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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 539-545, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The low accuracy of equations predicting 24-h urinary sodium excretion using a single spot urine sample contributed to the misclassification of individual sodium intake levels. The application of single spot urine sample is limited by a lack of representativity of urinary sodium excretion, possibly due to the circadian rhythm in urinary excretion. This study aimed to explore the circadian rhythm, characteristics, and parameters in a healthy young adult Chinese population as a theoretical foundation for developing new approaches.@*METHODS@#Eighty-five participants (mean age 32.4 years) completed the 24-h urine collection by successively collecting each of the single-voided specimens within 24 h. The concentrations of the urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine for each voided specimen were measured. Cosinor analysis was applied to explore the circadian rhythm of the urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine excretion. The excretion per hour was computed for analyzing the change over time with repeated-measures analysis of variance and a cubic spline model.@*RESULTS@#The metabolism of urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine showed different patterns of circadian rhythm, although the urinary sodium excretion showed non-significant parameters in the cosinor model. A significant circadian rhythm of urinary creatinine excretion was observed, while the circadian rhythm of sodium was less significant than that of potassium. The circadian rhythm of urinary sodium and creatinine excretion showed synchronization to some extent, which had a nocturnal peak and fell to the lowest around noon to afternoon. In contrast, the peak of potassium was observed in the morning and dropped to the lowest point in the evening. The hourly urinary excretion followed a similar circadian rhythm.@*CONCLUSION@#It is necessary to consider the circadian rhythm of urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine excretion in adults while exploring the estimation model for 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine.


Subject(s)
Adult , China , Circadian Rhythm , Creatinine , Humans , Potassium , Sodium , Urine Specimen Collection , Young Adult
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1900-1907, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Total and differential white blood cell counts are important for the diagnostic evaluation of suspected diseases. To facilitate the interpretation of total and differential white blood cell counts in pediatric patients, the present study investigated age-dependent changes in total and differential white blood cell counts in healthy reference children.@*METHODS@#Data were obtained from the Pediatric Reference Intervals in China study (PRINCE), which aims to establish and verify pediatric reference intervals for Chinese children based on a nationwide multicenter cross-sectional study from January 2017 to December 2018. Quantile curves were calculated using the generalized additive models for location, shape, and scale method. The 2.5th, 50th, and 97.5th quantile curves were calculated for both total and differential white blood counts. Percents of stacked area charts were used to demonstrate the proportions of differential white blood cells. All statistical analyses were performed using R software.@*RESULTS@#Both 50th and 97.5th quantiles of total white blood cell count and monocyte count were highest at birth, then rapidly decreased in the first 6 months of life; relatively slow reduction continued until 2 years of age. The lymphocyte count was low during infancy and increased to its highest level at 6 months of age; it then exhibited moderate and continuous reduction until approximately 9 years of age. The pattern of neutrophil count changed with age in a manner opposite to that of lymphocyte count. Besides, there were two inter-sections of lymphocyte count and neutrophil count during infancy and at approximately 5 years of age, based on locally weighted regression (LOESS) analysis. There were no apparent age-related changes in eosinophil or basophil counts.@*CONCLUSION@#These data regarding age-related changes in total and differential white blood cell counts can be used to assess the health of pediatric patients and guide clinical decisions.

3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1799-1807, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775141

