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1.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 347-352, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985678

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and possible mechanisms of burned-out testicular germ cell tumors. Methods: The clinical and imaging data, histology and immunophenotypic characteristics of three cases of burned-out testicular germ cell tumors diagnosed at the Ruijin Hospital, Medical College of the Shanghai Jiaotong University, from 2016 to 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The relevant literature was reviewed. Results: The mean age of the three patients was 32 years. Case 1 had an elevated preoperative alpha-fetoprotein level (810.18 μg/L) and underwent "radical pancreaticoduodenectomy and retroperitoneal lesion resection" for a retroperitoneal mass. Postoperative pathology showed embryonal carcinoma, which needed to exclude gonadal metastasis. Color Doppler ultrasound showed a solid mass of the right testis, with hypoechoic lesion and scattered calcification in some areas. Case 2 was a "right supraclavicular lymph node biopsy specimen." Chest X-ray showed multiple metastases in both lungs. The biopsy showed metastatic embryonic carcinoma and bilateral testicular color Doppler ultrasound revealed abnormal calcifications in the right testicle. Case 3 showed a cystic mass of the right testis with calcification and solid areas. All 3 patients underwent radical right orchiectomy. Grossly, borders of the testicular scar areas were well defined. Cross sectioning of the tumors showed a gray-brown cut surface and single focus or multiple foci of the tumor. The tumor maximum diameter was 0.6-1.5 cm. Microscopically, lymphocytes, plasma cells infiltration, tubular hyalinization, clustered vascular hyperplasia and hemosiderin laden macrophages were found in the scar. Atrophic and sclerotic seminiferous tubules, proliferation of clustered Leydig cells and small or coarse granular calcifications in seminiferous tubules were present around the scar. Seminoma and germ cell neoplasia in situ were seen in case 1, germ cell neoplasia in situ was seen in case 2 and germ cells with atypical hyperplasia were seen in case 3. Immunohistochemistry showed that embryonic carcinoma expressed SALL4, CKpan(AE1/AE3) and CD30, seminoma and germ cell tumor in situ expressed OCT3/4, SALL4 and CD117, and spermatogenic cells with atypical hyperplasia expressed CD99 and SALL4. The Ki-67 positive index was about 20%, while OCT3/4 and CD117 were both negative. Conclusions: Burned-out testicular germ cell tumors are rare. The possibility of gonad testicular metastasis should be considered first for extragonadal germ cell tumor. If fibrous scar is found in testis, it must be determined whether it is a burned-out testicular germ cell tumor. The burned-out mechanisms may be related to the microenvironment of tumor immune-mediated and local ischemic injury.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Adult , Seminoma/secondary , Cicatrix/pathology , Hyperplasia , Retrospective Studies , China , Testicular Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/surgery , Calcinosis , Carcinoma , Tumor Microenvironment
2.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 53-59, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969947

