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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886757

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the population dynamics and Echinococcus infections in small rodents around human settlement in Yushu City, Qinghai Province. Methods Rodents were captured using the mouse trap method in pastures from Batang Township and Longbao Township of Yushu City, Qinghai Province on May, August and October, 2018. The body weight and snout-vent length of all captured rodents were measured, and the species was identified according to the rodent morphology. Genomic DNA was extracted from rodent liver specimens and lesion specimens, and the mitochondrial cox1 gene of Echinococcus was amplified using PCR assay for identification of parasite species. In addition, the tissue specimens positive for PCR assay were sampled for pathological examinations. The prevalence of Echinococcus infections was estimated in rodents, and a phylogenetic tree was created based on Echinococcus cox1 gene sequences. Results A total of 285 small rodents were captured, including 143 Ochotona curzoniae (50.2%), 141 Lasiopodomys fuscus (49.5%), and 1 Neodon irene (0.3%), and there was a remarkable variation in habitat selection among these three rodent species. The number of L. fuscus correlated positively with vegetation coverage (r = 0.350, P = 0.264), with the greatest number seen in August, and the number of O. curzoniae negatively with vegetation coverage (r = −0.371, P = 0.235), with the highest number seen in August and the lowest number in May. The female/male ratios of O. curzoniae and voles were 1:0.96 and 0.82:1, respectively. The body weight (r = 0.519, P < 0.01) and snout-vent length (r = 0.578, P < 0.01) of O. curzoniae showed a tendency towards a rise with month, while the body weight (r = −0.401, P < 0.01) and snout-vent length (r = −0.570, P < 0.01) of voles presented a tendency towards a reduction with month. No Echinococcus infection was detected in voles, while 2.1% prevalence of E. shiquicus infection was seen in O. curzoniae. Phylogenetic analysis revealed consistent sequences of cox1 gene from E. shiquicus in Yushu City of Qinghai Province and Shiqu County, Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province. Conclusions The small rodents around the human settlement in Yushu City of Qinghai Province mainly include O. curzoniae and L. fuscus, with the greatest numbers seen in May and August, respectively. Following the concerted efforts for echinococcosis control, the prevalence of Echinococcus infections is low in small rodents around the human settlement in Yushu City; however, there is still a risk of echinococcosis transmission.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825236

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the advantages, disadvantages, opportunities and challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in Laos, so as to propose the corresponding healthy policies and suggestions. Methods A SWOT analysis was performed to analyze the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat for the schistosomiasis elimination program in Laos, and the corresponding policy suggestions were proposed. Results The national schistosomiasis elimination program of Laos receives governmental emphases and great supports. A strategy based on mass drug administration was proposed and a sentinel site-bases surveillance system has been built for schistosomiasis elimination in Laos; however, there are several challenges for the national schistosomiasis elimination program in Laos, including insufficient financial supports, inadequate professional capability, weak schistosomiasis control awareness in community populations and difficulty in vector control. Conclusions Persistent governmental leadership, increasing financial supports, strengthening professional team building and improving schistosomiasis control awareness in community populations are required to facilitate the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in Laos.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327770

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the safety and consistency of domestic live attenuated varicella vaccines (LAVVs) at gene level.Methods The key genes (ORF38,ORF54,and ORF62) of LAVVs produced by four Chinese manufacturers were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced.The sequencing results were compared with the sequences of Dumas,P-Oka,and V-Oka strains in GenBank and with the sequences of Varilrix (GSK) and Varivax (Merck).Results The ORF38 and ORF54 gene sequences of four domestic LAVVs were the same as each other and completely consistent with the sequences of V-Oka and Varilrix;however,it was different from Varivax (Merck) at one site.The ORF62 gene sequences of four domestic LAVVs were similar,and had individual nucleotide differences with V-Oka,Varilrix(GSK),and Varivax (Merck).Conclusions The sequences of ORF38,ORF54,and ORF62 of four domestic LAVVs are almost the same,showing good stability.They have small differences with V-Oka,Varilrix(GSK),and Varivax (Merck),without introducing new mutations.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321587