ABSTRACT

Background@#It is known that short sleep duration adversely affects children's behavior and physical development. This study aimed to investigate the status of sleep duration in 3-14-year-old children in Beijing and explore the related factors of sleep loss with them.@*Methods@#In this study, a cross-sectional study of random stratified cluster sampling was conducted on 3-14-year-old children and adolescents in Beijing. According to the proportion of children in each district and school, the final cohort included a total of 11 kindergartens, 7 primary schools, and 8 junior high schools from 7 districts of Beijing. Children of sampled classes were included, and their parents were invited to fill a series of questionnaires including the simplified Chinese version of Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, Sleep Questionnaire Scale, and Hong Kong-Children Sleep Questionnaire about the performance of the last 6 months.@*Results@#Out of the total 11,420 questionnaires, 9198 questionnaires were valid and effective with the response rate of 80.54%. The age of the investigated children was 8.8 ± 3.8 years, including 4736 males and 4462 females. The daily sleep duration of children in Beijing was 9.7 ± 0.7 h. The prevalence of sleep loss (<9 h/day) of children in Beijing was 11.8%. The daily sleep duration of children aged <6, 6 ≤ age <11, and ≥11 years was 9.7 ± 0.6 h, 9.6 ± 0.6 h, and 9.5 ± 0.8 h, respectively. The sleep duration reduced significantly in children aged ≥11 years as compared to younger children in Beijing which was mainly contributed by the variation tendency of sleep duration on weekdays. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with sleep loss (P < 0.05): male (odds ratio [OR] = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-1.51), age ≥11 years (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.92-2.93), overweight (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.17-1.54), family history of snoring (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.13-1.61) and activities before bedtime with watching TV (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.08-1.43), sports (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.01-1.48), playing cellphone (OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.31-2.73) and surfing the Internet (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.06-1.52) and among them age ≥11 years and playing cellphone before bedtime had greater impact on children's short sleep duration than that of other factors.@*Conclusions@#Sleep loss was common among 3-14-year-old children in Beijing. Sleep duration decreased with age, especially among children over 11 years old. Factors associated with sleep loss covered sociodemographic characteristics, family sleep habits and routine activities before bedtime, and among those variables, age ≥11 years and playing with cellphones before bedtime had a greater impact on sleep duration, indicating that existing sleep loss in 3-14-year-old children could be, at least partly, improved by paying more attention to children aged of 11 years or entering Grade 5 and Grade 6 and to children with a family history of snoring; by reducing the use of electronic products before bedtime, especially cellphones; by managing weight and keeping fit; and by improving the bedtime routine.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Beijing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Sleep , Sleep Deprivation , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-701559

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate HIV sero-conversion in HIV-negative partners or lovers among HIV serodiscordant couples.Methods China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI),Wangfang data,and PubMed were retrieved,literatures about HIV sero-conversion in HIV-negative partners or lovers among HIV sero-discordant couples were included in the study,Meta analysis was performed by R software.Results There were 11 literatures were included in the study,Meta analysis showed that HIV-negative partners' or lovers' overall sero-conversion rates among HIV sero-discordant couples in China was 1.0/100 person-year;in different economic levels and epidemic areas,HIV-negative partners' or lovers' sero-conversion rates were both 1.0/100 person-year.Conclusion The HIV-negative partners' or lovers' sero-conversion rates among HIV sero-discordant couples in China are not high.

5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2491-2496, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307387

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Robust statistical designing, sound statistical analysis, and standardized presentation are important to enhance the quality and transparency of biomedical research. This systematic review was conducted to summarize the statistical reporting requirements introduced by biomedical research journals with an impact factor of 10 or above so that researchers are able to give statistical issues' serious considerations not only at the stage of data analysis but also at the stage of methodological design.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Detailed statistical instructions for authors were downloaded from the homepage of each of the included journals or obtained from the editors directly via email. Then, we described the types and numbers of statistical guidelines introduced by different press groups. Items of statistical reporting guideline as well as particular requirements were summarized in frequency, which were grouped into design, method of analysis, and presentation, respectively. Finally, updated statistical guidelines and particular requirements for improvement were summed up.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Totally, 21 of 23 press groups introduced at least one statistical guideline. More than half of press groups can update their statistical instruction for authors gradually relative to issues of new statistical reporting guidelines. In addition, 16 press groups, covering 44 journals, address particular statistical requirements. The most of the particular requirements focused on the performance of statistical analysis and transparency in statistical reporting, including "address issues relevant to research design, including participant flow diagram, eligibility criteria, and sample size estimation," and "statistical methods and the reasons."</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Statistical requirements for authors are becoming increasingly perfected. Statistical requirements for authors remind researchers that they should make sufficient consideration not only in regards to statistical methods during the research design, but also standardized statistical reporting, which would be beneficial in providing stronger evidence and making a greater critical appraisal of evidence more accessible.</p>


