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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805273

ABSTRACT

Salt reduction is the most cost-effective population strategy to prevent and control hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Accurate measurement of salt intake is an important basis for implementing salt reduction interventions, while the urine sodium measurement is the most objective method to evaluate salt intake. According to different time spans, it is mainly divided into 24-h urine, overnight urine and spot urine collection methods. This article reviewed the application and evaluation of these three urine measurement methods, and compared their advantages and disadvantages. According to the accuracy and feasibility of different urine measurement methods, it is suggested that the 24-h urine collection method can be applied to the correlation study with small sample size, and the overnight urine method and the spot urine method can be applied to the daily population salt reduction interventions and monitoring activities.

2.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1426-1431, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801160

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis E Virus antibody (anti-HEV) in people aged 1-29 years in China in 2014.@*Methods@#Based on database of the national serologic survey of hepatitis B in people aged 1-29 years in China, in 2014, the sample size was estimated. The serum samples of the people surveyed were randomly selected to detect anti-HEV IgG by using enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical software SAS 9.1.3 was used to calculate the positive rate of anti-HEV and 95% confidence interval (CI) in different age, gender groups, urban and rural areas and geographic areas by using the Taylor series linear method with sampling weight. The difference was determined by comparing 95%CI.@*Results@#A total of 14 106 serum samples were detected from people aged 1-29 years, including 6 996 males (49.60%), 7 013 urban residents (49.72%). The positive rate of anti-HEV was 8.12%(95%CI: 7.19-9.15) in people aged 1-29 years. There was no statistical difference between the men and women, between urban area and rural area. The positive rates of anti-HEV in western area(11.36%, 95%CI: 9.45-13.62) was higher than those in eastern and central areas. The positive rates of anti-HEV were 2.46%, 2.24%, 4.50%, 7.58%, 11.89% and 17.27% in people aged 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20- and 25-29 years, respectively. As the age increased, the positive rate of anti-HEV gradually increased. In different ethnic groups, the positive rate of anti-HEV was higher in Tibetan (18.32%, 95%CI: 12.02-26.90), Zhuang (9.54%, 95%CI: 4.33-19.73) ethnic groups.@*Conclusion@#The positive rate of anti-HEV declined slightly in China in 2014. It is still necessary to pay close attention to the HEV infection, morbidity of hepatitis E and risk factors in people aged 1-29 years.

3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 792-798, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738048

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of influenza and 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccinations on symptom-improvement among elderly with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD).Methods Data was gathered from 4 communities in 3 National Demonstration Areas set for comprehensive prevention and control of chronic non-communicable diseases in Chongqing city and Ningbo city respectively,from November 2013 to October 2014.The communities were selected by cluster sampling and divided into 4 groups:(1) injected influenza vaccines;(2) injected with pneumococcal vaccines;(3) received both of the two vaccines;(4) the control group that without any intervention measures.All the subjects aged from 60 to 75 were selected to fill in demographic information questionnaire and receive (COPD assessment test,CAT) scores twice,before intervention and 1 year after the vaccination.SAS 9.4 software was used to analyze the change of symptoms and CAT scores before and after the intervention program and comparing the improvement on symptoms among the elderly people under study.Results A total of 1 244 subjects with nearly same baseline conditions after the propensity score matching,were involved in this study.CAT scores appeared as Median=21 (IQR:17-26) at baseline.The CAT scores appeared as Median=18 (IQR:14-24),decreasing in all the 3 vaccinated groups,one year after the intervention program (influenza vaccines,matching t test,t=-6.531,P=0.403;pneumococcal vaccines,Wilcoxon test,H=-9 623,P<0.001;combined vaccine vaccines,matching t test,t=-10.803,P<0.001).However,in the control group,no obvious change was observed (Wilcoxon H=1 167,P=0.403).Proportions of impacts at high or very high levels all decreased in the 3 intervention groups,while little change was observed in the control group.Outcomes from the Factorial analysis suggested that influenza vaccination could improve the general conditions and symptoms including cough,chest tightness,dyspnea,physical activities,and stamina.Pneumococcal vaccination appeared more effective on all of symptoms and indicators.Conclusion Pneumococcal and influenza vaccination seemed helpful for elderly people suffering COPD to improve the general health condition.