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the hypoglycemic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Tianshu" (ST 25) combined with metformin on rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as its effect on expression of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) in liver and pancreas.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six male SD rats were randomly divided into a blank group (6 rats) and a model establishing group (30 rats). The rats in the model establishing group were fed with high-fat diet and treated with intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) to establish T2DM model. The rats with successful model establishment were randomly divided into a model group, a control group, a metformin group, an EA group and a combination group, 6 rats in each group. The rats in the EA group were treated with EA at "Tianshu" (ST 25), dense-disperse wave, 2 Hz/15 Hz in frequency and 2 mA in current intensity, 20 min each time. The rats in the metformin group were treated with intragastric administration of metformin (190 mg/kg) dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution (2 mL/kg). The rats in the combination group were treated with EA at "Tianshu" (ST 25) and intragastric administration of metformin. The rats in the control group were treated with intragastric administration of 0.9% sodium chloride solution with the same dose. All the treatments were given once a day for 5 weeks. After the intervention, the body mass and random blood glucose were detected; the serum insulin level was detected by ELISA; the expression of AMPK and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) in liver and pancreas was detected by Western blot method; the expression of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) was detected by immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#①Compared with the blank group, the body mass in the model group was decreased (P<0.05); compared with the model group, the body mass in the EA group and the combination group was decreased (P<0.05); the body mass in the EA group and the combination group was lower than the metformin group (P<0.05). Compared with the blank group, the random blood glucose in the model group was increased (P<0.01); compared with the model group, the random blood glucose in the metformin group, the EA group and the combination group was decreased (P<0.01). The random blood glucose in the combination group was lower than the metformin group and the EA group (P<0.05). ②Compared with the blank group, the insulin level in the model group was decreased (P<0.05); compared with the model group, the insulin level in the metformin group, the EA group and the combination group was all increased (P<0.05). The insulin level in the combination group was higher than the metformin group and the EA group (P<0.05). ③Compared with the blank group, the protein expression of AMPK and p-AMPK in liver tissue was decreased (P<0.05), and the protein expression of AMPK and p-AMPK in pancreatic tissue was increased (P<0.05) in the model group. Compared with the model group, the protein expression of AMPK and p-AMPK in liver tissue in the metformin group, the EA group and the combination group was increased (P<0.05, P<0.01); the protein expression of AMPK in pancreatic tissue in the metformin group was increased (P<0.05); the protein expression of AMPK in pancreatic tissue in the EA group and the combination group was decreased (P<0.05); the protein expression of p-AMPK in pancreatic tissue in the metformin group, the EA group and the combination group was decreased (P<0.05). The protein expression of AMPK and p-AMPK in liver tissue in the combination group was higher than that in the metformin group and the EA group (P<0.05); the protein expression of AMPK in pancreatic tissue in the EA group and the combination group was less than that in the metformin group (P<0.05), and the expression of p-AMPK protein in pancreatic tissue in the combination group was less than that in the metformin group and the EA group (P<0.05). ④Compared with the blank group, the expression of PGP9.5 in pancreatic tissue in the model group was increased (P<0.01); compared with the model group, the expression of PGP9.5 in pancreatic tissue in the metformin group, the EA group and the combination group was decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). The expression of PGP9.5 in pancreatic tissue in the EA group was lower than the metformin group and the combination group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture at "Tianshu" (ST 25) could promote the effect of metformin on activating AMPK in liver tissue of T2DM rats, improve the negative effect of metformin on AMPK in pancreatic tissue, and enhance the hypoglycemic effect of metformin. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of pancreatic intrinsic nervous system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acupuncture Points , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Electroacupuncture , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulins , Metformin , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
3.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 298-302, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927377

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Zusanli" (ST 36) combined with mosapride on gastric emptying rate and gastric motility in the rats with diabetic gastroparesis.@*METHODS@#Using random number table method, 68 male SD rats were divided into a blank group (12 rats) and a model establishment group (56 rats). In the model establishment group, the models of diabetic gastroparesis were established with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin combined with high-fat and high-sugar diet. Six weeks later, the successful rat models in the model establishment group were randomized into a model group, an EA group, a mosapride group and a combined treatment group, 12 rats in each one. In the EA group, EA was exerted at "Zusanli" (ST 36) (disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/15 Hz in frequency, 2 mA in intensity) for 20 min. In the mosapride group, mosapride was intervened with intragastric administration (2 mg/kg). In the combined treatment group, electroacupuncture at "Zusanli" (ST 36) was combined with intragastric administration of mosapride. The intervention was given once daily in each group. There was 1 day at interval after 6-day intervention, consecutively for 5 weeks. At the end of intervention, the random blood glucose, gastric emptying rate and the data of gastric motility (average intra-gastric pressure, amplitude and frequency of gastric motility) were detected.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the blank group, blood glucose was increased in the model group (P<0.001). Blood glucose was reduced in the EA group, the mosapride group and the combined treatment group as compared with the model group separately (P<0.001, P<0.01), whereas, compared with the mosapride group, blood glucose was decreased in the combined treatment group (P<0.05). In comparison with the blank group, the gastric emptying rate, the average intra-gastric pressure and the amplitude of gastric motility were all decreased in the model group (P<0.001) and the frequency of gastric motility was increased (P<0.001). Gastric emptying rate, the average intra-gastric pressure and the amplitude of gastric motility were increased in the EA group, the mosapride group and the combined treatment group (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.001) and the frequency of gastric motility was decreased (P<0.001) as compared with the model group respectively. Compared with the EA group, the average intra-gastric pressure and the amplitude of gastric motility were increased in the combined treatment group (P<0.001). In comparison with the mosapride group, the gastric emptying rate, the average intra-gastric pressure, the amplitude and frequency of gastric motility in the combined treatment group, as well as the frequency of gastric motility in the EA group were all increased (P<0.05, P<0.001, P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture at "Zusanli" (ST 36) combined with intragastric administration of mosapride could regulate blood glucose and improve the gastric motility in the rats with diabetic gastroparesis. The effect is better than either simple electroacupuncture or mosapride.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acupuncture Points , Benzamides , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Gastrointestinal Motility/physiology , Gastroparesis/etiology , Morpholines , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
4.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 425-430, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935557

