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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-343493

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinical application of pedicled superficial circumflex iliac artery (SCIA) flaps in Burns and Plastic Surgery.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>19 cases with skin and soft tissue defects were repaired with the Superficial circumflex iliac artery flaps. The defects located in the hand and forearm, the lower abdomen and perineal area, the radicle area of thigh, etc. Before the SCIA flaps were transfered to the recipient areas, 15 cases with different kinds of wounds were debrided thoroughly, 3 cases with scar were removed directly. The size of the flaps ranged from 3.0 cm x 4.5 cm to 26.0 cm x 22.0 cm, and the pedical was 5 cm to 7 cm in length.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The flaps in the 18 cases survived completely. Skin necrosis in the distal end of the flap appeared in 1 case, and the wound healed after the second repair. The follow-up period rang from 3 to 18 months. The apperance and function of the hand or foot was satisfactory.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Because the pedicled SCIA flaps can be obtain conveniently and contain sufficient blood-supply, so the flap is easy to survive and the flap can be designed in a large size. We believe it is an ideal method to use this flap to repair skin and soft tissue defects located in hands, forearms, the lower abdomen and perineal areas, the radicle area of thigh and so on.</p>


Subject(s)
Burns , General Surgery , Forearm , Graft Survival , Hand , Humans , Iliac Artery , Necrosis , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Soft Tissue Injuries , General Surgery , Surgical Flaps , Pathology , Transplantation , Thigh , Wound Healing
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-263149

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the better therapeutic method for the treatment of hemiplegia in cerebral infarction.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and fifty cases were randomized into a meridian-harmonization group (group A), a zang-organ regulation group (group B) and a meridian-harmonization and zang-organ regulation group (group C), 50 cases in each one. On the basis of conventional treatment, in group A, the acupoints were selected along meridians, such as Hegu (LI 4), Taichong (LR 3), Jianyu (LI 15), Waiguan (TE 5), Huantiao (GB 30) and Yanglingquan (GB 34)ect. In group B, the acupoints were selected in light of abdominal acupuncture such as Zhongwan (CV 12), Xiawan (CV 10), Qihai (CV 6), Guanyuan (CV 4), Shangqu (KI 17, healthy side) and Daheng (SP 15)etc. In group C, the acupoints in group A and group B were selected in combination. Before and after treatment, all the patients received the test of Barthel Index (BI) to assess the disability level and the simple Fugl-Meyer Motor Scale (FMMS) for the evaluation of motor function.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After treatment, all the three groups presented the significant improvement of BI, the down-regulation of disability rate and up-regulation of FMMS score, indicating significant differences in statistics as compared with those before treatment (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). In group C, the results of BI improvement, the down-regulation of disability rate and the improvement of limb motor function were all superior to those in either group A or group B (P < 0.05, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Acupuncture in light of meridian-harmonization and zang-organ regulation is the better approach for the early-stage rehabilitation of hemiplegia in cerebral infarction and its efficacy is superior to that of either simple meridian harmonization therapy or zang-organ regulation therapy.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebral Infarction , Rehabilitation , Therapeutics , Female , Humans , Male , Meridians , Middle Aged , Motor Activity , Moxibustion , Treatment Outcome
3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 685-688, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273113

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyzed the variant information on the indices regarding fleas from natural foci of Microtus plague in Sichuan epidemic area during 2000 to 2008.Methods Statistical and analytical methods were used on the surveillance data regarding Microtus fuscus plague.Results There were 19 flea species identified and the share of Callopsylla sparsilis was 62.79 percent while the share of Amphipsylla tuta tuta was 30.90 percent on Microtus fuscus plague.The infection rate of fleas and the flea index were the highest in October and the lowest in December and March.Species as Callopsylla sparsilis,Amphipsylla tuta tuta and Rhadinopsylla dahurica vicina could naturally infect the Yersinia pestis.Conclusion Microtus fuscus plague could become epidemic when animals and flea species were infected.We should emphasis on plague monitoring program so as to prevent the occurrence of the disease.