Subject(s)
Bibliometrics , Biomedical Research , Guideline Adherence , Periodicals as Topic
6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2374-2382, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315331

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>This meta-analysis was to determine the association of the cumulative dose of 130/0.4 or 0.42 (hydroxyethyl starch [HES] 130/0.4*) or delta daily fluid balance (i.e., daily fluid balance in HES group over or below control group) with the heterogeneity of risk ratio (RR) for mortality in randomized control trials (RCTs).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Three databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane) were searched to identify prospective RCTs reporting mortality in adult patients with sepsis to compare HES130/0.4* with crystalloids or albumin. Meta-analysis was performed using random effects. Sensitivity and meta-regression analyses were used to examine the heterogeneity sources of RR for mortality.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total number of 4408 patients from 11 RCTs were included. The pooled RR showed no significant difference for overall mortality in patients with administration of HES130/0.4* compared with treatment of control fluids (RR: 1.02, 95% confidence interval: 0.90-1.17; P = 0.73). Heterogeneity was moderate across recruited trials (I2 = 34%, P = 0.13). But, a significant variation was demonstrated in subgroup with crystalloids as control fluids (I2 = 42%, P < 0.1). Sensitivity analysis revealed that trials with high risk of bias did not significantly impact the pooled estimates for mortality. Meta-regression analysis also did not determine a dose-effect relationship of HES130/0.4* with mortality (P = 0.298), but suggested daily delta fluid balance being likely associated with mortality in septic patients receiving HES130/130/0.4* (P = 0.079).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Inappropriate daily positive fluid balance was likely an important source of heterogeneity in these trials reporting HES130/0.4* associated with excess mortality in septic patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives , Therapeutic Uses , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Sepsis , Mortality , Therapeutics
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-301455

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the correlation between prothrombin G20210A polymorphism and the risk for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) using Meta-analysis methodology.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Databases, including PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and CBM, were searched to collect the case control studies on the correlation between prothrombin G20210A polymorphism and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Only high quality studies were included. All analysis were conducted with Review Manager Version 4.2 software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 9 studies were included, involving 735 cases and 1230 controls. The quality assessment involved 3 parts, 8 scores (totally 8 stars). The results showed the included studies were high-quality. Two studies were 8 stars of quality, three studies were 7 stars, one study was 6 stars, one study was 5 stars, and two studies were 4 stars. Meta-analysis showed that the prothrombin G20210A mutation frequencies of the genotypes and alleles showed significant statistically difference between cases and controls [P = 0.03, OR = 1.79, 95% CI = (1.06, 3.01); P = 0.03, OR = 1.77, 95% CI = (1.06, 2.97), respectively].</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The prothrombin G20210A polymorphism might be a genetic risk factor for sudden hearing loss. However, this conclusion remains to be confirmed by high-quality, large-scale studies.</p>


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Genotype , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Epidemiology , Genetics , Hearing Loss, Sudden , Epidemiology , Genetics , Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , Prothrombin , Genetics , Metabolism , Risk Factors , Thrombophilia
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1282-1286, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-269257

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>As intraocular pressure (IOP) and IOP fluctuation are known risk factors for glaucoma, it is important to understand the effects of high myopia on these ocular parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate if primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with high myopia exhibit higher IOP and greater IOP fluctuations at resting conditions over 24 hours.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We designed a prospective control clinical study. Eighty-two eyes of 82 high-tension Chinese POAG patients only on prostaglandin analogue locally were divided into 3 groups according to various myopic grades (< -6.0 D, n = 27 and between -0.76 and -5.99 D, n = 33) or without myopia (-0.75 to 0.75 D, n = 22). Single time IOP at 10 am, mean corrected 24-hour IOP, mean corrected night IOP, 24-hour IOP fluctuation and IOPs of 10 am, 2 pm, 6 pm, 10 pm, 2 am, 6 am and 8 am were measured.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The IOP was higher in POAG patients with high myopia over those POAG alone in three ways: the elevated IOP value was 0.65 mmHg measured in single time IOP at 10 am, 0.84 mmHg in mean corrected 24-hour IOP, 0.97 mmHg in mean corrected night IOP. The 24-hour IOP fluctuation was lower in the two myopia groups than in non-myopia group. Further, using repeated measurement analysis of variance, there was no statistical significance among groups regarding the IOPs at the seven time points (P = 0.77) and there was no interaction between groups and time points (P = 0.71), but the difference of IOPs at the seven time points in same group was statistically significant (P = 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>High-tension POAG patients with high myopia, even on pharmacological glaucoma therapy, still have higher IOP, but 24-hour IOP fluctuation at resting conditions was lower in these patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myopia , Young Adult
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-347107