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic and molecular genetic characteristics, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of histiocyte-rich rhabdomyoblastic tumor (HRRMT). Methods: The clinical data of two cases of HRRMT diagnosed in Fujian Provincial Hospital and Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated People's Hospital from 2020 to 2021 were collected. Histopathology and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were used to assess morphological changes; the genetic changes were analyzed with next-generation sequencing. The relevant literature was reviewed. Results: Both cases showed well-defined solid nodules and soft masses. Microscopically, the tumors had a fibrous pseudocapsule with lymphocytic aggregation, and locally invaded the surrounding skeletal muscle tissue, and the tumor cells were fusiform to epithelioid with an intensive foamy histiocytic infiltrate. No necrosis or mitosis was observed. Immunophenotyping showed the tumor cells were positive for desmin, either one or both skeletal muscle markers (myogenin or MyoD1), and negative for h-caldesmon, ALK and SMA. The Ki-67 index was<5%. Using next-generation sequencing, one case was found to harbour KRAS (G12D) and MSH3 (Q470*) mutations. Conclusions: HRRMT is a newly described skeletal muscle tumor with uncertain malignant potential. Its diagnosis and differential diagnosis depend on morphologic and IHC staining. No specific molecular genetics changes have been identified so far.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Diagnosis, Differential , Histiocytes/pathology , Molecular Biology , Muscle Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis
5.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 400-406, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935553

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the utility of albumin RNAscope in situ hybridization in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and its mimics. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and its mimics and 33 cases of normal tissue were selected from the pathology database of the Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from January 2013 to December 2019. Tissue microarrays were constructed and RNAscope in situ hybridization was performed to detect the expression of albumin mRNA. Results: No albumin mRNA expression was detected in normal tissues except for the liver. All hepatocellular carcinoma regardless of its degree of differentiation and primary or metastatic nature had detectable albumin mRNA, with strong and diffuse staining in 90.7% (49/54) of cases. While the positive rate of HepPar-1, Arg-1 or one of them by immunohistochemistry was 87.0% (47/54), 85.2% (46/54) and 92.6% (50/54) respectively. The positive rates of albumin mRNA in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and biphenotypic hepatocellular carcinoma were 7/15 and 9/10, respectively. The former showed focal or heterogeneous staining, while the latter showed strong and diffuse staining. The positive rate of hepatoid adenocarcinoma was 8/19, and the albumin expression could be diffuse or focal. Sporadic cases of poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma and metastatic colon adenocarcinoma showed focal staining of albumin mRNA. Conclusions: Detection of albumin mRNA by RNAscope in situ hybridization is of great value for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of HCC, and the sensitivity may be improved by combining with HepPar-1 and Arg-1. It also offers different diagnostic clues according to different expression patterns.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Albumins/genetics , Bile Duct Neoplasms/pathology , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , China , Colonic Neoplasms , Diagnosis, Differential , In Situ Hybridization , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Messenger
6.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 126-131, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935488

