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Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 1-9, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878229


Astrocytes are a heterogenous group of macroglia present in all regions of the brain and play critical roles in many aspects of brain development, function and disease. Previous studies suggest that the B-cell lymphoma-2 associated X protein (BAX)-dependent apoptosis plays essential roles in regulating neuronal number and achieving optimal excitation/inhibition ratio. The aim of the present paper was to study whether BAX regulates astrocyte distribution in a region-specific manner. Immunofluorescence staining of SOX9 was used to analyze and compare astrocyte density in primary somatosensory cortex, motor cortex, retrosplenial cortex and hippocampus in heterozygous and homozygous BAX knockout mice at age of six weeks when cortical development has finished and glia development has reached a relatively steady state. The results showed that astrocyte density varied significantly among different cortical subdivisions and between cortex and hippocampus. In contrast to the significant increase in GABAergic interneurons, the overall and region-specific astrocyte density remained unchanged in the cortex when BAX was absent. Interestingly, a significant reduction of astrocyte density was observed in the hippocampus of BAX knockout mice. These data suggest that BAX differentially regulates neurons and astrocytes in cortex as well as astrocytes in different brain regions during development. This study provided important information about the regional heterogeneity of astrocyte distribution and the potential contribution of BAX gene during development.

Animals , Astrocytes , Hippocampus , Interneurons , Mice , Neurons , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/genetics
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-698607


BACKGROUND: Although more and more accurate and personalized detection and assistive tools are used in the field of orthopedics with the development of technology, the preoperative CT is still the first-line examination choice of many orthopedic surgeons. Therefore, to master the lumbar spine CT imaging performance is not only the basis of spine surgeons, but also the cornerstone of spinal nail surgery. OBJECTIVE: Through CT imaging technique, we measured the parameters of lumbar pedicle imaging, and understood its internal structure as the basis for the choice of screws, in order to improve the safety and accuracy of nail surgery. METHODS: Totally 36 cases without lumbar vertebrae-related disease undergoing lumbar vertebra and abdominal cavity CT scan were randomly selected, including 20 males and 16 females at the age of (43.3±12.3) years. PACS was used to reconstruct lumbar vertebrae, and the related imaging parameters were measured. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) There was no significant difference between the left and right sides of the pedicle for paired t-test (P >0.05). (2) Pedicle sagittal angle had downward trend, the level of change was small; L4increased relative to L3; L5level was minimum at the average of -1.3°. Pedicle transverse angle had gradually increased trend, and maximum at L5; the average was 25.4°. (3) The length of the pedicle channel increased first and then decreased in the lumbar segment; the longest average was 52.2 mm in the L2segment, the shortest at L5, with an average of 47.4 mm. (4) The pedicle height was slightly narrowed at L1-L3levels; the smallest was 15.4 mm (L3mean), and reached the maximum in the L5at 22.7 mm (L5mean). Cancellous bone height also showed the same trend, the minimum in the L3at 10.2 mm, the maximum in the L5at 17.9 mm. (5) Lumbar pedicle width showed an upward trend, L1minimum of 7.7 mm, L5maximum of 12.5 mm. Cancellous bone width also became a similar upward trend; the narrowest L1, averagely 4.9 mm; the maximum L5, averagely 8.5 mm. (6) Overall, the upper lumbar pedicle channel was slender, while the lower lumbar spine was slightly short. (7) The parameters of the pedicle can be used as the basis for selecting the appropriate screw. At the same time, lumbar pedicle morphology has a certain difference, and there is a certain law. Accurately grasping its structure and image characteristics of pedicle screw fixation is the basis of surgery. The preoperative imaging data collection and assessment, combined with the general situation of patients, and the development of personalized programming, will help in improving the safety and accuracy of screw placement.

Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2189-2193, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335635


<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Obstetric hysterectomy (OH) as a lifesaving measure to manage uncontrolled uterine hemorrhage appears to be increasing recently. The objective of this study was to determine the etiology and changing trends of OH and to identify those at particular risk of OH to enhance the early involvement of multidisciplinary intensive care.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective study was carried out in patients who had OH in China-Japan Friendship Hospital from 2004 to 2014. Maternal characteristics, preoperative evaluation, operative reports, and prenatal outcomes were studied in detail.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were 19 cases of OH among a total of 18,838 deliveries. Comparing the study periods between 2004-2010 and 2011-2014, OH increased from 0.8/1000 (10/12,890) to 1.5/1000 (9/5948). Indications for OH have changed significantly during this study period with uterine atony decreasing from 50.0% (5/10) to 11.1% (1/9) (P < 0.05), and placenta accreta as the indication for OH has increased significantly from 20.0% (2/10) to 77.8% (7/9) (P < 0.05). Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to make an exact antepartum diagnosis of placenta accreta. A multidisciplinary management led to improved outcomes for patients with placenta accreta.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>As the multiple cesarean delivery rates have risen, there has been a dramatic increase in OH for placenta accreta. An advance antenatal diagnosis of ultrasonography, and MRI, and a multidisciplinary teamwork can maximize patients' safety and outcome.</p>

Adult , Female , Humans , Hysterectomy , Patient Care Team , Placenta Accreta , General Surgery , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-839445


Glucocorticoid (GC) has important physiological and pharmacological effects, which are mainly mediated by the GC receptor (GR). As a ligand-dependent transcriptional factor, GR activity is regulated by phosphorylation as well as GC; it is subject to hormone-dependent and -independent phosphorylation on several serine and threonine residues, especially in the N terminus. The GR is phosphorylated by cell-specific kinases such as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3J7beta;) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Phosphorylation regulates signaling and transcriptional activity of GR, thereby modulates the response of cells to GC and may be involved in the development and progression of diseases. Here we reviewed the recent research on GR phosphorylation and its pathophysiological significance.