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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940717

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a metabolic disease mainly characterized by hyperglycemia due to inadequate insulin secretion. And persistent hyperglycemia can cause chronic damage or dysfunction of eyes, kidneys, heart, blood vessels and nerves. Polysaccharides are high molecular carbohydrates polymerized by glycosidic bonds from more than 10 monosaccharide molecules of the same or different types. They have the advantages of wide sources, high safety and low toxic and so on. As one of the important effective components of traditional Chinese medicine, polysaccharides have biological activities such as immune regulation, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, lowering blood sugar and so on. The structure is directly related to biological activities, and the advanced structure of polysaccharides is based on the primary structure. Exploring the primary structure of polysaccharides is the key task of lowering blood sugar and improving diabetic complications. This paper summarizes the monosaccharide composition of the primary structure of Chinese medicine polysaccharides, and the mechanism of Chinese medicine polysaccharides improving diabetes is emphasized by increasing the secretion and release of insulin, increasing the islet β cell number, upregulating insulin receptor level, improving glucose and lipid metabolism, inhibiting inflammatory response, improving oxidative stress and regulating phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt), mitogen activated protein kinase, cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP)/protein kinase A(PKA) and adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase(AMPK) signaling pathways. At the same time, we also summarized the prevention and treatment of Chinese medicine polysaccharides in diabetic nephropathy, diabetic cardiomyopathy, diabetic ophthalmopathy and diabetic peripheral neuropathy, in order to provide a theoretical basis for new drug development and clinical application of Chinese medicine polysaccharides in the intervention of diabetes and its complications.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940403

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo reveal the medication rules of the clinical prescriptions containing Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, and to provide a basis for the modern clinical application of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, the development of health products and the research and development of new drugs. MethodThe clinical prescriptions containing Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus were retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang Data, and VIP, and then a basic database of prescriptions was established via the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance auxiliary platform (V2.5), IBM SPSS V20, and Excel (Microsoft Office 2016). The frequency and association rules of the medicines in prescriptions (compatible medicines) and the corresponding syndromes were then mined. ResultThe prescriptions were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 458 clinical prescriptions containing Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus were collected, involving 388 Chinese medicines, and the total frequency of medicines reached 6 199. The core compatible medicines (frequency > 130) of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus included Poria (frequency of 222), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (217), Paeoniae Radix Alba (196), Bupleuri Radix (159), and Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (142). The Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus-compatible medicines with frequency > 49 were selected for further analysis, which included 34 medicines with the cumulative frequency of 3 131 (50.51% of the total frequency). These medicines mainly have the functions of tonifying Qi, invigorating Qi, tonifying blood, alleviating edema and promoting urination, promoting digestion, and activating blood and relieving pain. They are mainly warm, cold, or mild-natured, taste bitter, sweet, or acrid, and have the tropism in the spleen, liver, stomach, or lung meridians. The association rule analysis demonstrated that 14 medicine combinations were commonly used, and the core combinations were Poria-Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma-Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, Paeoniae Radix Alba-Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, Bupleuri Radix-Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma-Poria-Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, and Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium-Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. The clinical prescriptions containing Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus were mainly used to treat 52 diseases corresponding to 11 types of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes. Three representative syndrome types, including spleen and stomach syndromes, Qi-blood-body fluid syndromes, and gynecological syndromes were selected for further association rule analysis. In the treatment of spleen and stomach syndromes, the core compatible drugs were Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Poria, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Bupleuri Radix, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, and Pinelliae Ehizoma, which, together with Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, formed 25 commonly used medicine combinations (16 combinations composed of 2 medicines and 9 combinations composed of 3 medicines). In the treatment of Qi-blood-body fluid syndromes, the core compatible drugs were Poria, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, Hordei Fructus Germinatus, and Bupleuri Radix, which, together with Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, formed 23 common medicine combinations (17 combinations composed of 2 medicines, 5 combinations composed of 3 medicines, and 1 combination composed of 4 medicines). In the treatment of gynecological syndromes, the core compatible medicines were Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Astragali Radix, Cyperi Rhizoma, and Poria, which constituted 25 common medicine combinations (15 combinations composed of 2 medicines and 10 combinations composed of 3 medicines). ConclusionWe employed the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) inheritance auxiliary platform to explore the compatibility of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus-containing clinical prescriptions and the corresponding TCM syndromes, which intuitively showcased the medication rules of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. Specifically, Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus was mainly combined with the medicines for tonifying Qi, invigorating Qi, tonifying blood, alleviating edema and promoting urination, promoting digestion, and activating blood and relieving pain to treat different TCM syndromes. While soothing liver, regulating Qi, harmonizing stomach, and relieving pain, the combinations tonify and activate blood, invigorate spleen, and resolve dampness. The findings are of great significance to the rational application of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, the development of health food, and the research of new drugs and will bolster the development of Chinese medicine industry.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928171