4.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 792-798, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736580

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of influenza and 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccinations on symptom-improvement among elderly with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD).Methods Data was gathered from 4 communities in 3 National Demonstration Areas set for comprehensive prevention and control of chronic non-communicable diseases in Chongqing city and Ningbo city respectively,from November 2013 to October 2014.The communities were selected by cluster sampling and divided into 4 groups:(1) injected influenza vaccines;(2) injected with pneumococcal vaccines;(3) received both of the two vaccines;(4) the control group that without any intervention measures.All the subjects aged from 60 to 75 were selected to fill in demographic information questionnaire and receive (COPD assessment test,CAT) scores twice,before intervention and 1 year after the vaccination.SAS 9.4 software was used to analyze the change of symptoms and CAT scores before and after the intervention program and comparing the improvement on symptoms among the elderly people under study.Results A total of 1 244 subjects with nearly same baseline conditions after the propensity score matching,were involved in this study.CAT scores appeared as Median=21 (IQR:17-26) at baseline.The CAT scores appeared as Median=18 (IQR:14-24),decreasing in all the 3 vaccinated groups,one year after the intervention program (influenza vaccines,matching t test,t=-6.531,P=0.403;pneumococcal vaccines,Wilcoxon test,H=-9 623,P<0.001;combined vaccine vaccines,matching t test,t=-10.803,P<0.001).However,in the control group,no obvious change was observed (Wilcoxon H=1 167,P=0.403).Proportions of impacts at high or very high levels all decreased in the 3 intervention groups,while little change was observed in the control group.Outcomes from the Factorial analysis suggested that influenza vaccination could improve the general conditions and symptoms including cough,chest tightness,dyspnea,physical activities,and stamina.Pneumococcal vaccination appeared more effective on all of symptoms and indicators.Conclusion Pneumococcal and influenza vaccination seemed helpful for elderly people suffering COPD to improve the general health condition.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808930

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of waist circumference (WC) and abdominal obesity (AO) among Chinese adults aged 18 and above.@*Methods@#Data were collected from China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012. Multi-stage stratifies proportion to the population cluster random sampling method was conducted to determine 120 265 subjects aged 18 and above at 150 counties in 31 provinces in China mainland. WC was determined for all subjects, and AO was judged according to the "Healthy Adult Weight Determination" (WS/T 428-2013). Using the demographic data published by the National Bureau of Statistics of China in 2009, we performed complex sampling weighted treatment to calculate the WC, AO rate and 95%CI.@*Results@#The mean WC of Chinese men aged 18 and above was 82.8 cm, which of urban men (84.1 cm) was higher than that of rural men (81.4 cm) (P<0.001). The average WC of women was 78.5 cm. There was no statistical difference between urban (78.7 cm) and rural women (78.4 cm) (P=0.965). With the increase of education level, the mean WC of male increased gradually from 81.2 cm to 84.3 cm (P<0.001), and the mean WC of female decreased from 80.3 cm to 74.3 cm (P<0.001). With the family income rose, the mean WC of men increased gradually from 81.9 cm to 84.7 cm (P<0.001), and the mean of WC of women decreased from 78.8 cm to 77.6 cm (P<0.001). The AO rate was 25.7% (95% CI: 23.7%-27.7%) in adults aged 18 years and older. The AO rate in urban males (29.8% (95%CI: 26.5%-33.1%)) was significantly higher than that of rural males (22.3% (95%CI: 19.3%-25.2%)) (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in the female AO rate between urban (25.6% (95%CI: 22.8%-28.4%)) and rural areas (25.1% (95%CI: 22.2%-27.9%)) (P=0.772). With the increase of the educational level, the AO rate of men increased from 20.1% (95%CI: 18.0%-22.1%) to 32.6% (95%CI: 28.6%-36.6%) (P<0.001), the rate of women decreased gradually from 31.3% (95%CI: 28.7%-33.9%) to 13.5% (95%CI: 10.9%-16.1%) (P<0.001). With the increase of family income, the AO rate of male increased gradually from 23.3% (95%CI: 20.7%-25.9%) to 31.8% (95%CI: 27.6%-36.1%) (P<0.001), the rate of female decreased from 26.5% (95% CI: 24.2%-28.7%) to 20.0% (95% CI: 17.2%-22.8%) (P<0.001).@*Conclusion@#The prevalence of AO among Chinese residents aged 18 years and above was high, and there were significant differences in WC and AO rate between men and women under different age, region, educational level and family income level.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808927

