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1.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 71-84, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007909

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the role and molecular mechanism of exosomal miR-224-5p in colorectal cancer (CRC).@*METHODS@#The miR-224-5p expression in CRC patient tissues and cell-derived exosomes was measured by laser capture microdissection and qRT-PCR, respectively. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was used to determine the target gene of miR-224-5p. The protein expressions of p53 and unc-51 like kinase 2 (ULK2) in CRC cells were detected by western blot. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle and apoptosis. Cell proliferation was measured by CCK8 and EdU assay.@*RESULTS@#The miR-224-5p expression was upregulated in CRC tissues and increased progressively with the rise of CRC stage. CRC cells secreted extracellular miR-224-5p mainly in an exosome-dependent manner, and then miR-224-5p could be transferred to surrounding tumor cells to regulate cell proliferation in the form of autocrine or paracrine. Moreover, ULK2 was characterized as a direct target of miR-224-5p and was downregulated in CRC tissues. Interestingly, ULK2 inhibited CRC cell proliferation in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, exosome-derived miR-224-5p partially reversed the proliferation regulation of ULK2 on CRC cells.@*CONCLUSION@#Our findings demonstrate that exosome-transmitted miR-224-5p promotes p53-dependent cell proliferation by targeting ULK2 in CRC, which may offer promising targets for CRC prevention and therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 954-962, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978774

ABSTRACT

With the development of small-molecule immunotherapy drugs, its combination with the programmed cell death ligand 1/programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-L1/PD-1) antibodies would provide a new opportunity for cancer treatment. Therefore, targeting PD-L1/PD-1 axis by small-molecule drug is an attractive approach to enhance antitumor immunity and considered as the next generation of tumor immunotherapy. In the present study, we investigated the anti-tumor role of salvianolic acid B (SAB) by regulating the PD-L1 level in tumors. Changes of total PD-L1 and membrane PD-L1 levels were determined by Western blot, flow cytometry and PD-1/PD-L1 interaction assays. The expression of mRNA level of PD-L1 was detected by real-time PCR. The cytotoxicity of activated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cells toward co-cultured tumor cells was measured by cell impedance assay and crystal violet experiment. Surface plasma resonance technique was used to analyze the direct interaction between SAB and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 2 (USP2). The antitumor effect of SAB in vivo was examined by C57BL/6 mice bearing MC38 xenograft tumor (all animal experiments were conducted in accordance with the Animal Ethics Committee of the Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Western blot and flow cytometry assay showed that SAB can significantly downregulate the abundance of PD-L1 in RKO and PC3 cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. PD-1/PD-L1 binding assay revealed that SAB reduces the binding of tumor cells to recombinant PD-1 protein. Mechanism studies revealed that SAB can bind directly to USP2 protein and inhibit its activity, thus promote the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway degradation of PD-L1 proteins. In addition, Cell impedance and crystal violet staining indicated that SAB enhances the killing activity of co-cultured PBMC cells toward tumor cells. MC38 tumor transplanted mouse experiments revealed that SAB treatment displayed significant suppression in the growth of MC38 tumor xenografts in C57BL/6 mice with an inhibition rate of 63.2% at 20 mg·kg-1. Our results demonstrate that SAB exerts its anti-tumor activity by direct binding and inhibiting the activity of USP2 and reducing the PD-L1 level. Our study provides an important material basis and scientific basis for the potential application of SAB in tumor immunotherapy drug targeting USP2-PD-L1 axis.

3.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 51-57, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927334

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the characteristics and rules of acupoint sensitization phenomena based on knee osteoarthritis (KOA), one of the clinical dominant diseases of acupuncture-moxibustion.@*METHODS@#In combination with literature and expert experiences, the acupoints with the highest use frequency in treatment of KOA were screened, e.g. Heding (EX-LE 2), Liangqiu (ST 34), Mingmen (GV 4), Neixiyan (EX-LE 4), Ququan (LR 8) and Dubi (ST 35). In 814 patients with KOA and 217 healthy subjects, the acupoint temperature, mechanic pain threshold and pressure pain threshold were detected separately. Using machine learning method, the sensitization was judged at each acupoint.@*RESULTS@#Compared with healthy subjects, the acupoint temperature was increased and the mechanic pain threshold and pressure pain threshold were reduced in KOA patients (P<0.05). Besides, the cut-off value was presented to distinguish whether the acupoint was sensitized or not. The results of machine learning showed that the highest prediction accuracy of acupoint sensitization was 86.7% (Shenshu [BL 23]) and the lowest one was 73.9% (Heding [EX LE 2]). The prediction accuracy at the third clinical stage trial was higher, the highest was 93.3% (Ququan [LR 8]) in KOA patients.@*CONCLUSION@#It is confirmed that the acupoint sensitization reflects the characteristics of disease and is correlative with the conditions of illness, which may provide the reference for the auxiliary diagnosis and condition assessment of KOA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Moxibustion , Osteoarthritis, Knee/therapy , Treatment Outcome
4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2612-2621, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941520

