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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-360186

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish an modified rabbit model of the acute lung injury induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with ascending aorta and right atrium catheterization and detect the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level after modeling.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ten healthy adult male New Zealand rabbits were randomly selected to establish CPB models. The model establishment was deemed successful if the rabbits survived for over 4 h with stable heart beat after termination of CPB. The vital signs of the rabbits were recorded after anesthesia (T), before CPB (T), at 15 after blocking the ascending aorta and pulmonary artery (T), immediately after re-opening of the ascending aorta and pulmonary artery (T), and at 1 (T) and 4 (T) after CPB. Arterial blood gas (ABG) was monitored at T, Tand Tand the serum levels of TNF-α were also detected with ELISA.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Nine rabbit models of CPB with acute lung injury were successfully established. During the operation, the MAP was maintained at a level above 55 mmHg, HCT significantly decreased from (30.18∓2.88)% at Tto (17.73∓1.95)% at T(P<0.05), and plasma lactate level increased significantly from 3.65∓1.13 mmol/L at Tto 9.36∓1.28 mmol/L at T(P<0.05). The oxygenation index (PaO/FiO) at Twas significantly lower than that at T(281.64∓55.76 vs 468.36∓56.28 mmHg, P<0.05). The serum levels of TNF-α were significantly increased (P<0.05) and obvious lung interstitial edema and inflammatory cell infiltration occurred after CPB establishment.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The modified rabbit model of CPB with acute lung injury is stable and reliable and can be used for studying acute lung injury induced by CPB.</p>

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-733158

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the feasibility and safety on closing ventricular septal defects (VSDs) under cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB) in neonatal patients with VSD and congestive heart failure.Methods From Oct.2010 to Sep.2012,16 newborn infants with VSD and congestive heart failure in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit(NICU),the Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital,were selected as the observed group,VSD repair operation was done under CPB.As the control group,18 patients in Pediatrical Cardiac Surgical Department were randomly selected in the same period in hospital,and selective VSD repair operations were done under CPB.Between the 2 groups,demographics(body weight,gender,VSD diameter),clinical characteristics (CPB time,aortic crossclamp time) and early outcomes were compared.Results For the diameter of VSD and gender,there were no significant difference between the 2 groups (P > 0.05).For the body weight,the patients in control group [(8.27 ± 3.39) kg] were more heavier than those in observed group [(3.69 ± 0.72) kg] (P < 0.01).In the operation period,there were no significant differences in CPB time and aortic crossclamp time between 2 groups(all P > 0.05).The lactate value of the patients in observed group [(2.76 ± 1.12) mmol/L] was significantly higher than that in control group [(1.65 ±0.34) mmol/L] (P < 0.01).At the same time,the ventilation time [(3.69 ± 1.66) days] and PICU stay [(9.75 ± 3.44) days] were significantly longer than those in control group[(2.00 ±0.89) days and (6.17 ± 1.98) days] (all P < 0.01).All the patients in the 2 groups discharge out of the hospital,there was no significant difference in outcome.Conclusions The newborns with VSD and congestive heart failure in NICU,can be not improved after the medical management,then closing the VSD is feasible and safe under CPB.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-732987

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the outcomes of hybrid treatment of pulmonary valve's balloon valvuloplasty via right ventricle without cardiopulmonary bypass for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum(PA/IVS) and critical pulmonary stenosis(PS) in neonates.Methods The clinical features and data of 3 children(1 case of PA/ IVS and 2 cases of critical PS),who underwent hybrid treatment of balloon valvuloplasty,were recorded and retrospectively analyzed.All patients' right ventricle grow well,tricuspid valve Z score >-2,and underwent pulmonary valve balloon valvuloplasty via fight ventricle without cardiopulmonary bypass.Results All the 3 children underwent pulmonary valve balloon valvuloplasty via fight ventricle without cardiopulmonary bypass,and there was no death.The mean arterial blood oxygen saturation after operation went up,and there was no complication related to balloon valvuloplasty.The children were followed up for 3 to 6 months,and all the patients had mild pulmonary stenosis,but they did not need any treatment.Conclusions Pulmonary valvuloplasty with hybrid technique is effective in treatment of selective PA/IVS children(fused leaflets of pulmonary valve) and critical PS in neonates.Hybrid therapy may provide adequate pulmonary blood flow and promote further growth of tricuspid valve and right ventricular cavity with less trauma and more safety.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-732920