4.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 697-699, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273110

ABSTRACT

objective To identify the bacterial pathogen in food and the source of infection that might be responsible for a food poisoning outbreak.Methods All the probable cases that had attended the banquet in a villige of Sichuan province who had developed fever(≥37.5℃),diarrhea (≥3 times/dav)and vomiting since August 1,2009,were identified.A case-control study was conducted to identify the foods that might be responsible for this food poisoning event.50 cases were randomly selected from the probable cases and 50 controls were randomly selected from those without the symptoms.Results The attack rate of this food poisoning event was 43.4%(132/304).86.0%(43/50)of the cases and 34.0%(17/50)of the controls had eaten pork-mixed-vermicelli(OR=12.0,95%CI:4.4-32).Data from further tests showed that dose-effect relation existing between eating pork mixing vermicelli behavior and the incidence rates(Chi-square trend:x2=21.06,P=0.00)of the disease.94.0%(47/50)of the cases and 68.0%(34/50)of the controls had eaten mushroom braising chicken(OR=7.4.95%CI:2.0-27).Data from the crossover analysis showed that there appeared an effect modification between behaviors of eating pork-mixed-vermicelli and eating mushroom braising chicken.Three cases were detected carrying Salmonella blegdam from their anus swabs and the same bacteria type was also detected in the pork-mixed-vermicelli. Conclusion This outbreak of salmonellosis was caused by Salmonella blegdam contaminated pork-mixed-vermicelli or mushroom braising chicken during food processing.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285201

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the therapeutic effect of comprehensive therapeutic protocol of electroacupuncture combined with active-blood-and-dissolve-stasis herbs and rehabilitation training for cerebral infarction.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A multi-center randomized controlled trial was done, three hundred and twenty cases were divided into four groups: electroacupuncture combined with active-blood and dissolve-stasis herbs and rehabilitation training group (group A), electroacupuncture combined with rehabilitation training group (group B), herbs combined with rehabilitation training group (group C) and rehabilitation training group (group D), 80 cases in each group. The following two groups of acupoints were used alternatively in electroacupuncture treatment: the first group including Vasomotor Area, Jianyu (LI 15), Biguan (ST 31), Hegu (LI 4) and Taichong (LR 3); the second group including Motor Area, Quchi (LI 11), Yanglingquan (GB 34) and Shenshu (BL 23). 20 mL Xiangdan injection and 250 mL 5% glucose injection or 250 mL 0.9% sodium chloride injection were used by intravenous drip in herbs treatment once a day. The rehabilitation training was performed by the professional physical therapist. Each group was treated with corresponding treatment protocol. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by index of the mortality or disability rate 3 months after the onset of disease. The intention to treat analysis (ITT) was used in data.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The mortality or handicap rate 3 months after the onset of disease of four groups were 17.5% (14/80) in group A, 22.5% (18/80) in group B, 40. 0% (32/80) in group C, and 31.3% (25/80) in group D, respectively. The group A has a best therapeutic effect (vs group C, group D, both P<0.05), and there was no adverse event.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The combined application of electroacupuncture, active-blood and dissolve-stasis herbs and rehabilitation training is a better treatment for cerebral infarction in clinic.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cerebral Infarction , Drug Therapy , Rehabilitation , Therapeutics , Combined Modality Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Electroacupuncture , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1046-1049, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341005