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Assess the 4-year antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) persistence after revaccination with 3-dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) among low-responder infants following primary vaccination.@*Methods@#According to stratified cluster sampling, a total of 4 147 infants were enrolled and primarily vaccinated with 5 μg HepB derived in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (HepB-SC) at 0-1-6 months schedule from 75 towns of Jinan, Weifang, Yantai, Weihai prefectures, Shandong Province, China in Aug and Sep 2009. Blood samples were collected one to six months after the third dose of primary immunization and tested for anti-HBs using chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). 717 infants who appeared low response (10 mU/ml ≤ anti-HBs<100 mU/ml) were revaccinated with 3-dose of HepB. Blood samples were collected from a total of 315 infants one month (T0), four years (T1) after revaccination and anti-HBs, antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were detected by CMIA. Information about their birth, primary vaccination were collected. The risk factors associated with positive rate of anti-HBs and GMC of anti-HBs were identified by multiple non-conditional logistic regression analysis and multifactor linear regression model analysis, respectively.@*Results@#Among 315 children, 165 (52.38%) were male and 150 (47.62%) were female. The positive rate was 83.81% (264/315) at T0 and it decreased to 16.51% (149/529) at T1. The corresponding GMC decreased from 473.15 mU/ml to 17.37 mU/ml. The average annual decreasing rate of positive rate and GMC was 33.38% and 56.23% from T0 to T1. Multivariable analysis showed the positive rate and GMC among those whose anti-HBs titer higher at T0 were significantly higher at T1. The positive rate at T1 among those whose anti-HBs titer 400-<600, 600-<800, 800-<1 000, ≥1 000 mU/ml at T0 were significantly higher than those whose anti-HBs titer less than 200 mU/ml. The OR (95%CI) of the positive rate was 4.29 (1.03-17.84), 4.53 (1.25-16.47), 4.19 (1.10-15.97) and 9.13 (2.91-28.63), respectively. The GMC at T1 among those whose anti-HBs titer 400-<600, 600-<800, 800-<1 000 mU/ml and those whose anti-HBs titer ≥1 000 mU/ml at T0 were higher than those whose anti-HBs titer<200 mU/ml. The b value (95% CI) of GMC was 0.84 (0.06-1.62), 1.13 (0.46-1.79), 1.33 (0.65-2.01) and 1.88 (1.33-2.44), respectively. GMC among full-term infants were significantly higher than premature infants at T1. The b value (95% CI) of GMC was 0.86 (0.04-1.68).@*Conclusion@#Anti-HBs GMC decreased rapidly 4 years after revaccination among low-responder infants, but still kept good protection. The anti-HBs persistence after revaccination was associated with anti-HBs level of titer one month after revaccination.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808923