ABSTRACT

Curcuma kwangsiensis root tuber is a widely used genuine medicinal material in Guangxi, with the main active components of terpenoids and curcumins. It has the effects of promoting blood circulation to relieve pain, moving Qi to relieve depression, clearing heart and cooling blood, promoting gallbladder function and anti-icterus. Modern research has proved its functions in liver protection, anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, blood lipid reduction and immunosuppression. Considering the research progress of C. kwangsiensis root tubers and the core concept of quality marker(Q-marker), we predicted the Q-markers of C. kwangsiensis root tubers from plant phylogeny, chemical component specificity, traditional pharmacodynamic properties, new pharmacodynamic uses, chemical component measurability, processing methods, compatibility, and components migrating to blood. Curcumin, curcumol, curcumadiol, curcumenol, curdione, germacrone, and β-elemene may be the possible Q-markers. Based on the predicted Q-markers, the mechanisms of the liver-protecting and anti-tumor activities of C. kwangsiensis root tubers were analyzed. AKT1, IL6, EGFR, and STAT3 were identified as the key targets, and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction signaling pathway, nitrogen metabolism pathway, cancer pathway, and hepatitis B pathway were the major involved pathways. This review provides a basis for the quality evaluation and product development of C. kwangsiensis root tubers and gives insights into the research on Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
China , Curcuma/chemistry , Humans , Liver , Neoplasms , Terpenes/pharmacology
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921789

ABSTRACT

Arthropod-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever, have frequently beset five countries(Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand) in the tropical rainy Lancang-Mekong region, which pose a huge threat to social production and daily life. As a resort to such diseases, chemical drugs risk the resistance in plasmodium, non-availability for dengue virus, and pollution to the environment. Traditional medicinal plants have the multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway characteristics, which are of great potential in drug development. Exploring potential medicinals for arthropod-borne diseases from traditional medicinal plants has become a hot spot. This study summarized the epidemiological background of arthropod-borne diseases in the Lancang-Mekong region and screened effective herbs from the 350 medicinal plants recorded in CHINA-ASEAN Traditional Medicine. Based on CNKI, VIP, and PubMed, the plants for malaria and dengue fever and those for killing and repelling mosquitoes were respectively sorted out. Their pharmacological effects and mechanisms were reviewed and the material basis was analyzed. The result is expected to serve as a reference for efficient utilization of medicinal resources, development of effective and safe drugs for malaria and dengue fever, and the further cooperation between China and the other five countries in the Lancang-Mekong region.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culicidae , Malaria , Plants, Medicinal , Plasmodium , Thailand
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873142

ABSTRACT

Momordicae Semen a traditional toxic Chinese medicine, which was first recorded in Kaibao Bencao of the Northern Song Dynasty. It has the effects in reducing swelling, dispersing knot, and attacking sores. It is mainly distributed in South China, such as Guangxi and Guangdong. It is also distributed in Southeast Asian countries, such as Thailand and Vietnam. The present study showed abundant chemical components extracted from Momordicae Semen, including steroids, sterols, volatile oils and fatty acids. Among them, 30 terpenoids, 102 compounds in volatile oil, 6 sterols and 19 fatty acids have been identified. Aqueous extracts and alcohol extracts of Momordicae Semen have the toxicity, and the toxicity decreases with the increase of oil content. The main toxic components reported in the literatures are cochinchinin and saponins. Pharmacological studies have shown that in addition to its traditional anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and other pharmacological effects, Momordicae Semen also exhibited many pharmacological effects, such as anti-ulcer, anti-oxidation and immune regulation. In recent years, there have been increasingly more research reports on Momordicae Semen. By studying relevant domestic and foreign literatures from 1964 to 2019 in China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, PubMed and Web of Science, chemical constituents, pharmacological effects and toxicological research of Momordicae Semen were summarized, which will provide reference for further research and application of Momordicae Semen in the future.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872888