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of NTRK3 gene rearrangement thyroid papillary carcinoma (PTC). Methods: The PTC cases without BRAF V600E mutation were collected at Fujian Provincial Hospital South Branch from January 2015 to January 2020. The cases of NTRK3 gene rearrangement PTC were examined using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The clinical data, histopathological characteristics, immunohistochemical features and molecular pathological changes were retrospectively analyzed. Data from the TCGA PTC dataset and the literature were also studied. Results: A total of 3 PTC cases harboring NTRK3 gene rearrangement were confirmed. All the patients were female, aged from 26,49,34 years. Histologically, two of them demonstrated a multinodular growth pattern. Only one case showed prominent follicular growth pattern; the other two tumors showed a mixture of follicular, papillary and solid growth patterns. All tumors showed a typical PTC nuclear manifestation, with some nuclear pleomorphism, vacuolated foci and oncocytic features. The characteristic formation of glomeruloid follicular foci was present in two cases which also showed psammoma bodies, and tumoral capsular or angiolymphatic invasion. The background thyroid parenchyma showed chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Mitotic rates were low, and no cases had any tumor necrosis. The pan-TRK and TTF1 testing was both positive in 3 cases, while S-100 and mammaglobin were both negative in them. FISH studies confirmed the NTRK3 gene rearrangement in all 3 cases. Studies on the TCGA datasets and literature revealed similar findings. Conclusions: NTRK3 gene rearrangement PTC is rare. It may be easily misdiagnosed due to the lack of histological and clinicopathological characteristics. Molecular studies such as pan-TRK immunostaining, FISH and even next-generation sequencing are needed to confirm the diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry of pan-TRK performed in the PTC cases without BRAF V600E mutation can be used as a good rapid-screening tool. With the emergence of pan-cancer tyrosine receptor kinase inhibitors, proper diagnosis of these tumors can help determine appropriate treatments and improve their outcomes.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Biomarkers, Tumor , Gene Rearrangement , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Receptor, trkC , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/genetics , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics
7.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 214-220, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888411

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Previous studies usually examine the associations between psychological distresses and quality of life (QOL) with a variable-centred approach, while little is known about the effect of the individual variance in time-varying changes of psychological distresses on QOL. Therefore, this study aimed to examine whether individual variance in psychological distresses during the early phases post-earthquake would develop different QOL's levels among adolescent survivors 10-year after the Wenchuan earthquake.@*METHODS@#Data were extracted from the Wenchuan Earthquake Adolescent Health Cohort Study. The current study included 744 adolescent survivors who effectively completed surveys at 6 months, 24 months, and 10 years after the earthquake. Self-report questionnaires were administered to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, earthquake exposure, life events, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and QOL. Data were analysed using hierarchical multiple regression.@*RESULTS@#Trajectories of psychological distresses were classified as follow: resistance (anxiety 40.73%; depression 54.70%; PTSS 74.46%), recovery (anxiety 17.20%; depression 9.27%; PTSS 10.35%), delayed dysfunction (anxiety 10.35%; depression 18.15%; PTSS 6.18%), and chronicity (anxiety 31.72%; depression 17.88%; PTSS 9.01%). After controlling covariates, hierarchical multiple regression only revealed that the anxiety trajectory with delayed dysfunction remained significantly predictive for four domains of QOL (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment).@*CONCLUSION@#The current study highlights the importance of focusing on the variations in trajectories of anxiety symptoms among disaster survivors and providing individualized mental health services to improve survivors' QOL.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1908-1913, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825178

ABSTRACT

Pazufloxacin eardrops are a topical quinolone agent for the treatment of outer ear infection. The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and topical distribution of pazufloxacin eardrops by a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determining pazufloxacin in plasma and otorrhea. Plasma and otorrhea samples were extracted by acetonitrile-induced protein precipitation and were subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis with an electrospray ionization interface. The samples were separated on an HSS T3 column (50 mm×2.1 mm, 1.8 μm). To avoid the matrix effect, gradient elution was performed with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 1 mmol·L-1 ammonium acetate aqueous solution (0.1% formic acid). The ion transitions for pazufloxacin and pazufloxacin-d4 were m/z 319.1→281.2 and m/z 323.1→285.2, respectively, under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear in the range of 0.010 0 - 8.00 ng·mL-1 for pazufloxacin in plasma and 0.500 - 1 000 ng·mg-1 in otorrhea. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision for pazufloxacin in plasma and in otorrhea met acceptable criteria. The clinical trial was approved by the Society of Ethics and conducted in Nanjing First Hospital and Jiangsu Province Hospital. The validated methods were used in a systemic and topical pharmacokinetic study of 0.1% pazufloxacin eardrops in 3 patients with chronic suppurative otitis media.