ABSTRACT

More and more studies have shown that NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has become the regulatory factor of inflammatory response and protective immunity, and the assembly and activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes are closely related to the anti-tumor immunity effect. Depending on the cell type and stimuli, activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome can induce immune cells to become polarized, hyperactive, or pyroptotic, releasing interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, which leads to cascade immune or inflammatory responses, and its role in tumor immunity has received extensive attention. Here, we review the mechanisms of the NLRP3 inflammasome enhancing CD8+ T cells-mediated anti-tumor immunity by inducing the pyroptosis of tumor cell, the pyroptosis or hyperactive state of dendritic cells (DCs), and the pyroptosis or polarization of the macrophages. Different anti-tumor immune roles of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in tumor cells and immune cells provide new directions for future research and may influence the development of next-generation immunotherapy.

5.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 635-642, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942491

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in 3 central cities (Chifeng, Hohhot, Ordos) and the surrounding rural areas of Inner Mongolia region, and to look for possible risk factors related to the disease. Methods: From March to October of 2019, a multi-stage stratified random sampling epidemiological survey was conducted in Chifeng, Hohhot, Ordos and rural areas. The AR-related factors of the population were obtained in the form of face-to-face questionnaire survey, and the skin prick test (SPT) was taken for the participants. AR disease was diagnosed according to the "Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis (2015, Tianjin)". The daily airborne pollen situation in the three regions was monitored during the same period. SPSS 23.0 was used to analyze all survey results. Results: A total of 6 818 questionnaires were recovered, with 6 393 valid questionnaires. The self-reported prevalence of AR was 27.72% (1 772/6 393) and the confirmed prevalence of AR was 17.10% (1 093/6 393). The prevalence of perennial AR was 1.83% (117/6 393) while the prevalence of seasonal AR was 15.27% (976/6 393). The prevalence of AR diagnosed in females was higher than that in males (19.19% vs 15.34%, χ²=16.594, P<0.001) and the prevalence of females in the two age groups of 36-45 years and 46-55 years was significantly higher than that of males (18.17% vs 9.73%, 14.13% vs 7.25%, χ2 value was 23.848, 18.772, respectively, all P<0.001). The prevalence of confirmed diagnoses in ethnic minorities was higher than that of Han nationality, and the prevalence of confirmed diagnoses in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas (23.13% vs 16.20%, 27.27% vs 9.71%, χ2 value was 24.516, 336.024, respectively, all P<0.001). The main nasal symptoms of AR patients were sneezing (91.31%), nasal congestion (85.91%) and nasal itching (85.00%). The most common concomitant disease of AR was allergic conjunctivitis (73.99%). Asthma (OR=6.629), food allergy (OR=3.236), drug allergy (OR=1.786), application of antibiotics (OR=1.553), recent home decoration (OR=2.307), and smoking (OR=1.322) were the AR related risk factors. The highest proportion of SPT positive reactions was Artemisia annua (80.15%). The peak period of clinical symptoms of AR patients in Inner Mongolia region was July to September, which was consistent with the second peak period of airborne pollen monitoring. Conclusions: The prevalence of AR in central cities and the surrounding rural areas of Inner Mongolia region is 17.10%, and Artemisia species is the most important pollen allergen in this area. History of asthma, food allergy, drug allergy, antibiotic use, home decoration and smoking history are the related risk factors for AR.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Allergens , China/epidemiology , Pollen , Prevalence , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Urbanization
6.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 1198-1201, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877586