ABSTRACT

Objective To summarize the clinical experience of comprehensive management of critical newborns with transposition of great arteries (TGA) by neonatologists and cardiac surgeons.Methods Seventeen critical newborns with TGA rescued by combined efforts of neonatologists and pediatric cardiac surgeons from Oct.2010 to Oct.2012were retrospectively analyzed.Results Of the 17 newborns(14 cases were male,3 cases were female),9 cases were TGA with ventricular septal defect(TGA/VSD),8 cases TGA with intact ventricular septal defect (TGA/IVS).The babies aged from 1-45 days,weighed from 2.7-4.6 kg at operation.Of the 9 cases TGA/VSD babies,3 cases were treated with prostaglandins E (PGE) for hypoxemia correction and selective operation opportunity ;2 cases underwent emergency arterial switch operation (ASO) for severe cardiac shock.All of the 8 cases TGA/IVS babies received PGE treatment preoperatively for life threatening hypoxemia,and 4 cases of them underwent emergency ASO.There were 12 cases delayed sternal closure and 5 cases of them were emergency babies.Peritoneal dialysis was employed for 6 cases and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for l case.There were 6 cases with postoperative incision infection,including 5 emergencies.Thirteen newborns survived and 4 cases died at hospital:one case complicated with postoperative septicemia and severe mediastinitis which leaded to pericardium patch rupture and fatal pulmonary arterial hemorrhage;one case with abnormal inferior vena cava connection and severe low cardiac output syndrome;one case with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) due to septicemia and severe mediastinitis postoperatively,one case with abnormal coronary artery during surgery and difficult coronary artery transplantation and insufficient blood supply after aorta was open.Conclusions Correcting hypoxemia and stabilizing the severe babies are critical in NICU to avoid emergency surgery.Emergent ASO is the optimized medical therapy for those with persistent severe hypoxemia and heart failure.

5.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 193-196, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-356005

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Acute lung injury is a severe complication after cardiac surgery performed with cardiopulmonary bypass in infant patients. Pulmonary surfactant has been successfully used in treating neonatal respiratory distress syndrome for many years. This study focused on exploring the clinical efficacy of exogenous pulmonary surfactant in treating infant patients with acute lung injury after cardiac surgery with the use of extracorporeal circulation.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Twenty-three infants with ventricular septal defect (VSD) were enrolled in the study. None of the patients needed oxygen treatment nor ventilation before heart surgery. VSD repair operation was done under cardiopulmonary bypass, and acute lung injury was found postoperatively. Ten infant patients in the treatment group were given pulmonary surfactant by tracheal instillation during mechanical ventilating postoperatively. Thirteen patients in control group were randomly selected in the same period in hospital, and acute lung injury was diagnosed without pulmonary surfactant treatment after cardiopulmonary bypass. Blood samples were obtained from all the patients, and blood gas analysis was performed every 6 hours. Demographics (body weigh, age, gender, VSD diameter) and clinical characteristics (CPB time, oxygenation index, mean airway pressure, pH and PCO2) of all the patients were collected, and statistical analysis was done to compare the data between treatment and control group.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>In the first 24 hours after heart surgery, compared with the control group, a more increased oxygenation index (from 89.36 ± 12.69 to 285 ± 16.51) was observed in treatment group, and it was from 93.71 ± 11.82 to 133 ± 19.62 in the control group. There was a significant difference in oxygenation index between the two groups (P < 0.05). At the same time, the MAP (from 17.5 ± 3.18 to 10.4 ± 3.37) of the patients in comparison with the control group (from 18.2 ± 2.63 to 13.8 ± 2.55), a more significantly decreased MAP was observed in the treatment group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in pH and PCO2 between the two groups. The ventilation time in cardiac care unit was shorter in treatment group (17.43 ± 9.12) h compared with the control group [(30.97 ± 14.85) h, P < 0.05]. ICU stay time of treatment group (3.90 ± 1.34) d was shorter than that of control group [(6.18 ± 1.90) d, P < 0.05].Two infants of the control group died, but none in treatment group died.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>In this study, a satisfactory curative effect was observed for the treatment of acute lung injury with PS intratracheal instillation after heart surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass in infant patients. It can reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and cardiac care unit stay and improve prognosis. In addition, this study was a pilot study and the limited sample size was probably the cause of insufficient statistical power. Further study of larger scale is needed.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Therapeutics , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pilot Projects , Postoperative Complications , Therapeutics , Pulmonary Surfactants , Therapeutic Uses
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-245442