9.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 724-730, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829052

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of apoptotic drug Navitoclax (NTX) combined with chemotherapy drug Daunorubicin (DNR) on apoptosis of erythroleukemia cells.@*METHODS@#K562, HEL and TF-1 cells in logarithmic growth phase were treated with NTX, DNR and combination of the two drugs. CCK-8 test, Annexin V-DAPI double-staining flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR were used to detect cell growth, cell apoptosis and expression of BAX, BAK, BCL-2, BCL-xl and BIM respectively. The effects of NTX, DNR and combination of the two drugs on apoptosis of K562, HEL and TF-1 cells were compared and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#NTX combined with DNR could significantly inhibit the growth of K562, HEL and TF-1 cells; Apoptosis detection results showed that the apoptotic rate of K562, HEL and TF-1 cells in combination group was significantly higher than that in NTX and DNR single group; the expression level of apoptosis-related genes BAK and BAX in K562 cells in combination group was significantly higher than that in two single drug groups, and the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein genes BCL-2 and BCL-xl was significantly lower than that in two single drug groups (P<0.05); the expression level of BAK in HEL cells treated with combined drugs for 24 hours was higher than that in DNR group (P < 0.05); the expression level of BCL-2 in TF-1 cells treated with combined drugs for 24 hours was lower than that in two single drugs groups while the expression level of BAK in 48 hours was the highest in combined drugs group, and the expression level of BCL-2 and BCL-xl in combined drugs group was lower than that in NTX group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#NTX combined with DNR can significantly promote the apoptosis of erythroleukemia cell lines K562, HEL and TF-1, and induce the expression of apoptosis-related genes. This study provides a new scheme for the clinical treatment of erythroleukemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aniline Compounds , Apoptosis , Daunorubicin , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute , Sulfonamides
10.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 460-465, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828722

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features and genetic mutations of children with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) and malignant myeloid transformation.@*METHODS@#Next-generation sequencing was used to analyze the gene mutations in 11 SDS children with malignant myeloid transformation, and their clinical features and genetic mutations were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Of the 11 children with SDS, 9 (82%) presented with refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC), 1 (9%) had myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts (MDS-EB), and 1 (9%) had acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC). The median age of onset of malignant myeloid transformation was 48 months (ranged 7 months to 14 years). Of the 11 children, 45% had abnormalities in the hematological system alone. Mutations of the SBDS gene were detected in all 11 children, among whom 5 (45%) had c.258+2T>C homozygous mutation and 3 (27%) had c.184A>T+c.258+2T>C compound heterozygous mutation. The new mutations of the SBDS gene, c.634_635insAACATACCTGT+c.637_638delGA and c.8T>C, were rated as "pathogenic" and "possibly pathogenic" respectively. The 3-year predicted overall survival rates of children transformed to RCC and MDS-EB/AML-MRC were 100% and 0% respectively (P=0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#SDS children may have hematological system symptoms as the only manifestation, which needs to be taken seriously in clinical practice. The type of malignant transformation is associated with prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Mutation , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome
11.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 466-472, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828721

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the efficacy of the CAMS-2005 and CAMS-2009 regimens in treating children with non-core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (non-CBF AML) and to study the prognosis factors.@*METHODS@#A total of 161 children who were initially diagnosed with non-CBF AML from April 2005 to December 2015 were enrolled as study subjects, and were divided into a CAMS-2005 regimen group (n=52) and a CAMS-2009 regimen group (n=109) according to the chemotherapy regimen provided. The efficacy was retrospectively compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The complete remission (CR) rate at the first course of treatment was higher in the CAMS-2009 regimen group than that in the CMAS-2005 regimen group (63.3% vs 46.2%; P0.05). Children who achieved CR at the first course of treatment had significantly higher OS and event-free survival rates than those who did not achieved CR (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The CAMS-2009 regimen is superior to the CAMS-2005 regimen in improving the CR rate in children with non-CBF AML after induction treatment. Whether CR is achieved at the first course of treatment can affect the OS rate of children with non-CBF AML.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Prognosis , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies
12.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 739-743, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828674