ABSTRACT

Objective During June 2-8, 2009, 11 cases of the novel influenza A (H1N1)occurred in Sichuan Province, China. We investigated this outbreak to identify the source of infection,mode of transmission and risk factors for infection. Methods The primary case, a U.S. citizen,developed disease on June 2. From June 3 to 5, she joined Tour Group A for a trip to Jiuzhaigou. We telephoned passengers of the three flights on which the primary case had traveled in China, and members of Tour Group A. We asked whether they had any influenza-like symptoms during May 27 to June 12. Health authorities placed passengers whose seats were within three rows of the primary case on flights and members of Tour Group A on medical observation, and isolated individuals if they developed symptoms. We used real-time RT-PCR to test the throat swabs from symptomatic persons for the novel influenza virus and defined a confirmed case as one with influenza-like symptoms and laboratory confirmation. A retrospective cohort investigation to identify the risk factors for infection was conducted. We interviewed all members of Tour Group A about their detailed contact history with the primary case. Results During June 5 to 6, 9 (30%) of the primary case' s 30 fellow tour group members developed disease, compared with none of her 87 fellow passengers to Jiuzhaigou and 1 of her 87 fellow passengers on the returning trip (when several of the members of Tour Group A were symptomatic). 56% of the tourists who had talked with the primary case in close range ( <2 m) for ≥2 minutes developed disease, whereas none of the 14 other tour group members developed disease (RR= ∞; exact 95%CI: 2.0- ∞ ). Having conversed with the primary case for ≥ 10 minutes (vs. 2-9 minutes) increased the risk by almost five fold (RR=4.8, exact 95%CI: 1.3-180). Conversely, other kinds of contact, such as dining at the same table, receiving chewing gum from the primary case and sharing bus rides or planes with the primary case played no roles during this outbreak. Conclusion This novel influenza A (H1N1) outbreak was caused by an imported case, and transmitted mainly via droplet transmission when the primary case was talking with her fellow tourists during a tour. These findings highlight the importance of preventing droplet transmission during a pandemic.

7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1050-1052, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341004

ABSTRACT

Objective Vibrio cholera was extremely rare in Sichuan province (no cases in 2008). Any outbreak could indicate contamination through the food supply system. In July 2009, a hospital reported a cluster of 7 diarrhea patients; all attended the same banquet. One patient was confirmed to have Vibrio cholera (O139). We conducted this investigation to identify the source of this possible cholera outbreak. Methods We defined a suspect case as any banquet attendee with diarrhea ( ≥3 times/day). A confirmed case was a suspect case with a positive Vibrio cholera culture. We took stool samples or rectal swabs from all attendees for cholera culture and interviewed 272 banquet attendees about foods they ate at the banquet and kitchen workers about food preparation. Results 7.1% (24/337) of attendees developed cases within an average of 65 hours after eating. Three meals were served. All patients had the lunch whereas no patients only ate breakfast and/or dinner. Of 180 attendees who ate turtle meat 12% were case-patients, compared to 3.3% of 92 attendees who did not (RR=3.6,95%CI: 1.1-12). Of the 150 attendees who ate peanuts 13% were cases compared to 4.1%of 122 attendees who did not eat peanuts (RR=3.1,95%CI: 1.2-8.0). During preparation, the same utensil was used for fresh turtle meat and peanuts without washing in-between the process. Turtle meat and peanuts were stored for > 16 hours at room temperature after cooking before consumption. All 33 turtles originated from commercial production in another province. Conclusion This outbreak was likely caused by poor food handling of commercially produced turtles. We proposed that to improve microbiologic monitoring of aquatic food animals, and raise the awareness of good handling practices at mass gathering in rural China.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-257125

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the main factors influencing the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on neck pain caused by cervical spondylosis, so as to provide references for further increasing the therapeutic effect of acupuncture.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and six cases were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 53 cases in each group. The observation group was treated with routine acupuncture at Dazhui (GV 14), Jingbailao (Ex-HN 15) and Jianzhongshu (SI 15); and the control group was treated with sham acupuncture at 1 cm lateral to Bailao (Ex-HN 15) and Jianzhongshu (SI 15). The needles were retained for 20 min in the two groups and infrared radiation was used for adjuvant treatment in this period. Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) was used to assess the patients' quality of life before and after the treatment. The potential influential factors were analyzed by Logistic regression.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The effective rate was 75.5% in the observation group and 52.8% in the control group with a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). The Logistic regression analysis indicated that the therapeutic effect in the observation group was superior to the control group (OR = 2.670), and both the attack frequency and duration of the neck pain will influence the therapeutic effect (OR = 1.055 and OR = 2.446).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Acupuncture has a better therapeutic effect on neck pain caused by cervical spondylosis, and patient's clinical history about attack frequency and duration of neck pain are factors influencing clinical therapeutic effect.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Adult , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Neck Pain , Therapeutics , Spondylosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1175-1178, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321020