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the distribution characteristics and rules of pain sensitivity points on body surface in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA).@*METHODS@#A total of 916 patients with KOA were selected in this study, the pain sensitivity points of local site of knee joint were probed by thumb palpation. Tape was used to measure the distance between the pain sensitivity points and the most nearby acupoints. The Wagner tenderness measuring instrument was used to measure the tenderness threshold of pain sensitivity points.@*RESULTS@#A total of 3618 pain sensitivity points were probed, among them, 3338 pain sensitivity points were sensitized. The minimum sensitization degree was 1.00, the maximum sensitization degree was 3.39, while the average sensitization degree was (2.16±0.60). Pain sensitivity points were distributed 0.37-1.73 @*CONCLUSION@#The pain sensitivity points of patients with KOA may be the expansion effect of acupoint areas in the disease states, pain sensitivity points are more likely to appear on the medial side of knee joint.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acupuncture Points , Knee Joint , Osteoarthritis, Knee/therapy , Pain Threshold
7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2283-2290, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-248995

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Nonlinguistic cognitive impairment has become an important issue for aphasic patients, but currently there are few neuropsychological cognitive assessment tests for it. To get more information on cognitive impairment of aphasic patients, this study aimed to develop a new cognitive assessment test battery for aphasic patients, the Non-language-based Cognitive Assessment (NLCA), and evaluate its utility in Chinese-speaking patients with aphasia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The NLCA consists of five nonverbal tests, which could assess five nonlinguistic cognitive domains such as visuospatial functions, attention test, memory, reasoning, and executive functions of aphasic patients. All tests are modified from the nonverbal items of the current existed tests with some changes to the characteristics of Chinese culture. The NLCA was tested in 157 participants (including 57 aphasic patients, 50 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and 50 normal controls), and was compared with other well-established relative neuropsychological tests on the reliability, validity, and utility.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The NLCA was fully applicable in the MCI patients and the normal controls, almost working in the aphasic patients (57/62 patients, 91.9%). The NLCA scores were 66.70 ± 6.30, 48.67 ± 15.04, and 77.58 ± 2.56 for the MCI group, the aphasic group, and the control group, respectively , and a significant difference was found among three groups (F = 118.446, P < 0.001). The Cronbach's alpha of the NLCA as an index of internal consistency was 0.805, and the test-retest and interrater reliability was adequate (r=0.977 and r= 0.970, respectively). The correlations of the cognitive subtests and their validation instruments were between 0.540 and 0.670 (all P < 0.05). Spearman's correlation analysis indicated that the coefficient of internal consistency of each subtest itself was higher than other subtests. When choosing the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score of <26 as the diagnostic criteria of cognitive impairment, the area under the curve for all participants in the control and MCI groups was 0.942 (95% confidence interval: 0.895-0.989), and an optimal cutoff point of 75.00 seemed to provide the best balance between sensitivity and specificity. Age (r = -0.406, P < 0.001) was the main influence factor for the NLCA.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The NLCA could efficiently differentiate the cognitive impairment patients from the normal controls and is a reliable and valid cognitive assessment test battery to specially find nonlinguistic cognitive function for aphasic patients.</p>

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1416-1423, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779743

ABSTRACT

Fragments of the human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) gene 5'-UTR (untranslated 1 245 bp region) promoters were amplified by PCR and cloned into pGL4.20 vector in the construction of reporter vector pGL4-IDO1-luc. A549 cells were transfected with the constructed plasmid and IDO1 inhibitor screening model was established with dual-luciferase reporter assay. Based on the model, we screened natural small molecules which could down-regulate the expression of IDO1 on tumor cells. The anti-tumor activities were examined by MTT, Western blotting and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays. Toosendanin (NS-180) down regulated the IDO1 expression and inhibited IFN-γ-induced STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation in A549 cells. Moreover, NS-180 significantly increased the cytotoxicity of co-cultured NK cells on A549 cells in LDH release assays. In summary, NS-180 is a novel and potent IDO1 inhibitor, which has an antitumor activity for cancer immunotherapies.

9.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 904-908, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286876

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the relations among apolipoprotein E4, Tau protein and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>U87 cells were transfected with pIRES-EGFP (control) or the recombinant plasmids ApoE4/pIRES-EGFP or ApoE3/pIRES-EGFP, and the expression levels of p-Tau/Tau and GSK-3β in the cells were examined with Western blotting. To further confirm the effect of ApoE on GSK-3β and p-Tau expressions, a short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting ApoE (ApoE-siRNA) was transfected into U87 cells via Lipofectamine 2000 and the protein expressions were examined 24 h later.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with those in the control group, the expressions levels of both GSK-3β and p-Tau/Tau increased significantly in the cells transfected with ApoE4 and ApoE3 plasmids (P<0.01), and the ApoE4 plasmid produced a more potent effect than the ApoE3 plasmid on the protein expressions (P<0.01). ApoE knockdown resulted in significantly reduced expressions of GSK-3β (P<0.001) and p-Tau (P<0.01) in the cells.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>ApoE4 can enhance Tau phosphorylation though upregulating GSK-3β, which sheds light on a new role of ApoE4 in Alzheimer's disease.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Alzheimer Disease , Genetics , Apolipoprotein E3 , Genetics , Apolipoprotein E4 , Genetics , Cell Line , Gene Silencing , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Genetics , Metabolism , Phosphorylation , RNA, Small Interfering , Genetics , Transfection , tau Proteins , Metabolism
10.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 1929-1931, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-265749