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the sero-epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis B virus among people born during 1994-2001, conducted by the national hepatitis B sero-epidemiological surveys in 2006 and 2014.@*Methods@#Based on the data of the two national hepatitis B sero-epidemiological surveys in 2006 and 2014, people born during 1994-2001 were included into our analysis as this study subjects. The two surveys were conducted in 160 disease surveillance points of 31 provinces (not including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) in China. Face-to-face interviews with the subject by door to door or on the investigation site were conducted by trained staff using standard questionnaires to obtain basic information including birth date, sex, ethnicity, resident place and so on. And then 5 ml venous blood was collected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reagents were used for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc measurements and Abbott micro-particle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) reagents was used to confirm test. We analyzed HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc positive rate by gender, ethnicity, urban/rural, eastern/central/western region, birth years and compared the distribution of serum epidemiological characteristics in 2006 and 2014.@*Results@#19 821 and 4 712 people born during 1994-2001 were involved in 2006 and 2014 national serosurveys of China, respectively. For the people born during 1994-2001, HBsAg positive rate were 2.02% (95% CI: 1.82%-2.21%) in 2014 and 1.95% (95% CI: 1.56%-2.35%) in 2006. Anti-HBc positive rate were 7.94% (95%CI: 7.17%-8.71%) in 2014 and higher than that in 2006 (6.49%, 95%CI: 6.15%-6.83%), especially for the female (8.31%, 95% CI: 7.20%-9.43%), urban (7.45%, 95% CI: 6.38%-8.52%), western region (11.25%, 95%CI: 9.79%-12.71%), minority people (16.02%, 95%CI: 13.47%-18.57%) in 2014 were higher than that of the female (6.29%, 95% CI: 5.81%-6.78%), urban (4.82%, 95% CI: 4.40%-5.24%), western region (7.97%, 95% CI: 7.31%-8.63%), minority people (11.88%, 95% CI: 10.66%-13.00%) in 2006 respectively. Anti-HBs positive rate were 57.80% (95%CI: 57.11%-58.48%) in 2014 and 59.13% (95%CI: 57.72%-60.53%) in 2006. Anti-HBs positive rate of rural (58.80%, 95% CI: 56.83%-60.78%),western region (58.50%, 95% CI: 56.23%-60.78%), minority people (57.20%, 95% CI: 53.76%-60.63%) in 2014 was higher than of rural (52.62%, 95% CI: 51.64%-53.61%),western region (51.73%, 95% CI: 50.54%-52.96%),minority people (41.14%, 95%CI: 39.28%-43.00%) in 2006.@*Conclusion@#Anti-HBc positive rate among people born during 1994-2001 in 2014 survey showed a rising tendency than in 2006. The risk of HBV infection was existed. Hepatitis B vaccine catch-up in childhood was necessary.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808922

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the effect of hepatitis B prevention and control by comparative analysis on the results of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc prevalence from national hepatitis B seroepidemiological surveys in 1992 and 2014 in different epidemic regions of China.@*Methods@#Data was from the national seroepidemiological surveys of hepatitis B conducted in 1992 and 2014. The survey in 1992 was conducted in 145 disease surveillance points of 30 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China. The survey in 2016 was conducted in 160 disease surveillance points of 31 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China. In the two surveys, face-to-face interviews with the subject by door to door or on the investigation site were conducted by trained staff using standard questionnaires to obtain basic information including birth date, gender, ethnicity, resident place and so on. And then 5 ml venous blood was collected to test the sero-markers of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc. We analyzed unweighted point prevalence and 95% CI of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc in 1992 which had no design weighting, and analyzed weighted point prevalence and 95%CI of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc in 2014 which had design weighting.@*Results@#34 291 and 31 713 people aged 1-29 years were involved in 1992 and 2014 national serosurveys of China, respectively. For the people aged 1-29 years, HBsAg prevalence was 2.64% (95%CI: 2.28%-3.06%) in 2014 and decreased by 73.92% as compared with the rate 10.13% (95% CI: 9.81%-10.45%) in 1992. Anti-HBc prevalence was 13.01% (95%CI: 12.09%-14.00%) in 2014 and decreased by 71.61% as compared with the rate 45.84% (95% CI: 45.31%-46.37%) in 1992. Anti-HBs prevalence was 57.79% (95%CI: 56.33%-59.25%) in 2014 and ascended by 127.41% as compared with the rate 25.41% (95% CI: 24.95%-25.87%) in 1992. In high, medium and low epidemic region, for the people who born during 1992-2001 when hepatitis B vaccine was introduced in routine immunization management, HBsAg prevalence was 4.74% (95%CI: 3.79%-5.69%), 1.59% (95%CI: 1.09%-2.10%) and 2.53% (95%CI: 1.66%-3.39%), respectively, and anti-HBs prevalence was 64.25% (95% CI: 62.11%-66.39%), 56.34% (95% CI: 54.50%-58.57%), 54.49% (95%CI: 51.75%-57.23%), respectively, and anti-HBc prevalence was 15.16% (95%CI: 13.56%-16.76%), 11.07% (95%CI: 9.80%-12.33%), 7.61% (95%CI: 6.15%-9.07%), respectively. In high, medium and low epidemic region, for the people who born during 2002-2013 the duration which hepatitis B vaccine was integrated in expanded immunization program born during when HBsAg prevalence was 0.88% (95%CI: 0.66%-1.11%), 0.37% (95%CI: 0.24%-0.49%)and 0.71% (95%CI: 0.48%-0.94%), respectively, and anti-HBs prevalence was 60.74% (95%CI: 59.57%-61.90%), 59.46% (95%CI: 58.44%-60.49%), 52.56% (95% CI: 51.20%-53.92%), respectively, and anti-HBc prevalence was 3.30% (95% CI: 2.87%-3.72%), 1.91% (95%CI: 1.63%-2.20%), 2.25% (95%CI: 1.85%-2.66%), respectively.@*Conclusion@#China had made great achievement in hepatitis B prevention and control. HBsAg prevalence among people aged 1-29 years old in 2014 decreased dramatically as compared with that in 1992. Since hepatitis B vaccine was integrated into expanded immunization program, China reduced HBsAg prevalence to less than 1% among people aged 1-12 years in 2014 in different epidemic region.