ABSTRACT

Objective:To take zebrafish embryo as the research object, in order to investigate the development toxicity, cardiotoxicity, liver toxicity and kidney toxicity of water extract of Jiaotaiwan (JTW) on zebrafish embryo. Method:Zebrafish embryos with normal development at 12 h (hpf) after fertilization were selected as model animals for the growth and cardiotoxicity experiments. The embryos were treated with 125, 250, 500 mg·L-1 of JTW water extracts, and the effects of the drugs on the heart rate and morphology of the embryos and LD50 were observed at 72 h (hpf) after fertilization. Zebrafish embryos with normal development at 72 h (hpf) after fertilization were used as model animals for the liver and kidney toxicity experiments. The embryos were treated with 125,250,500 mg·L-1 of JTW water extracts, and the effect of the drugs on morphological changes, Alanine aminotransferase(ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, and creatinine content of the larvae and LD50 were observed at 72 d (dpf) after fertilization. Result:The zebrafish embryos in control group developed normally, the heart was well developed, and the heartbeat was even and powerful. The LD50 of JTW water extract on zebrafish embryos for 72 h was 1 023 mg·L-1. Compared with the embryos in the control group, 250,500 mg·L-1 treatment groups in the development toxicity had a smaller head, shorter body lengths (P<0.05), and decreased eye size (P<0.05). Compared with the control group embryos, the pericardial edema was observed in the 500 mg·L-1 group, the heart rate was significantly decreased in the 250,500 mg·L-1 JTW water extract groups (P<0.01), the atrial and ventricular areas were significantly reduced (P<0.05), the distance of SV-BA became significantly larger (P<0.05), the distance of AV channel became significantly larger (P<0.01), and the in-flow distance was significantly shorter (P<0.01). In the acute toxicity experiment, the LD50 of JTW water extract for zebrafish larvae for 72 h was 1 067 mg·L-1. Compared with control group, JTW water extract significantly reduced ALT activity in zebrafish larvae (P<0.05). Conclusion:This experiment found that JTW has an obvious toxicity in embryonic development, which is mainly manifested as delayed growth and severe cardiotoxicity. Great attention shall be paid to clinical administration to pregnant women, lactating women and patients with heart disease.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846535

ABSTRACT

Different parts of Trichosanthes kirilowii can all be used as medicines, including the fruits (Trichosanthis Fructus), pericarps (Trichosanthis Pericarpium), seeds (Trichosanthis Semen) and roots (Trichosanthis Radix). Modern research has confirmed that the main active ingredients of Trichosanthis Pericarpium are flavonoids and amino acids; Trichosanthis Semen mainly contains terpenoids and sterols; Trichosanthis Radix mainly contains protein, steroids and polysaccharides. And the pharmacological effects of various medicinal parts are also different. This paper summarizes the traditional efficacy, chemical composition and modern pharmacological effects of different medicinal parts of T. kirilowii, analyzes the relationship between them, so as to analyze and predict the quality marker of T. kirilowii.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862716

