller compaction technique of Banlangen effervsce tablets provides some technicial consults of its research and production.</p>


Subject(s)
Analysis of Variance , Drug Compounding , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pressure , Tablets , Time Factors , Water , Chemistry
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307512

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effects of Huoxiang Zhengqi liquid (HXZQ) on enteric mucosal immune responses in mice with Bacillus dysenteriae and Salmonella typhimurium induced diarrhea (BSD).</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Mice were randomly divided into four groups with 10 mice in each group: control group (control), BSD group, Huoxiang Zhengqi liquid treated BSD groups at high dosage and low dosage (HXZQ high, HXZQ low). HXZQ was administrated from the day of diarrhea induction at dosage of 5.21 g kg(-1) and 0.52 g kg (-1) respectively. Peyer's patch and periphery lymphocytes were prepared for flow cytometry, and level of TNF-alpha in periphery and enteric tissue homogenate were determined with ELISA. Student's t-test was used for statistics.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Mice in BSD group started showing continuous diarrhea at the day of induction till the fourth day when the mice were sacrificed. Diarrhea in the mice of HXZQ high and low groups lasted for 36 and 54 h respectively. There were more CD4+ and CD8+ cells in periphery, less CD4+ cells in peyer's patch in BSD mice comparing to normal mice. In peyer's patch, there were more CD8+ cells in mice in HXZQ high and low groups and more CD4+ in mice in HXZQ high group. Higher level TNF-alpha in periphery and intestinal tissue homogenate in BSD group were observed. Mice in HXZQ high group showed the decreased level TNF-alpha in periphery and enteric tissue homogenate.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The immune regulation on peyer's patch CD4+ and CD8+ cells and suppression on TNF-alpha level in enteric homogenate might partially explain the effect of HXZQ on improvement of BSD.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Colon , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Pathology , Diarrhea , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Microbiology , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Dysentery, Bacillary , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Microbiology , Immunity, Mucosal , Intestinal Mucosa , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Peyer's Patches , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Random Allocation , Salmonella Infections , Allergy and Immunology , Metabolism , Microbiology , Salmonella typhimurium , Allergy and Immunology , Shigella dysenteriae , Allergy and Immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Blood , Metabolism
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246025

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the optimal supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction technique of extracting tanshinones in Radix salviae.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The contents of tanshinones were determined by HPLC. Choosing the overall contents of 3 tanshinones as inspecting marker and uniform-design as method, the experimentation was carried out to study the main factors that influence the result of extraction.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Among all the 5 inspected factors, the amount of entrainer was most notable. The optimal technique of extraction was: extraction pressure at 30 MPa; extraction temperature at 40 degrees C; separation pressure of separating kettle I at 6 MPa; separation temperature of separating kettle I at 50 degrees C; the amount of entrainer at 10%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Adopting supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction method to extract the tanshinones in Radix salviae was feasible. The contents of tanshinones in the extract were high and the manipulation was simple, convenient and time saving.</p>


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide , Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid , Methods , Abietanes , Phenanthrenes , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Chemistry
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