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemic tendency of Microtus fascus plague during 2000-2008 in Sichuan province. Methods To investigate the plague each year according to "overall Plan of the Plague in the Whole Nation" and "Surveillance Program of Sichuan Province Plague". Results There were plague epidemic from 2000 to 2008, with the average density as 312.41/ha. 42.57% of the Microtus fuscus were infected by body Fleas. The Fleas Index was 0.88 and the Index for nest Fleas of Microtas fuscus was 55.89. Six kinds of animals were infected by not only the Microtus fuscus but also herd-dog, sand fox, Tibetan sheep, domestic cats and Cricetulus longicaulatus as well. The positive rate of live Microtus fuscus was 0.32% but 22.99% in the dead Microtus fuscus. The overall positive rate on serological test was 6.70%. There were 4 Sections, 11 species and 19 kinds Fleas identified and carrying 3 kinds of fleas, Callopsylla sparsilis, Amphipsylla tntua tutua and Rhadinopsylla dahurica vicina, with the overall infection rate as 0.054%. Conclusion Plague among Microtus fuscus showed a continuous epidemic in Sichuan province during 2000-2008.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-316125

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the safety and immunological effect of domestic split influenza virus vaccine.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>All 606 subjects were divided into three groups by under 6, 16-60 and above 60 years old. Each age group was divided as study group (n = 213), control group 1 (n = 195) and control group 2 (n= 198) by Table of Random Number, one domestic vaccine and two imported vaccines were respectively inoculated in three group people. The differences of clinical side effect rate, antibody positive rate, protective rate and geometric mean titer (GMT) of these three vaccines were compared by using the statistical software with statistical significance of P < 0.05.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The side effect rate of study group, control group 1 and control group 2 was 3.76% (8/213), 4.10% (8/195), and 3.54% (7/198), respectively without statistical significance(chi2 = 0.87, P =0.93). The positive seroconversion rates of H1N1, H3N2 and B in these three groups were respectively 89.2% (190/213), 63.4% (135/213), 86.4% (184/213), 88.7% (173/195), 61.5% (120/195), 87.2% (170/195), 87.9% (174/198), 61.6% (122/198) and 84.8% (168/198). There were no statistical significance in the total positive seroconversion rate of each antibody type (chi2(H1N1) = 0.94, P(H1N1) = 0.63; chi2(H3N2) = 0.94, P(H3N2) = 0.63; chi2(B) = 0.75, P(B) = 0.69). The average growth multiple of H1N1, H3N2 and B in these three groups were 10.7, 7.3, 8.4, 10.5, 6.3, 8.3, 10.2, 7.1, 8.8 times. There were no statistical significances in the GMT growth multiple of each antibody type (F(H1N1) = 0.35, P(H1N1) = 0.70; F(H3N2) = 2.22, P(H3N2) = 0.11; F(B) = 1.51, P(B) = 0.35). The antibody protective rates of H1N1, H3N2 and B were 100% (213/213), 70.0% (149/213), 95.3% (203/213), 100% (195/195), 66.7% (130/195), 97.9% (191/195), 99.5% (197/198), 66.2% (131/198), 96.5% (191/198) respectively. There was no statistical difference among the three vaccines (chi2(H1N1) = 2.04, P(H1N1) = 0.36; chi2(H3N2) = 0.74, P(H3N2) = 0.69; chi2(B) = 0.42, P(B) = 0.82).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The domestic influenza split vaccine might be suitable for colony vaccination for its having clinical safety and immunological effect.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Allergy and Immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Allergy and Immunology , Influenza Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology , Influenza, Human , Middle Aged , Young Adult
11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 601-605, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-261316