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of β-elemene Injection as an adjunctive treatment for lung cancer by systematic review.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We retrieved randomized controlled clinical trials related to the use of β-elemene Injection as an adjunctive treatment for lung cancer from Chinese Biomedical (CBMweb), Chinese Medical Current Content (CMCC), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), ChinaInfo, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; MEDLINE, EMBASE, OVID and TCMLARS. We also referred to an unpublished conference proceeding titled Clinical Use and Basic: Elemene Injection. We then divided the studies into non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) subgroups by RevMan 5.1 software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 21 source documents (1,467 patients) matched pre-specified criteria for determining the effectiveness and safety of β-elemene Injection as an adjunctive treatment for lung cancer. Five studies involving 285 NSCLC patients reported a higher 24-month survival rate (39.09%) with the adjunctive treatment than with chemotherapy alone (26.17%; RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.21). Four studies involving 445 patients reported that the increased probability for improved performance status for patients treated with elemene-based combinations was higher than that of patients treated with chemotherapy alone (RR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.45 to 2.29). The results from a subgroup analysis on 12 studies involving 974 NSCLC patients and 9 studies involving 593 patients with both SCLC and NSCLC showed that the tumor control rate for NSCLC improved more in the elemene-based combinations treatment group (78.70%) than in the chemotherapy alone control group (71.31%; RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.12). The tumor response rate for NSCLC also improved more among patients treated with elemenebased combinations (50.71%) than among patients treated with chemotherapy alone (38.04%; RR, 1.34; 95%CI, 1.17 to 1.54). In addition, the main adverse reaction to β-elemene Injection was phlebitis, but usually only to a mild degree. An Egger's test showed no publication bias in our study (P=0.7030).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The effectiveness of chemotherapy for the treatment of lung cancer may improve when combined with β-elemene injection as an adjunctive treatment. The combined treatment can result in an improved quality of life and prolonged survival. However, these results require confirmation by rigorously controlled trials.</p>


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Combined Modality Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Injections , Lung Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , Sesquiterpenes , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2578-2583, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292841