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the clinical function and significance of establishing a regional active neonatal transport network (ANTN) in Beijing.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The authors retrospectively studied intensive care and the role of ANTN system in management of critically ill neonates and compared the outcome of newborn infants transported to our NICU before and after we established standardized NICU and ANTN system (phase 1: July 2004 to June 2006 vs phase 2: July 2006 to May 2008).</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The number of neonatal transport significantly increased from 587 during phase 1 to 2797 during phase 2. Success rate of transport and the total cure rate in phase 2 were 97.85% and 91.99% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in phase 1 (94.36% and 88.69%, respectively, P < 0.01). The neonatal mortality significantly decreased in phase 2 compared with that in phase 1 (2.29% vs 4.31%, P < 0.01). The capacity of our NICU was enlarged following the development of ANTN. There are 200 beds for level 3 infants in phase 2, but there were only 20 beds in phase 1. Significantly less patients in the phase 2 had hypothermia, acidosis and the blood glucose instability than those in phase 1 (P < 0.01, 0.05, 0.01 and 0.05, respectively). The proportion of preterm infants transported to our NICU were higher in phase 2 compared with that in phase 1, especially infants whose gestational age was below 32 weeks. The proportions of asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome were lower in phase 2 than that in phase 1, but the total cure rates of these two diseases had no significant changes between the two phases. The most important finding was that the improvement of outcome of premature infants and those with asphyxia and aspiration syndrome was noted following the development of ANTN.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Establishing regional ANTN for a tertiary hospital is very important to elevate the total level in management of critically ill newborn infants. It plays a very important role in reducing mortality and improving total outcomes of newborn infants. There are still some problems remained to solve after four years practice in order to optimize the ANTN to meet needs of the development of neonatology.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Reference Standards , Transportation of Patients , Reference Standards
7.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 852-855, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-358484

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To report clinical application of Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe acute respiratory and heart failure in a child with severe pneumonia.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>A seven-year old male patient with severe pneumonia complicated with heart and lung function failure was admitted to PICU in 28th of December, 2008.Veno-artery access was set up via euthyphoria cannulation in operative incision. Blood was drained from the right atrium through a cannula introduced via femoral veins, and returned via femoral artery. The inter-surface of the ECMO equipment system was completely coated with heparin-coating technique. Anticoagulation was maintained with heparin to keep the activated clotting time (ACT) between 150 and 200 seconds and heparin usage dose was 10 U/(kg.h), mean blood flow was 1/2-2/3 of 80-120 ml/(kg.min) during ECMO assistant period. During ECMO, ventilator settings were gradually reduced to allow lung rest, i.e. peak inspiratory pressure less than 25 cm H2O (1 cm H2O=0.098 kPa), end expiratory pressure 8-10 cm H2O, rate 10-15 breaths per minute and FiO2 30%-40%.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In management of ECMO, the incipient blood flow was set at 0.8 L/min, the radio of oxygen and blood flow was 1:1, FiO2 60%. After ten minutes of ECMO working, the blood oxygen saturation of radial artery increased from 40 mm Hg (1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa) to 177 mm Hg, Lac decreased from 3.5 mmol/L to 2.8 mmol/L. Four hours later, blood gas analysis of radial artery showed PaO2 202 mm Hg, PCO2 44 mm Hg, Lac 1.5 mmol/L, blood flow was set at 0.6 L/min, FiO2 60%, PaO2 kept above 150 mm Hg. 96 hours after ECMO supporting, the blood flow was set at 0.4 L/min [20 ml/(kg.min)], the results of blood gas analysis of radial artery was PaO2 190 mm Hg, PaCO2 36 mm Hg, SaO2 100%, Lac 0.9 mmol/L, then the child weaned off successfully from ECMO. Two days later, the child was successfully extubated. After two weeks treatment, the patient was discharged. The main complication associated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were bleeding.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>ECMO is an effective mechanical assistant therapy method for severe pulmonary and cardiac failure in a child.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart Failure , Therapeutics , Humans , Male , Pneumonia , Therapeutics , Research Report , Respiration Disorders , Therapeutics
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-249470