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the existence of natural loci on Marmota himalayana plague in Sichuan province and to provide basis for prevention and control of the disease. Methods Both epidemiological investigation and laboratory tests were used to provide the host animal and fleas of the vectors with Yersinia pestis carriers. Results 30 species of animals were found to belong to 10 orders. Ochotona curzoniae and M.himalayana were the most common ones while 7 species of the fleas belonged to 7 genera and 3 families. M.himalayana was the main reservoirs while Callopsylla dolabris and Oropsylla silantiewi served as vectors. The 13 Y.pestis were identified from 43 Marmota samples. 8 samples were identified under IHA, with the highest titer of herding-dogs serum as 1 : 10 240. 19 samples were F1 antigen positive using RIHA and the highest titer of M.himalayana serum was 1:409 600. The major foci was 4545 km2, distributed at Dege county in Sichuan province. Conclusion We have confirmed the existence of natural foci on M. Himalayana plague in Sichuan province.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-344969

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the clinical effect of acupuncture in treating cervical spondylosis with different syndrome types.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and seventeen patients were randomized into the treated group: (59 cases), treated with normal acupuncture, and the control group (58 cases), treated with sham acupuncture, operated once every other day, 9 times in total (in 18 days) as one therapeutic course, and a succeeding 3-month follow-up study was carried out after terminating the therapy. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated with the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and the scores gained in patients with different syndrome types were analyzed with a general linear model.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The NPQ and VAS: scores showed a linear decreasing tendency in both groups at the time of ending treatment and the 1st month of follow-up, but showed a secondary curve increasing tendency in the 3rd month of follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed the difference was of statistical significance (P<0.05). However, the analysis through lead-in of syndrome type as an individual influencing factor showed that syndrome type exerts a significant influence on VAS score (P<0.05), but has insignificant influence on the NPQ score (P>0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Acupuncture shows: good immediate effect in treating cervical spondylosis, but its long-term effect is not satisfactory. The difference in syndrome type may have some impact on the effects of acupuncture in alleviating pain, but exerts no evident influence on the comprehensive effect.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Adult , Cervical Vertebrae , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pain Measurement , Spondylosis , Therapeutics
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-814151

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the application of external jugular catheter in hemodialysis patients and provide a new means of inserting tube.@*METHODS@#Data of patients who applied the external jugular venous catheter from January 2000 to December 2007 in Second Xiangya hospital were retrospectively analyzed. We observed the time of indwelling catheter, blood flow, tube associated complications and the adequacy of dialysis.@*RESULTS@#External jugular vein catheters were performed in 856 patients, the successful ratio was 93.22% (798 cases). In total, 223 with dual lumen and 575 with single lumen. The average time of indwelling catheter was (3.46+/-2.21) months. Altogether 405 patients were followed up until the end-point of the investigation, accounting for 50.75å.The average time was (3.12+/-1.22) months. Causes for withdrawal were internal fistula, death, renal transplantation, infection,poor blood flow, etc. Thirty-two patients (4.01%) had the blood flow lower than 150 mL/min(18 of dual lumen catheter), 20 improved through position adjustment and urokinase. The decreasing ratio of BUN in 100 patients after dialysis treatment was about 70%, and the average Kt/V was 1.37+/-0.35, which had no significant difference comparing with that of patients using internal jugular venous catheter (Kt/V=1.39+/-0.33, n=100).Main acute complications of catherizations included 4 local hematoma (0.5%) and 3 bleeding (0.38%). Infection was the major complication in the course of indwelling catherizations, including 32 (4.01%) with local skin infection, 26 (3.26%) catheter infections and 6 (0.75%) with catheter thromboses.@*CONCLUSION@#External jugular vein catheterization in hemodialysis is simple,with no serious complications and can provide adequate blood flow. It may be recommended for the patients with visible jugular vein.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Catheterization , Methods , Female , Humans , Jugular Veins , General Surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , Methods , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813882