9.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1156-1160, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737794

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the antibody persistence 5 years after primary immunization with 5 μg and 10 μg recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) among newborns with normal and high response.Methods Newborns who completed three doses of 5 μ g HepB made by recombinant dexyribonucleic acid technique in Saccharomyces (HepB-SC) or 10 μg HepB made by recombinant dexyribonucleic acid technique in Hansenula polymorpha (HepB-HP) were recruited.Standardized questionnaire was used and blood samples were collected 1-6 months (T0) and five years (T1) after the third dose respectively.The titer of anti-HBs was detected by chemiluminescence microparticle imunoassay (CMIA).Those who achieved normal or high antibody response (anti-HBs titer ≥100 mIU/ml) were included in the study and the positive rate (≥ 10 mIU/ml) and titer of anti-HBs at T1 were compared between 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group.Multivariable analysis was conducted to identify the independent factors associated with the antibody persistence.Results The positive rate of anti-HBs at T1 was 49.92% (943/1 883) and 75.92% (1 135/1 495) respectively in 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group,the difference was significant (x2=237.75,P<0.001).The anti-IBs geometric mean concentrations at T1 were 10.23 mIU/ml (95%CI:9.38-11.16) and 28.91 mIU/ml (95%CI:26.65-31.35) in the two groups respectively,the difference was also significant (F=280.36,P<0.001).Among those whose anti-HBs titer was < 10 mIU/ml at T1,the distributions of anti-HBs titer were significantly different between 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group (x2=39.75,P< 0.001).The multivariable analysis showed that dosage of HepB was independently associated with both positive rate and titer of anti-HBs at T1 after excluding the other factors [P<0.001,OR=1.44(95% CI:1.20-1.73);P<0.001,β =0.27 (95% CI:0.14-0.40)].Conclusion Five year anti-HBs persistence after primary immunization with 10 μg HepB might be better than that after primary immunization with 5 μg HepB among infants who achieved normal or high anti-HBs response after primary HepB immunization.

10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 868-876, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737738