ABSTRACT

Cinnamomi Ramulus is a dry tender branch of <italic>Cinnamomum cassia</italic> Presl, which is a multifunctional traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). Cinnamomi Ramulus has different efficacy under different compatibility environment. Complet medicine is a commonly used and relatively fixed compatibility form of two drugs, and it is the smallest unit in the compatibility of TCM. The four kinds of complet medicine commonly used in Cinnamomi Ramulus were as follows: the diaphoretics pungent in flavour and warm in property pairs include Cinnamomi Ramulus Ephedrae Herba and Cinnamomi Ramulus Bupleuri Radix complet medicine. The stasis dredge collaterals pairs involve Cinnamomi Ramulus Poria and Cinnamomi Ramulus Persicae Semen complet medicine. The regulation Qi and Blood Cinnamomi Ramulus Paeoniae Radix Alba complet medicine. Wenda Tongyang pairs consist of Cinnamomi Ramulus Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia, Cinnamomi Ramulus Astragali Radix, and Cinnamomi Ramulus Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma complet medicine. After compatibility, some changes have taken place in the chemical composition of complet medicines. For example, after compatibility of Cinnamomi Ramulus and Ephedrae Herba, the content of effective components of both herbs decreases, and the chemical constituents that are not found in single herbs are produced. After compatibility of Cinnamomi Ramulus and Bupleuri Radix, the dissolution of active ingredients is related to compatibility ratio. The active ingredients of Cinnamomi Ramulus Poria, Cinnamomi Ramulus Paeoniae Radix Alba pair and Cinnamomi Ramulus Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia have also changed to some extent.The content of active ingredients in Astragali Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma both increase after compatibility with Cinnamomi Ramulus. Different complet medicine have different pharmacological effects, Cinnamomi Ramulus Ephedrae Herba complet medicine have the effect of transpiration and antipyretic, Cinnamomi Ramulus Bupleuri Radix complet medicine can analgesia. Cinnamomi Ramulus Poria complet medicine have the effect of diuretic, improve myocardial ischemia and so on. Cinnamomi Ramulus Persicae Semen complet medicine have the anti-coagulation action.Cinnamomi Ramulus Paeoniae Radix Alba complet medicine have the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Cinnamomi Ramulus Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia complet medicine have the effect of dispelling cold to relieve pain. Cinnamomi Ramulus Astragali Radix complet medicine have the many effects in relieving anti-coagulation, antioxidation and anti-myocardial ischemia. Cinnamomi Ramulus Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma complet medicine displays diverse activities, including antiarrhythmic, antithrombosis. In this paper, the chemical constituents and pharmacology of four kinds of complet medicine of Cinnamomi Ramulus were reviewed, which provided a reference for the better open utilization of Cinnamomi Ramulus complet medicine.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862714

ABSTRACT

By reviewing the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the author collected 37 neutral blood-activating and stasis-removing traditional Chinese medicines. And by retrieving literatures on relevant material basis and pharmacological effects on CNKI, the author organized and summarized their chemical composition and pharmacological effects. Neutral blood-activating and stasis-removing traditional Chinese medicines are rich in chemical components, such as flavonoids, steroids and sugars. At the same time, it has a variety of pharmacological effects, including anti-platelet aggregation and anti-thrombotic mechanism, anti-atherosclerosis, inhibition of ischemia-perfusion injury, anti-tumor, anti-fibrosis, liver protection, anti-inflammatory analgesia, blood pressure reduction and immune regulation. It is widely used in the treatment of liver fibrosis, cardiovascular disease, liver cancer, uterine cancer, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and other diseases. Nowadays, as people has paid increasing attention to neutral herbs, studies on traditional Chinese medicines for activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis have been further deepened, which provides a better development prospect for neutral blood-activating and stasis-removing traditional Chinese medicines. From the perspective of medicinal properties, the authors systematically collected and summarized the pharmacological effects and material basis of neutral blood-activating and stasis-removing traditional Chinese medicines. This article provides theoretical guidance for the clinical application of neutral blood-activating and stasis-removing traditional Chinese medicines and new medicine research ideas for neutral blood-activating and stasis-removing traditional Chinese medicines.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 211-221, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780112

ABSTRACT

The quality definition of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a hot area in modern research of TCM. In recent years, the characteristics of one herb with multiple effects have been widely accepted and studied. The typical opposite-effect of herbs is considered as a special part of one herb with multiple effects, and was summarized in this paper. Sanqi was used as an example of opposite-effect herbs for developing the strategies and approaches on the Q-markers. The traditional opposite-effect should be studied by modern pharmacological research methods. The correlation of the chemical components with the opposite effects should be established in order to verify the material basis and evaluate the mechanism including targets and pathways. The unique characteristics of chemical components should be analyzed and defined. Finally, the Q-markers of the opposite effect herb will be confirmed. This paper provides a useful reference for the precise quality control of herbal opposite-effects.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802188