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Although the first leading cause of death in China was malignant neoplasms (mortality, 374.1 per 100,000 person-years), the full impact of primary brain tumors (PBT) on the healthcare system is not completely described because there are a few well documented reports about the epidemiologic features of brain tumors. This study aimed to report a comprehensive assessment on the prevalence of PBT.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A multicenter cross-sectional study on brain tumor (MCSBT) in China was initiated in five regional centers: Daqing (northeast), Puyang (north of China), Shiyan (center of China), Ma'anshan (center of China) and Shanghai (southeast). Prevalence rate was calculated by counting the number of people living with a PBT between October 1, 2005 and September 30, 2006 and dividing by the total population of the five communities at January 1, 2006. Estimates of prevalence were expressed as percentages and grouped according to gender and to age in fifteen-year categories. Within these strata, the rates were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the accurate calculation of CI for Poisson distribution. A chi-square test was used to compare the various frequencies with α < 0.05. Age-standardized prevalence with the direct method was calculated with the ten-year age-specific prevalence and the age distribution of the Chinese population in 2010, obtained from World population prospects: the 2008 revision.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>We estimated that the overall prevalence of PBT was 24.56 per 100,000 (95%CI, 14.85 to 34.27), and the overall prevalence of PBT in female population (30.57 per 100,000 and its 95%CI ranged from 19.73 to 41.41) was higher than that in male population (18.84 per 100,000 and its 95%CI ranged from 10.33 to 27.35). However, the discrepancy between genders was not statistically significant because the 95%CI overlapped. Of 272 cases of newly diagnosed PBT, the proportion of histological subtypes by age groups, gender was statistically different (χ(2) = 52.6510, P < 0.0001). More than half of all reported tumors (52.57%) were either gliomas or meningiomas. For the youngest (aged from 0 - 19) strata of the population, glioma appeared to occur more than other subtypes, accounting for 55.56% of all of cases. The majority of brain tumors presented in those aged from 20 to 59 years was pituitary adenomas (45.12%) and gliomas (31.10%). Opposed to brain tumors in adults and teenage, gliomas only accounted for 22.22%. Meanwhile, the median ages at diagnosis of the patients with PBT were similar between males and females except for pituitary adenomas (male: 59 years old; female: 45 years old).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Age standardized prevalence of PBT is 22.52 per 100,000 (95%CI, 13.22 to 31.82) for all populations, 17.64 per 100,000 (95%CI, 9.41 to 25.87) for men, and 27.94 per 100,000 (95%CI, 17.58 to 38.30) for women. Age standardization to China's 2010 population yielded an estimated population of 304 954 cases with PBT. Our prevalence estimates provide a conservative basis on which to plan health care services and to develop programmatic strategies for surviving. In the future, it would be helpful to have long-term observed survival rates that would make the assumptions and the resulting imprecision in the current estimates unnecessary.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Brain Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Young Adult
11.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 1014-1018, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239040

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the impacts of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), transurethral electrovaporization of the prostate (TUEVP) and holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) on male sexual function.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We identified randomized controlled trials on the influence of TURP, TUEVP and HoLEP on the sexual function of BPH patients, and performed meta-analysis on the included data using Revman 5.0.25.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Nine randomized controlled trials involving 1 050 BPH patients were included in the meta-analysis. The baseline of the study was comparable. TURP affected erectile function less than TUEVP (P = 0.04), but the two had no significant difference in their influence on ejaculatory function. Nor was any significant difference found between HoLEP and TURP in their influence on either erectile or ejaculatory function at 12 and 24 months after surgery.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TUEVP induces a higher incidence of erectile dysfunction than TURP, but its influence on ejaculatory function is not significantly different from the latter. HoLEP and TURP have no significant difference in their influence on erectile function and ejaculatory function.</p>


Subject(s)
Erectile Dysfunction , Humans , Male , Prostatic Hyperplasia , General Surgery , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Transurethral Resection of Prostate , Methods
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-336859

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire (NCIQ).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>There were six subdomains: basic sound perception, advanced sound perception, speech production, self-esteem, activities and social Interactions. The cross-cultural adaptation measures were used to translate the NCIQ into its Chinese version. Ninety-four cochlear implant users no younger than 18 years old were included. Test-retest analysis was administered randomly to 30 users without significant changes in health and social status during a two weeks' interval between test and retest.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) Reliability: test-retest reliability of the NCIQ was proved to be satisfactory. All domains had coefficients that exceeded 0.70 (P < 0.01). Except for the subdomain, speech production, whose Cronbach's α score was 0.560, other Cronbach's α scores were greater than 0.700. (2) VALIDITY: The correlation coefficients between overall NCIQ scores and the six subdomains were 0.620 - 0.810 (P < 0.01). There were weak or no correlations among the six subdomains. The evaluation of content validity by expert review showed the questionnaire had good content validity. NCIQ total scores in postlingually deafened users were significantly higher than those in prelingually deafened users (Z = 4.350, P = 0.000). This was also true for scores of the following subdomains:advanced sound perception (Z = 4.774, P = 0.000), speech production (Z = 4.416, P = 0.000), self-esteem (Z = 3.718, P = 0.000), activities (Z = 3.228, P = 0.001) and social interactions (Z = 3.001, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference between scores obtained from the two groups in the subdomain of basic sound perception (Z = 1.943, P = 0.052).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The Chinese version of the NCIQ meets many psychometric criteria of a robust instrument. It possesses appropriate validity and good reliability, and can be used to measure the outcome of cochlear implant adults in China.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asians , Cochlear Implantation , Rehabilitation , Cochlear Implants , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Female , Humans , Language , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-280147