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features and prognosis of core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML) in children.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed from the chart review data of children who were newly diagnosed with CBF-AML in the Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, from August 2009 to November 2015. According to the type of fusion gene, the children were divided into CBFB-MYH11 and AML1-ETO groups. Clinical features and prognosis were analyzed and compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#A total of 91 children with CBF-AML were enrolled in this study, among whom there were 74 (81%) in the AML1-ETO group and 17 (19%) in the CBFB-MYH11 group. Additional chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 38 children (42%), and deletion of sex chromosome was the most common abnormality and was observed in 28 children (31%). After the first course of induction treatment, the complete remission rate was 97% (88/91), the recurrence rate was 29% (26/91), the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rate was 65%±6%, and the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 75%±5%. There were no significant differences between the AML1-ETO and CBFB-MYH11 groups in 5-year EFS rate (62%±7% vs 77%±11%, P>0.05) or 5-year OS rate (72%±6% vs 88%±9%, P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#AML1-ETO is the main type of fusion gene in children with CBF-AML, and deletion of sex chromosome is the most common type of additional chromosomal abnormalities. Children with CBF-AML often have a good prognosis, and the children with AML1-ETO have a similar prognosis to those with CBFB-MYH11.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit , Core Binding Factors , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Oncogene Proteins, Fusion , Prognosis , RUNX1 Translocation Partner 1 Protein , Retrospective Studies
13.
Chinese Medical Sciences Journal ; (4): 278-282, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828456

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic mutations in 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine reductase (KDSR) gene are associated with keratinization disorders and impaired platelet function. However, no case with both homozygotic mutation of and hepatic hemangioendothelioma has ever been reported due to its low prevalence. Here we report a seven months old Chinese boy with a homozygotic missense mutation in and both of his parents carry a same heterozygous mutation. He was born with thick plate-like scales overlying erythrodermic skin, but the skin symptoms were resolved spontaneously over the first month of his birth. He was also diagnosed with hepatic hemangioendothelioma at birth and accepted a resection surgery at 2 months old. At birth, his platelet count was severely low (10-20×10/L) with recurrent skin and gingival bleeding. Meanwhile, he suffered a mild normocytic, normochromic anemia with normal iron and hematinic levels. The anemia spontaneously recovered over the first 6 months, while the platelet count keeped at a low level (4-20×10/L). Treatment with corticosteroids, immunoglobulin or thrombopoietin was all suboptimal.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 432-439, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780125

ABSTRACT

Covalent tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) can inhibit the signaling pathway of tumor cells by covalent binding with cysteine residues of target proteins, which has the advantages of high potency, extended duration of action and overcoming drug resistance. In this article, we will review the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of some covalent TKIs. Currently, the covalent TKIs approved by US food and drug administration (FDA) are afatinib, neratinib, dacomitinib, osimertinib, ibrutinib and acalabrutinib. Pyrotinib have been approved by National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) to reach the market recently. Covalent TKIs can covalently bind with plasma proteins, especially human serum albumin, thus effected the pharmacokinetics of these drugs.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 360-365, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780105