ABSTRACT

Gramineous crops occupy a remarkable proportion of grain crops in the word,and wheat,rice and corn account for more than 80%of the world's food crops. Agricultural residues bring tremendous pressure on the environment,and inefficient development of resources has caused huge waste of resources. At present,the research on agricultural residues mainly focuses on energy,fertilizer,feed and materialization. However, there are still a lot of resources that have not been rationally utilized. The author has found that in recent years,the medicinal research on gramineous crop waste has focused on four varieties-rice,corn,wheat and sugar cane,and their waste rice bran,rice husk,rice straw,corn stigma,corn bract,wheat bran,sugar cane leaf,sugar cane skin. The compounds isolated and identified from agricultural residues include phenylpropanoids,flavonoids,steroids and their glycosides,organic acids and their esters,volatile oil and saccharides. Studies have shown that agricultural residues from gramineous crops have pharmacological activities, such as anti-oxidation,hypolipidemia,hypoglycemia,anti-inflammation,anti-tumor,anti-cardiovascular disease,anti-liver and kidney damage. This paper is a systematic review of the chemical composition and pharmacological effects of agricultural residues from the major gramineous crops,so as to provide useful information for further research and development of agricultural residues.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-852271

ABSTRACT

Cinnamomum cassia, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, is mainly distributed in tropical areas. Its genuine producing areas contain Guangdong Province, Guangxi Province and parts of Vietnam. The chemical composition is rich in C. cassia, including volatile oil, flavanol, terpenoids, ligans, phenolic acids, polysaccharides, etc. Traditionally, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid from volatile oil are its main effective components. In this paper, the resource, chemical composition and main pharmacological activities of C. cassia were summarized. And on this basis, the relationship between chemical components and drug efficacy, including the volatile oil, polyphenols, flavanol, and diterpenoids, as well as the relationships between biogenetic ways, traditional efficacy, modern pharmacological effects and chemical composition were analyzed. It is suggested that identification and quantification of volatile oil, polyphenols, flavanol and diterpenoids should be carried out and the further research of the chemical group of polyphenols and terpenoids from C. cassia should be focused, which could provide basis for clarifying the quality marker (Q-marker) and establishing scientific quality standards of C. cassia.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-851781

ABSTRACT

Perilla frutescens is one of traditional Chinese diaphoretics, and is produced in many areas of China. The chemical composition is rich in P. frutescens, including volatile oil, aliphatic acids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, coloring matter and so on. Because of the function of relieving superficial pathogenic factors to dissipate cold and promoting qi flowing to regulate the stomach, P. frutescens can be used to treat the diseases of wind-cold, stagnation of gastrosplenic qi, vomiting and poisoning by eating fish and crab. The study showed that P. frutescens exhibited the effects which related with the traditional uses of relieving cough, bacteriostasis, relieving fever, analgesia, etc., and besides, it showed a few new founded effects, such as sedative effects, antioxidative effects, effects of reducing blood pressure, and regulating glucose/lipid metabolism. This paper summarized the research progess on the chemical composition and main pharmacological activities of P. frutescens, and discussed its therapeutic material basis based on the summarise, which could provide a reference for the development of P. frutescens.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-695025

ABSTRACT

Purpose To investigate the clinicopathologic features and differential diagnosis of oncocytic variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).Methods Morphological,immunohistochemical findings on 3 oncocytic variant of MTC cases and electron microscopic findings on 2 of these 3 cases were studied,with review of the relevant literatures.Results The cytoplasm was abundant,eosinophilic and granular with defined margins.The nuclei were enlarged,round to oval.Prominent nucleoli were identified in some cells.Tumor cells formed sheets,trabeculae or follicles with infiltrative pattern.Immunohistochemically,thyroglobulin (TG) was negative in all 3 cases.Calcitonin was positive in 2 cases and negative in 1 case.Ultrastructurally,a large number of mitochondria and various neuroendocrine granules were found in the 2nd and 3rd cases.Conclusion Oncocytic variant of MTC is very rare with variable histopathologic appearances.It should be considered in diagnosing oncocytic lesions of thyroid.A definite diagnosis can be rendered based on comprehensive findings of the immunohistochemistry,serology study and electron microscopy.It needs to avoid misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.

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