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the correlations of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene promoter polymorphisms and plasma MBL concentrations to the susceptibility to HIV infection in northern Chinese Han population.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This case-control study included 115 HIV-infected patients and 115 non-infected healthy individuals, in whom the MBL gene promoter polymorphisms were detected using pyrosequencing technique and plasma MBL concentrations measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The MBL promoter genotypes of LY/LY, LY/LX, HY/LY, HY/HY and LX/LX were detected in 66 (57.40%), 25 (21.70%), 17 (14.80%), 5 (4.30%) and 2 (1.70%) among the HIV-infected patients, and in 77 (67.00%), 23(20.00%), 12 (10.40%), 0 (0.00%), and 3 (2.60%) among the healthy individuals, respectively. The frequencies of haplotypes LY, HY and LX were 75.70%, 11.70% and 12.60% among the patients, and 82.20%, 5.20% and 12.60% among the healthy individuals, respectively, showing significant difference in the halpotype between the two groups (P=0.041). The average plasma MBL concentration was significantly lower in HIV-infected group than in the healthy individuals (1775.14-/+786.31 vs 3672.21-/+597.13 microg/L, P=0.001).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The genotypes of LY/LY and LY/LX and the haplotypes of LY and HY are predominant in northern Chinese Han population, and the plasma MBL concentration in HIV infected patients is generally only 50% of that in healthy individuals. We therefore presume that MBL promoter polymorphisms and plasma MBL concentration can be associated with the susceptibility to HIV infection in this population, and individuals with low plasma MBL concentration are more susceptible to HIV infection.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Asians , Genetics , Case-Control Studies , China , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , HIV Infections , Blood , Ethnology , Genetics , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin , Blood , Genetics , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Genetics
14.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 113-116, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-236697

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The incidence of type 1 diabetes varied in different countries, different nations and different regions. This survey was conducted to clarify the incidence of type 1 diabetes of children in Beijing area between 1997 and 2000, to compare and analyze the difference in incidence of type 1 diabetes between the 2 periods of 1988 - 1996 and 1997 - 2000.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>According to the criteria of WHO Diabetes Mondial (DIAMOND), data were collected from all the children younger than 15 years of age in Beijing area who had the onset of type 1 diabetes during Jan. 1st, 1997 to Dec. 31st, 2000. Using the capture-recapture methods, 95% confidence intervals of incidence were calculated with Poisson's distribution formula. The significance of differences was tested with Chi-square method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The incidences of type 1 diabetes during 1997 - 2000 were around 0.76/100 000 to 1.21/100 000. The average yearly incidence was 1.014/100 000 (95% confidence interval was 0.98/100 000 - 1.16/100 000). There was no significant difference in the incidence between 1988 - 1996 and 1997 - 2000, and it showed the same result when the incidences were adjusted by age according to the Chinese population census in 2000 (The incidence was 0.83/100 000 in 1988 - 1996 and 0.86/100 000 in 1997 - 2000, respectively). The incidence was higher in 10 - 14 year-old group than the younger groups (P = 0.002). There was no significant difference between male and female groups, either.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>No significant difference was found between the periods 1988 - 1996 and 1997 - 2000 when the average yearly incidence of type 1 diabetes of children in Beijing was compared. These results were different from the other countries' reports that the incidence of type 1 diabetes was increasing by 3% - 5% per annum. There was no significant difference between male and female groups either and there was a higher incidence of type 1 diabetes in 10 - 14 yr group than the other groups in 1997 - 2000. Although the life-style of Beijing people changed a lot, it didn't affect the incidence of type 1 diabetes in children in this area. But since many people migrated to Beijing from other parts of the country, the changes in constitutive proportions of population might have some impacts on the results of the survey.</p>


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Child , China , Epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Incidence , Male , Sex Factors
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