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the impact of intestinal lymphatic vessels ligation and different enteral nutrition support during ischemia/reperfusion on intestinal permeability, systemic inflammatory response and pulmonary dysfunction in a rat model.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Seventy-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into normal diet group, regular enteral nutrition group, glutamine-enriched group, 0-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (wo-3PUFA) group, and sham control after gastrostomy. All the enteral nutrition group were isocaloric (1046 kJ kg-' d-1) and isonitrogenous (1.8 g N kg-' d-'). After enteral nutrition for 7 days, the rats were subjected to intestinal ischemia for 60 min, or ischemia plus mesenteric lymph duct ligation except for the sham group followed by 3 days of nutrition (72 h). Intestinal permeability (lactose/mannitol ratio in the urine, L/M) was determined on the 5th, 7th and 9th day after gastrostomy. The levels of serum diamine oxidase, endotoxin, cytokines, ALT and AST were detected at the 11th day after gastrostomy. Mucosal thickness was measured using small intestine and villusheight. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), NO synthase, and apoptotic index were detected in lung tissue.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Ischemia for 60 min could cause intestinal injury. Intestinal permeability(L/M)was increased significantly in every group on the first day after ischemia (P<0.05). However, L/M decreased significantly 3 days after ischemia (P<0.05). The groups with Glu and o-3PUFA-enriched nutrition almost restored to normal level (P>0.05). The level of L/M in lymphatic ligation group was significantly lower than non-ligation group (P<0.05). The levels of endotoxin and cytokine were reduced, mucosal thickness and villous height were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the groups of Glu and o-3PUFA-enriched nutrition compared with enteral nutrition and normal diet groups during intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury. MPO, NO, NOS and the apoptosis index of lung tissue decreased in the groups of Glu and o-3PUFA-enriched as well as after lymph duct ligation (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The distant tissue-lung damage and systemic inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury may be related to some factors in the intestinal lymph. Blocking the gut-lymph pathway and/or adding Glu and o-3PUFA in enteral nutrition may reduce intestinal permeability and endotoxin, increase mucosal thickness, attenuate the systemic inflammatory reaction, and prevent lung injury</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Disease Models, Animal , Enteral Nutrition , Methods , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Pharmacology , Glutamine , Pharmacology , Intestines , Ligation , Lung , Pathology , Lymphatic Vessels , Male , Permeability , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury , Pathology , Therapeutics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-298724

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the role of gastric mucosa apoptosis in the stress of ischemic stroke, and to discuss the relationship between gastric mucosa apoptosis and gastric barrier.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ten dogs were artificially made ischemic stroke by operation (IS group), and another 10 shamly-operated dogs were served as control group. Sucrose permeability were measured after the operation. All dogs were sacrificed 24 hours after operation to measure the gastric mucosal apoptosis index, gastric gross classification, and histological score.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The gastric mucosal apoptosis index in the IS group were significantly higher than in the control group (14.83 +/- 4.41 vs. 5.60 +/- 2.61, P < 0.05). The gastric mucosal apoptosis index were correlated with the sucrose permeability (r = 0. 89, P < 0.05) , gastric gross classification (r = 0. 87, P < 0.05), and histological score (r = 0.92, P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Although ischemic stroke will not cause the obvious damage in the respiratory and circulatory system, it is responsible for the apoptosis of epithelial cell in the gastric mucosa and gastric barrier dysfunction. The apoptosis index is closely correlated with the damage of the function and morphology of the gastric barrier, indicating that the epithelial cell apoptosis acceleration in the gastric mucosa may result in the damage of gastric barrier function.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Physiology , Dogs , Epithelial Cells , Pathology , Gastric Mucosa , Pathology , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Random Allocation , Stroke , Pathology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273810

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To estimate the effect of the lymph duct ligation on systemic inflammatory factors and endotoxins during intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Male SD rats underwent occlusion of superior mesenteric artery for 60 min followed by reperfusion for 120 min plus lymph duct ligation or not. Forty rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A (blank); group B (sham); group C (intestinal I/R); group D (intestinal I/R plus lymph duct ligation). Mesenteric lymph nodes were harvested for standard bacteriologic cultures. The endotoxin, D-lactate, diamine oxidase (DAO), and cytokines in serum were detected.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The rates of bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes were 40% in group C and 20% in group D. No positive lymph node cultures were encountered in any of group A and B. The serum cytokines (except for sICAM-1) , D-lactate, DAO and endotoxin levels were lower in group D than those in group C (P<0.05), but both were higher than those in group A and B (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>During intestinal I/R injury, blockage the lymph flow from gut into bloodstream decreases the levels of cytokines, and significantly attenuates the increase in intestinal permeability.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation , Intestinal Diseases , Metabolism , Microbiology , Pathology , Intestines , Pathology , Ligation , Lymph Nodes , Pathology , Lymphatic System , General Surgery , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion Injury , Metabolism , Microbiology , Pathology
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-313669

ABSTRACT

In the past decade, the focus of nutritional study shifted from epidemiology and physiology to molecular biology. Advanced research strategies and technologies including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and system biology have been gradually applied in clinical nutrition. This article reviews the effects of nutrients on gene expressions, application of modern molecular biology in clinical nutrition, as well as the advances and challenges in recent years..


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Physiology , Carbohydrates , Physiology , Gene Expression Regulation , Genomics , Humans , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Proteomics , Vitamins , Physiology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318814

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is part of the immune response, and inflammation may also induce or exaggerate some diseases through production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. More evidence have shown that the individual level of cytokine production is affected by single nucleotide polymorphisms in cytokine genes. Furthermore, as several nutrients participate in DNA protection and stabilization, altering gene expression and individual phenotype, nutrition has important interaction with inflammation. The purpose of this review is to give a recent update informations on the interaction of single nucleotide polymorphisms, inflammation and nutrition.


Subject(s)
Fatty Acids , Pharmacology , Fish Oils , Pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation , Genetics , Therapeutics , Nutrition Therapy , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Vitamins , Pharmacology , Zinc , Pharmacology
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