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate whether human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) administration alter the clinical course of hyperoxia-induced lung injury.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>hMSCs were obtained from bone marrow aspirates from healthy donors after informed consent was signed, hMSCs were separated, cultured, amplified, identified and labeled with BrdU. For BrdU labeling, a sterile stock solution was added to the culture medium 48 h before the end of culture, at a final concentration of 10 micromol/L. Thirty-two 3-day old SD rats from four litters were randomly divided into four groups, as hyperoxia exposed + hMSC group (A), air-exposed + hMSC group (B), hyperoxia exposed group (C), and air-exposed group (D). The rats from the group A and the group C were placed in a sealed Plexiglas chamber with a minimal in- and outflow, providing six to seven exchanges per hour of the chamber volume and maintaining O2 levels above 95%, while the rats in the group B and the group D were only exposed to room air. Seven days later, all of them were taken out of the chamber, rats in the group A and B were injected intraperitoneally with hMSCs (1 x 10(5) in 50 microl of PBS) immediately, while the rats in the group C and D were only treated with 50 microl of PBS 3 days later. All the animals were sacrificed by an injection of sodium pentobarbital (120 mg/kg), perfused with cold 0.9% NaCl, and the left lungs were removed, the upper lobes of which were ground as tissue homogenates and used for ELISA, while the inferior lobes were stored at -70 degrees C until use for RT-PCR. The right lungs were fixed in situ for 2 h by the intratracheal instillation with 10% neutral formalin and then postfixed for 24 h. Sagittal sections (4-microm) of paraffin-embedded middle lobe and upper lobe of the right lung were used for immunohistochemistry and histology, respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) There was a significant difference in the value of RAC (raditive alveoli coant) among the 4 groups (11.145 +/- 1.331, 13.941 +/- 0.985, 9.595 +/- 0.672, 14.819 +/- 1.080, F = 43.234, P = 0.000). RAC in group A and C were significantly reduced compared with subjects in group D (P < 0.05, P < 0.05); and there was also a significant difference between group A and group C (P < 0.05), but not between group B and D subjects (P > 0.05). (2) There were significant differences in the levels of both TNFalpha and TGFbeta(1) in the homogenate of lungs among the 4 groups (142.933 +/- 24.017, 79.033 +/- 11.573, 224.088 +/- 41.915, 76.500 +/- 10.373, F = 59.970, P = 0.000; 1726.484 +/- 91.086, 1530.359 +/- 173.441, 2047.717 +/- 152.057, 1515.777 +/- 131.049, F = 24.977, P = 0.000). The levels of TNFalpha and TGFbeta1 were significantly elevated in both group A and group C when compared with subjects in group D (P < 0.05 for both). Concentrations of TNFalpha and TGFbeta1 were both significantly decreased in group A versus group C (P < 0.05 for both). There was no significant difference between group B and D subjects in the fields of TNFalpha and TGFbeta(1) (P > 0.05 for both). (3) BrdU-labelled cells were observed at alveolar wall and bronchioles in both group A and group B, and there was a significant difference in BrdU-labeled cells between two groups (0.230 +/- 0.026, 0.190 +/- 0.015; t = 3.769, P = 0.002), but none was found in group C and group D. Electrophoresis of the PCR products showed a 224 bp band, specific for Alu mRNA, in 7 of 8 rats of group A and 5 of 8 rats of group B, respectively, but no such band was found in group C and group D.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>hMSCs administered by intraperitoneal injection could be implanted in the lungs of newborn rats, and they could effectively protect the rats against damage to the lungs caused by hyperoxia.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Bone Marrow Cells , Bromodeoxyuridine , Pharmacology , Cell Communication , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Hematopoietic Stem Cells , Humans , Hyperoxia , Metabolism , Infant, Newborn , Lung , Pathology , Lung Injury , Pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Physiology , Oxygen , Metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli , Pathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-281560

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of intravenous infusion of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) against lung injuries in neonatal exposed to hyperoxia.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Rat bone marrow-derived MSCs were separated, cultured, amplified, and labeled with BrdU. Thirty-two 3-day-old SD rats were randomized into 4 equal groups (groups A, B, C and D), and the rats in groups A and B were exposed to 7-day 95% oxygen, while those in groups C and D were not. In groups A and C, the rats received injection with 5x10(4) MSCs via the tail vein, and those in groups B and D were given PBS only. Seventy-two hours after housing in normal air, all the rats were killed to determine the radial alveolar count (RAC) under light microscope. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect BrdU expression in the lung tissue, where the levels of tumor necrosis factoralpha(TNFalpha) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared to air exposure groups, the levels of TNFalpha and TGFbeta1 in the homogenate of the lungs increased while RACs decreased significantly in the two hyperoxia exposure groups. Groups A and B showed significant differences in the fields of RACs and the levels of TNFalpha and TGFbeta1 in the lung tissue homogenate, and BrdU-positive cells were detected only in the lungs of groups A and C, between which a significant quantitative difference was seen.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Intravenously injected MSCs may reside in the lungs of neonatal rats, which is subject to influences by the exposure conditions, and the transplanted MSCs may offer effective protection against lung injuries induced by hyperoxia.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Bone Marrow Cells , Cell Biology , Hyperoxia , Pathology , Infusions, Intravenous , Lung Injury , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-638839

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the influence of marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) on intercelluar adhension molecule-1(ICAM-1) in lung of neonatal rats suffered hyperoxia.Methods Marrow-derived MSCs were separated,cultured,amplificated and labeled with 5bromo 2′-deoxy-uridinel(BrdU);after suffered 95% oxygen for 7 days,24 three-day-old SD rats were randomly divided into group A,B and C,and they were injected intraperitoneally with MSCs of 1?10~4,5?10~4 PBS,respectively.Seven days later,immunocytochemisty was used to determine the expression of BrdU and ICAM-1,and value of radical alveolar counts(RAC) of lungs were counted for histopathological study under light microscope.Results Both group A and B,the labeled MSCs had been(detec)-ted in lungs,and there existed significant variance between two groups(P

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