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the changes of vasoactive substances in rabbits administered with mannitol at different dosages and to investigate the mechanism of acute renal failure (ARF) induced by massive mannitol administration.@*METHODS@#Eighteen healthy male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: a minor mannitol group (n=6, mannitol 8 g/kg within 2 hours), a control group (n=6, saline of the same volume), and a massive mannitol group with free water taking (n=6, mannitol 40~60 g/kg within 3 days). The changes of renin, angiotensin-I (ang-I), angiotensin-II (ang-II), endothelin (ET), and atrial natriuretic factor(ANF) in the serum were observed.@*RESULTS@#No significant changes in the renin, ang-I, ang-II, ET, and ANF in the serum were found between the minor mannitol group and the saline control group (P> 0.05). In the massive mannitol group with free water taking, renin, ang-I, and ang-II in the serum increased significantly compared with the other 2 groups; ET in the serum decreased significantly compared with the saline control group (P 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#ARF induced by massive mannitol administration is associated with a significant change of vasoactive substances.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Blood , Angiotensins , Blood , Animals , Atrial Natriuretic Factor , Blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Endothelins , Blood , Male , Mannitol , Toxicity , Rabbits , Random Allocation , Renal Circulation , Renin-Angiotensin System
15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 102-106, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295597

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the characteristics of molecular typing and phylogenic relationship among the Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 strains isolated from environment and sea food samples during cholera outbreaks, in Sichuan province in 2004 and to trace the source of infections so as to support the ascertainment of epidemic control strategy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Cholera toxin gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for subtyping of isolates and clustering of patterns was analysed with the software BioNumerics.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In all the 72 strains under analysis, 68 appeared to be toxigenic while 4 from river water derived isolates were toxin gene negative. Sixty-seven strains were clustered into 16 PFGE patterns when digested with Not I. The patterns of toxigeinc O139 strains isolated from turtles in the markets were identical with the patterns of strains appeared in the outbreaks respectively. The PFGE patterns of isolates from different outbreaks were inconsistent.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The sources of infection causing these outbreaks were complicated. Contaminated turtles might also be one of the major sources of outbreaks when being served at the dinner parties in Sichuan in 2004.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Methods , China , Epidemiology , Cholera , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Cholera Toxin , Genetics , Cluster Analysis , Disease Outbreaks , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Food Microbiology , Humans , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Population Surveillance , Software , Turtles , Microbiology , Vibrio cholerae O139 , Classification , Genetics , Water Microbiology
16.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 185-191, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295581

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>In mid-July 2005, five patients presented with septic shock to a hospital in Ziyang city in Sichuan, China, to identify the etiology of the unknown reason disease, an epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory study were conducted.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>An enhanced surveillance program were established in Sichuan, the following activities were introduced: active case finding in Sichuan of (a) laboratory diagnosed Streptococcus suis infection and (b) clinically diagnosed probable cases with exposure history; supplemented by (c) monitoring reports on meningococcal meningitis. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection was confirmed by culture and biochemical reactions, followed by sequencing for specific genes for serotype and virulence factors.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>From June 10 to August 21, 2005, 68 laboratory confirmed cases of human Streptococcus suis infections were reported. All were villagers who gave a history of direct exposure to deceased or sick pigs in their backyards where slaughtering was performed. Twenty six (38%) presented with toxic shock syndrome of which 15 (58%) died. Other presentations were septicaemia or meningitis. All isolates were tested positive for genes for tuf, species-specific 16S rRNA, cps2J, mrp, ef and sly. There were 136 clinically diagnosed probable cases with similar exposure history but incomplete laboratory investigations.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>An outbreak of human Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infections occurred in villagers after direct exposure to deceased or sick pigs in Sichuan. Prohibition of slaughtering in backyards brought the outbreak to a halt. A virulent strain of the bacteria is speculated to be in circulation, and is responsible for the unusual presentation of toxic shock syndrome with high case fatality.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteremia , Epidemiology , Microbiology , China , Epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Meningitis, Bacterial , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Shock, Septic , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Streptococcal Infections , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Streptococcus suis , Swine , Swine Diseases , Microbiology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350933