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B (AMB) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during continuous intrathecal administration of AMB for treatment of cryptococcal neoformans meningitis (CNM).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The concentration of AMB in the CSF was measured using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in 3 patients receiving continuous intrathecal infusion of AMB for CNM.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>AMB concentrations in the CSF of the 3 patients exceeded the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AMB against Cryptococcus neoformans. The concentration-time curve showed that AMB concentration in the CSF underwent obvious variations on the first day of intrathecal infusion and after additional AMB doses, but maintained a stable level (0.61-1.21 µg/ml) on the next day.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>[corrected] Continuous intrathecal administration of AMB can enhance the drug concentration in the CSF and maintain a stable and effective drug level for treatment of CNM.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Amphotericin B , Pharmacokinetics , Antifungal Agents , Pharmacokinetics , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Metabolism , Cryptococcus neoformans , Infusions, Spinal , Methods , Meningitis, Cryptococcal , Drug Therapy , Metabolism
11.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 579-583, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-355066

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the effect of radiofrequency of different temperatures and durations on sciatic nerve motor conduction velocity (MCV).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The bilateral sciatic nerve of 70 adult SD rats was dissected and exposed to radiofrequency ablation of different temperatures (30, 50, 55, 60, and 70 degrees C) and durations. The nerves were also exposed to increasing ablation temperatures from 30 degrees C to 50 degrees C with an increment of 5 degrees C (60 s at each temperature), and the changes in the MCV parameters were observed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The MCV parameters of rat sciatic nerve underwent significant changes following the radiofrequency exposures (P<0.05) except for the exposure at 55 degrees celsius; for 10 s. Below the temperature of 55 degrees celsius;, the MCV showed no obvious correlation to the exposure time for the group. For the nerves exposed to radiofrequency of 55 degrees celsius;, the latency was not correlated to the exposure time within 30 s, and data could be obtained from 55 s group; with these exceptions, the latency was found to positively while the negative phase wave inversely correlated to the exposure time. With fixed exposure time of 60 s, the MCV parameters were positively correlated to the ablation temperature (below 50 degrees C). Failure of MCV measurement occurred following exposures to 55 degrees celsius; for 50 s (or longer) or to 60 degrees C (or higher) for 10 s.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Low-temperature radiofrequency (below 50 degrees C) produces definite effects on the MCV of rat sciatic nerve, and the effects are not associated with the exposure time, the mechanism of which remains unclear. At a given temperature, the ablation for sufficiently long durations can result in complete block of the MCV. At higher temperatures, radiofrequency exposure cause obvious nerve conduction block.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Methods , Motor Neurons , Physiology , Neural Conduction , Pain , Pain Management , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sciatic Nerve , Wounds and Injuries , Temperature , Time Factors
12.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 228-229, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-293410

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the feasibility of continuous intraspinal ceftazidime administration for treatment of purulent meningitis due to Achromobacter infection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A patient with established diagnosis of purulent meningitis due to Achromobacter infection was admitted, who failed to respond favorably to a 3-day ceftazidime treatment administered intravenously. Continuous intraspinal ceftazidime administration at the dose of 0.2 g/d was then attempted through a catheter placed in the cisterna magna in addition to intravenous ceftazidime for 3 days, which resulted in obvious relief of the symptoms. The catheter was subsequently withdrawn, and the patient received further treatment with additional intravenous ceftazidime for a week.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The symptoms of purulent meningitis was significantly improved after a 3-day continuous intraspinal ceftazidime administration, and the patient was eventually cured after completion of the treatment course. Intrathecal ceftazidime was also attempted previously but failed due to intolerance of pains in the legs. No relapse was observed in this case 3 months after the discharge.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Continuous intraspinal ceftazidime administration can be effective and safe for treatment of purulent meningitis.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Achromobacter , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Catheters, Indwelling , Ceftazidime , Therapeutic Uses , Injections, Spinal , Meningitis, Bacterial , Drug Therapy , Treatment Outcome
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