ABSTRACT

Nifedipine, a calcium channel antagonist, is metabolized mainly by CYP3A4 to dehydronifedipine. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to simultaneously determine nifedipine and dehydronifedipine in human plasma using d6-nifedipine/d6-dehydronifedipine as internal standards. After extraction from the plasma by protein precipitation, the analytes and internal standard were separated on a Hypersil Gold C18 (50 mm×2.1 mm, 1.9 μm). The mobile phase consisted of methanol and 5 mmol·L-1ammonium acetate aqueous solution (0.1% formic acid). Positive electrospray ionization was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with transitions of m/z 347.3→254.1 for nifedipine, m/z 345.2→283.9 for dehydronifedipine, m/z 353.3→257.1 for d6-nifedipine, m/z 351.2→286.9 for d6-dehydronifedipine. The method had a linear calibration curves over the concentrations of 0.10-80.0 ng·mL-1 for nifedipine and 0.050-40.0 ng·mL-1 for dehydronifedipine. The validated LC-MS/MS method has been successfully used study pharmacokinetic interactions of apatinib (CYP3A4 inhibitor) and nifedipine (CYP3A4 substrate) in human. This clinical trial was approved by the society of ethics and conducted in the first hospital of China medical university.

16.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 463-467, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774051

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) in children.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 13 children with WAS.@*RESULTS@#All 13 children were boys, with a median age of onset of 3 months (range 1-48 months) and a median age of 24 months (range 1-60 months) at the time of diagnosis. Of the 13 children, only 3 had typical WAS and the remaining 10 children had X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT). The mean WAS score was 2 (range 1-3), the mean platelet count was 20.5×10/L [range (13-46)×10/L], and the mean platelet volume was 8.1 fl (range 6.7-12.1 fl). Lymphocyte subsets and immunoglobulins were measured for 4 children, among whom 1 (25%) had a reduction in both the percentage of CD3T cells per lymphocyte and lymphocyte per nuclear cells, 1(25%) had a reduction in CD3CD56 NK cells. Among these 4 children, 1 (25%) had an increase in IgG, 2 (50%) had a reduction in IgM, 1 (25%) had a reduction in IgA, and 4 (100%) had an increase in IgE. A total of 14 gene mutations belonging to 13 types were found in 13 children, among which there were 9 missense mutations (65%), 2 splicing mutations (14%), 2 nonsense mutation (14%), and 1 frameshift mutation (7%). The median follow-up time was 39 months (range 3-62 months), and all 13 children survived.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with WAS often have a young age of onset, and most of them are boys. Major clinical features include thrombocytopenia with a reduction in platelet volume. Missense mutation is the main type of gene mutation.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Male , Mutation , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein
17.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 24-28, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the complications and clinical outcome of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing mitoxantrone-cytarabine-etoposide (MAE) induction therapy.@*METHODS@#A total of 170 children with AML were given MAE induction therapy, and the complications and remission rate were analyzed after treatment.@*RESULTS@#The male/female ratio was 1.33:1 and the mean age was 7.4 years (range 1-15 years). Leukocyte count at diagnosis was 29.52×10/L [range (0.77-351)×10/L]. Of all children, 2 had M0-AML, 24 had M2-AML, 2 had M4-AML, 48 had M5-AML, 3 had M6-AML, 7 had M7-AML, 69 had AML with t(8;21)(q22;q22), and 15 had AML with inv(16)(p13.1q22) or t(16;16)(p13.1;q22). The most common complication was infection (158/170, 92.9%). Among these 158 patients, 22 (13.9%) had agranulocytosis with pyrexia (with no definite focus of infection), and 136 (86.1%) had definite focus of infection (including bloodstream infection). Other complications included non-infectious diarrhea, bleeding, and drug-induced hepatitis. Treatment-related mortality was observed in 10 children, among whom 8 had severe infection, 1 had multiple organ failure, and 1 had respiratory failure. Remission rate was evaluated for 156 children and the results showed a complete remission rate of 85.3%, a partial remission rate of 4.5%, and a non-remission rate of 10.3%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Induction therapy with the MAE regimen helps to achieve a good remission rate in children with AML after one course of treatment. Infection is the main complication and a major cause of treatment-related mortality.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Cytarabine , Drug Administration Schedule , Etoposide , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Drug Therapy , Mitoxantrone , Remission Induction
18.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 977-980, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776230