ABSTRACT

Objective Less surveys on the economic burden of hepatitis B (HB)-related diseases have been conducted in China,so the socioeconomic harm caused by the diseases is not clear and the key parameters for economic evaluation of hepatitis B prevention and treatment are lacking.This study aimed to analyze the direct,indirect and intangible expenditures of hospitalized patients with HB-related diseases during hospitalization and during a year in different areas of China.Methods The hospitals for infectious diseases and the large general hospitals in 12 areas in China were selected in the study.All the inpatients with HB-related diseases were surveyed by cluster sampling of consecutive cases.The direct expenditure included direct medical cost and direct non-medical cost.The indirect expenditure,including work loss of patients and caregivers,were calculated by using human capital method for urban and rural populations in 12 areas.The intangible expenditure were reflected by willing to pay and stochastic tournament.The influencing factors of direct and indirect costs were identified by stepwise linear multi-variation regression analysis.Results A total of 27 hospitals in 12 areas were included in the survey.A total of 4 718 cases were surveyed,the overall response rate was 77.7%.The average hospital stay was 29.2 days (27-34) and the hospitalization expenditure was averagely 16 832.80 yuan (RMB) per case,in which the highest proportion (61.2%)was medicine fees [10 365.10 yuan (RMB)].The average direct expenditure and indirect expenditure were consistent with the severity of illness,which were 18 336.10 yuan (RMB) and 4 759.60 yuan (RMB) respectively,with the ratio of 3.85:1.The direct medical expenditure [17 434.70 yuan (RMB)] were substantially higher than the direct non-medical expenditure [901.40 yuan (RMB)].It was found that the hospitalization expenses was highest in direct medical expenditure and the transportation expenses was highest in direct non-medical expenditures.Among the average indirect expenditure,the loss of income for the patients [3 832.50 yuan (RMB)] was higher than that for the caregivers [927.20 yuan (RMB)],The total direct and indirect expenditure was highest for liver transplantation,followed by severe hepatitis,hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated cirrhosis,acute hepatitis B,compensated cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B.The influencing factors for both direct and indirect expenditure were high hospital level,severity of hepatitis B,living in urban area,antiviral therapy,long hospitalization and monthly income of family.For average 3.74 outpatient visits and 1.51 hospitalization,the average annual direct,indirect and intangible expenditure for HB-related diseases were 30 135.30,6 253.80 and 44 729.90 yuan (RMB) [totally 81 119.00 yuan (RMB)],accounting for 37.3%,7.7% and 55.0%,respectively.Of the annual direct medical expenditure [28 402.80 yuan (RMB)],which were much higher than non-medical expenditure [1 732.50 yuan (RMB)],hospitalization expenditure [26 074.20 yuan (RMB)] was higher than outpatient visit expenditure [4 061.10 yuan (RMB)].The annual indirect expenditures for outpatient visit and hospitalization were 763.60 and 5 490.10 yuan (RMB),respectively.Of the annual intangible expenditure,the highest was that for/primary hepatocellular carcinoma,followed by cirrhosis,chronic hepatitis B,severe hepatitis B,liver transplantation and acute hepatitis B.Conclusions A heavy economic burden has been caused by HB-related diseases in China,and patients are more likely to rely on medical service rather than non-medical service.It is necessary to take effective treatment measures to prevent the adverse outcome of HB related diseases and achieve significant economic benefits.The influence of HB related diseases on mental health of the people can be reflected by an economics term,intangible expenditure.

11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1156-1160, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736326

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the antibody persistence 5 years after primary immunization with 5 μg and 10 μg recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) among newborns with normal and high response.Methods Newborns who completed three doses of 5 μ g HepB made by recombinant dexyribonucleic acid technique in Saccharomyces (HepB-SC) or 10 μg HepB made by recombinant dexyribonucleic acid technique in Hansenula polymorpha (HepB-HP) were recruited.Standardized questionnaire was used and blood samples were collected 1-6 months (T0) and five years (T1) after the third dose respectively.The titer of anti-HBs was detected by chemiluminescence microparticle imunoassay (CMIA).Those who achieved normal or high antibody response (anti-HBs titer ≥100 mIU/ml) were included in the study and the positive rate (≥ 10 mIU/ml) and titer of anti-HBs at T1 were compared between 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group.Multivariable analysis was conducted to identify the independent factors associated with the antibody persistence.Results The positive rate of anti-HBs at T1 was 49.92% (943/1 883) and 75.92% (1 135/1 495) respectively in 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group,the difference was significant (x2=237.75,P<0.001).The anti-IBs geometric mean concentrations at T1 were 10.23 mIU/ml (95%CI:9.38-11.16) and 28.91 mIU/ml (95%CI:26.65-31.35) in the two groups respectively,the difference was also significant (F=280.36,P<0.001).Among those whose anti-HBs titer was < 10 mIU/ml at T1,the distributions of anti-HBs titer were significantly different between 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group (x2=39.75,P< 0.001).The multivariable analysis showed that dosage of HepB was independently associated with both positive rate and titer of anti-HBs at T1 after excluding the other factors [P<0.001,OR=1.44(95% CI:1.20-1.73);P<0.001,β =0.27 (95% CI:0.14-0.40)].Conclusion Five year anti-HBs persistence after primary immunization with 10 μg HepB might be better than that after primary immunization with 5 μg HepB among infants who achieved normal or high anti-HBs response after primary HepB immunization.