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a method to determine the content of Curcumol in Rhizoma Curcumae.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The samples were determined by GC on a HP-5 column (0.32 mm x 30 m, 0.25 micron), Inlet temperature 200 degrees C, FID 250 degrees C, flow 1.0 mL x min(-1), splitless. Temperature programming started at 60 degrees C, holding for 4 min, then increased to 210 degrees C at a rate of 3 degrees C x min(-1).</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The calibration curve of curcumol is linear over the range of 40.0-2,000 microg x mL(-1), r = 0.9997. The high and low additive recovery were 95.01% (RSD 2.52%), 96.46% (RSD 2.86%).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>This method was accurate and reliable with a good reproducibility, and the procedure of samples pretreatment is simple.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Gas , Curcuma , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Rhizome , Chemistry , Sesquiterpenes
18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 633-635, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331819

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To describe the clinical and epidemiological features of dead cases with human Streptococcus suis infections, and to find the target population for preventing death and the related indicators.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Epidemiological investigation on human Streptococcus suis infections was implemented used unified questionnaires. Analysis on dead cases and survival cases (as contrast) was done.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The population with highest fatality rate was in 40-49 age group. 97.37% of dead cases had toxic shock syndrome. The mean interval from onset to admission was 0.76 days, and the mean course was 2.11 days. The progression among dead cases was faster than that among survival cases. Chief clinical manifestations of dead cases that are more frequent than survival cases are purpura (73.68%), diarrhea (50.0%), dyspnea (21.05%), conjunctival congestion (34.21%), etc. Renal impairment and liver involvement in dead cases were more significant than that in survival cases. No significant difference between mean incubation period, exposure rates of main risk factors in dead cases and in survival cases was found.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Preventing toxic shock syndrome might reduce the fatality rate. The target population for preventing death is aged > or = 40. Liver function and renal function testing might be indicators for monitoring the progression of human Streptococcus suis infections.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , China , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Streptococcal Infections , Blood , Microbiology , Mortality , Pathology , Streptococcus suis , Physiology , Young Adult
19.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 636-639, 2005.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331818

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the potential risk factors of human infecting with Streptococcus suis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>1: M matched case-control study was conducted. 29 human cases of Streptococcus suis infection in the early phase were included in the case group, Patients' family members, neighbors and peoples who had worked together with patients to handle deceased or sick pigs in the last week were recruited as matched controls. There were 147 controls in total. Both cases and controls received questionnaire investigation including the ways to contact sick/dead pigs. Conditional logistic regression was employed to analyze matching data.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>According to the results of multivariate analysis, slaughtering (OR = 11.978, 95% CI: 3.355-42.756), carcasses cutting and processing (OR = 3.008, 95% CI: 1.022-8.849) sick/dead pigs were associated with cases related to human Streptococcus suis infection. The attributable risk proportion were 91.65% and 66.76% respectively. The other types of exposures to sick/ dead pigs, including feeding, selling, burying and eating, were not associated with the human Streptococcus suis infection in our study population.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Slaughtering, carcasses cutting and processing sick/dead pigs were important risky behavior for humans to be infected by Streptococcus suis.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , China , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Occupational Exposure , Risk Factors , Streptococcal Infections , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Streptococcus suis , Physiology
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-245132

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To use randomized controlled clinical research method to assess therapeutic effect of picking therapy on cervical spondylosis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>One hundred and fifty-eight cases were randomly divided into a picking therapy group (n=56), a routine acupuncture group (n=55) and a local anesthesia group (n=47). They were treated respectively with picking therapy, routine acupuncture and local anesthesia at Jing bailao (EX HN 15), Dazhui (GV 14), Jianjing (GB 21), etc. Brief McGill Pain Questionaire was used for score, which was combined with clinical symptoms and signs to analyze the therapeutic effect.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The cured rate was 57.1% in the picking therapy group, better than 23.6% in the acupuncture group and 14.9% in the local anesthesia group (P < 0.01), and adverse reaction was basically not found in the picking therapy group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Picking therapy is a highly effective and safe therapy for cervical spondylosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Humans , Pain Measurement , Research Design , Spondylosis , Therapeutics
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