ABSTRACT

The combination of acupuncture and medication is not the simple adding of the two treatments, but identifying the etiology and pathogenesis behind the disease at first, followed dynamic integration of different therapies according to the characteristics of acupuncture-moxibustion and medication. Professor believes that a more comprehensive understanding based on multi-system syndrome differentiation is essential for lumbar disc herniation. In treatment, the needling technique combined with flying needling could regulate collaterals and adjust spirit; acupoint injection could transfer medication into acupoints; herb decoction could eliminate the pathogens and strengthen the root; the balanced cupping combined with exercise therapy could regulate tendons and prevent recurrence. The principle of the combination of acupuncture and medication could organically integrate the advantages of different therapies, so their effects can be enhanced or supplemented. This method has achieved superior effects in clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Intervertebral Disc Displacement , Therapeutics , Moxibustion
19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1357-1363, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780008

ABSTRACT

The study was designed to establish an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of scutellarin and its major metabolite isoscutellarin in rat tissues and plasma, and to investigate the effect of different route of administration on the tissue distribution of scutellarin and its metabolite in rats. Rats were treated both intravenously and intragastrically with 20 and 80 mg·kg−1 scutellarin, respectively. Blood and tissues were collected at predetermined intervals. The concentrations of scutellarin and isoscutellarin were determined by a validated LC-MS/MS method. The method was linear in concentration ranges of 10.0/5.00 − 5 000/2 500 ng·mL−1 for scutellarin/isoscutellarin in the rat plasma and 30.0/15.0 − 10 000/5 000 ng·g−1 in tissues with acceptable accuracy and precision. Data obtained after an intravenous administration of scutellarin to rats showed that the drug was distributed predominantly into the small intestine, bladder and kidney. The exposures of the metabolite isoscutellarin in plasma and tissue were both less than 5%of the parent drug. After an intragastric administration, stomach wall and small intestine were the preferred sites for scutellarin disposition, followed by bladder, adrenal gland and lung at concentrations significantly higher than its plasma concentration. The plasma exposure of isoscutellarin was higher than that of the parent drug, but its tissue exposure was significantly lower than that of scutellarin. The method established in this study was successfully applied to characterization of the tissue profiles of scutellarin and its metabolite in rats. The route of administration has a marked impact on the disposition of scutellarin and its metabolite in rats. Ratios of the tissue to plasma concentrations after intragastric administration were obviously higher than those after intravenous administration. Scutellarin could pass the blood-brain barrier in a marked extent, but isoscutellarin was not detected in the rat brain, which may be attributed to the fact that scutellarin is a higher-affinity substrate for OATP than isoscutellarin.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1344-1350, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780006

ABSTRACT

Flavonol glycoside is in clinical trials for treatment of hyperlipidemia. An accurate and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of flavonol glycoside (M0), aglycone (M1) and glucuronide conjugate (M2) in rat plasma. d6-Flavonol glycoside was used as internal standard (IS). After extraction from the plasma by protein precipitation, the analytes and internal standard were separated on a XDB C18 column (50 mm×4.6 mm, 1.8 μm) using a gradient elution procedure. The mobile phase consisted of methanol and water (0.2% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.6 mL·min−1. The total run time was 4.5 min. Positive electrospray ionization was performed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with transitions of m/z 461.3 → m/z 299.1 for M0, m/z 299.1 → m/z 283.1 for M1, m/z 475.0 → m/z 299.1 for M2, and m/z 467.3 → m/z 305.1 for d6-flavonol glycoside. The method was validated and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics study of flavonol glycoside in SD rats which were given flavonol glycoside (30 mg·kg−1) by gavage. The Cmaxof M0 is (341 ±106) ng·mL−1 and AUC0−t is (1 960 ±725) h·ng·mL−1, while the Cmaxof M2 is (1 720 ±843) ng·mL−1and AUC0−t is (8 510 ±2 920) h·ng·mL−1. The results suggest that flavonol glycoside existed mainly in the form of M0 and M2 in rats. After flavonol glycoside being hydrolyzed by the intestinal flora, it was absorbed in the form of aglycone and further metabo­lized to M2 after the first-pass effect. In this paper, the main metabolites of flavonol glycoside in rat plasma were determined for the first time, which provided a basis for the design of clinical pharmacokinetic experiment.

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