12.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 868-876, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736270

ABSTRACT

Objective Less surveys on the economic burden of hepatitis B (HB)-related diseases have been conducted in China,so the socioeconomic harm caused by the diseases is not clear and the key parameters for economic evaluation of hepatitis B prevention and treatment are lacking.This study aimed to analyze the direct,indirect and intangible expenditures of hospitalized patients with HB-related diseases during hospitalization and during a year in different areas of China.Methods The hospitals for infectious diseases and the large general hospitals in 12 areas in China were selected in the study.All the inpatients with HB-related diseases were surveyed by cluster sampling of consecutive cases.The direct expenditure included direct medical cost and direct non-medical cost.The indirect expenditure,including work loss of patients and caregivers,were calculated by using human capital method for urban and rural populations in 12 areas.The intangible expenditure were reflected by willing to pay and stochastic tournament.The influencing factors of direct and indirect costs were identified by stepwise linear multi-variation regression analysis.Results A total of 27 hospitals in 12 areas were included in the survey.A total of 4 718 cases were surveyed,the overall response rate was 77.7%.The average hospital stay was 29.2 days (27-34) and the hospitalization expenditure was averagely 16 832.80 yuan (RMB) per case,in which the highest proportion (61.2%)was medicine fees [10 365.10 yuan (RMB)].The average direct expenditure and indirect expenditure were consistent with the severity of illness,which were 18 336.10 yuan (RMB) and 4 759.60 yuan (RMB) respectively,with the ratio of 3.85:1.The direct medical expenditure [17 434.70 yuan (RMB)] were substantially higher than the direct non-medical expenditure [901.40 yuan (RMB)].It was found that the hospitalization expenses was highest in direct medical expenditure and the transportation expenses was highest in direct non-medical expenditures.Among the average indirect expenditure,the loss of income for the patients [3 832.50 yuan (RMB)] was higher than that for the caregivers [927.20 yuan (RMB)],The total direct and indirect expenditure was highest for liver transplantation,followed by severe hepatitis,hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated cirrhosis,acute hepatitis B,compensated cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B.The influencing factors for both direct and indirect expenditure were high hospital level,severity of hepatitis B,living in urban area,antiviral therapy,long hospitalization and monthly income of family.For average 3.74 outpatient visits and 1.51 hospitalization,the average annual direct,indirect and intangible expenditure for HB-related diseases were 30 135.30,6 253.80 and 44 729.90 yuan (RMB) [totally 81 119.00 yuan (RMB)],accounting for 37.3%,7.7% and 55.0%,respectively.Of the annual direct medical expenditure [28 402.80 yuan (RMB)],which were much higher than non-medical expenditure [1 732.50 yuan (RMB)],hospitalization expenditure [26 074.20 yuan (RMB)] was higher than outpatient visit expenditure [4 061.10 yuan (RMB)].The annual indirect expenditures for outpatient visit and hospitalization were 763.60 and 5 490.10 yuan (RMB),respectively.Of the annual intangible expenditure,the highest was that for/primary hepatocellular carcinoma,followed by cirrhosis,chronic hepatitis B,severe hepatitis B,liver transplantation and acute hepatitis B.Conclusions A heavy economic burden has been caused by HB-related diseases in China,and patients are more likely to rely on medical service rather than non-medical service.It is necessary to take effective treatment measures to prevent the adverse outcome of HB related diseases and achieve significant economic benefits.The influence of HB related diseases on mental health of the people can be reflected by an economics term,intangible expenditure.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-512770

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this study is to understand the construction of laboratory testing capacity of the Chinese Disease Control and Prevention institutions at all levels and to expound the problems and puts forward the related suggestions and countermeasures which can provide the basis for scientific and corresponding improvement of laboratory construction.Methods: The whole procedures were completed through descriptive epidemiological studies using SAS 9.2 Software and Excel 2010 for conducting statistical and trend analyses.Results: There is an increasing trend in the number and proportion of inspections in the disease control institutions at all levels in China.The number of disease control and prevention institutions` special testing laboratories increased significantly in 2012 and then the growth rate undergone a slow-down.The owning rate of equipped laboratory appliance rapidly rose in 2011 and started to level off after that.The average number of equipment in eastern region is greater than that drawn in the central and western regions.According to rate of compliance with the standard of basic laboratory projects, there is a trend in the provincial, district and county level disease control and prevention institutions where the eastern region comes first, followed by the central and then the western region closes the line.However, in general, this rate of those provincial level institutions show a state that the central region holds the highest rate, the eastern region comes second, and the western last.Conclusions: The qualities of health inspection personnel still need to be further improved in disease control and prevention institutions at all levels in the country.In the aspect of laboratory equipment possession rate, the provincial-level CDCs have greater and absolute advantage than the county-level and district level institutions.The testing projects of CDCs in the central and eastern regions of China have a relatively good level, while those tracked in the western region are relatively weak.In view of this, China should strengthen the support to western region in terms of human resource, equipment and funding.The provincial-level disease control and prevention institutions` laboratory testing and diagnosis projects are the best in balance and fairness.Improving the testing capacity is an effective approach to promote the development of disease control and prevention.Hence, the state should pay much attention to the laboratory construction works and management strategies and flows.

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Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 455-459, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237519

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the characteristics of health-seeking behaviors and related influencing factors of the community-based hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive adults, in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Based on the cohort formed by the HBsAg positive patients, in the national sero-survey project in 2006, we conducted a follow-up programs in 2010 and 2014. In the latest follow-up project, we carried out a cross-sectional study to collect information on health-seeking behaviors of the patients. Questionnaires would include information on clinic visits, diagnosis, regular physical examination and treatments,etc. We used the SPSS 18.0 software for data analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Totally, 2 478 HBsAg positive adults (≥18 years old) were followed through, with 34.4% (853/2 478) of them had visited the doctors and diagnosed after they were informed the status of HBsAg positivity, in the 2006-sero-survey program. Among patients who ever visiting the clinic, 51.2% (372/727) of them underwent at least medical examination once a year, with 31.5% (229/727) of them received treatment. Furthermore, 34.5% (79/229) of the treated patients adopted the traditional Chinese medicine or medicine for ' liver protection'. 56.8% (130/229) of the treated patients received antiviral drugs. Data from the binary logistic regression showed that the major influencing factors on clinic visits would include: age, level of education received and residencial areas (rural/urban).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Consciousness on health was low in those community-based HBsAg positive people. Standerdized management and clinical treatment programs should be set up accordingly.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Psychology , China , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Hepatitis B , Blood , Diagnosis , Ethnology , Psychology , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Blood , Humans , Logistic Models , Residence Characteristics , Rural Population , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 460-463, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237518

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To examine the influence of three-booster-doses hepatitis B vaccines on children with normal and high antibody response to primary vaccination.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) were detected after primary vaccination and children with normal or high response to hepatitis B primary vaccination at infancy, were identified. Children who were given three booster doses were selected to form the booster group and who were given no booster dose were 1∶1 matched with the same gender and residence to form the control group. Blood samples were obtained from all the participants and tested for anti-HBs and anti-HBc, 5 years after the primary vaccination.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The positive rates of anti-HBs response to primary vaccination were 97.39% (224/230, 95% CI: 94.41%-99.04%) in the booster group and 53.91% (124/230, 95% CI: 47.24%-60.48%) in the control group (P<0.05), 5 years after the primary vaccination. Geometric mean concentration (GMC) of anti-HBs were 1 140.02 (887.46-1 464.46) mIU/ml in the booster group and 11.53 (8.73-15.23) mIU/ml in the control group (P<0.05). The prevalence rates of breakthrough HBV infection were 0.87% (2/230) in the booster group and 2.17%(5/230) in the control group (P>0.05). RESULTS from the multivariable analysis showed that the booster doses (OR=38.75, 95%CI: 16.23-92.54) and the level of anti-HBs after the primary vaccination (OR =3.06, 95%CI:1.51-6.17) were independently associated with the positive rates of anti-HBs, 5 years after the primary vaccination (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Programs with three booster doses to children that showing normal and high antibody response to primary vaccination could improve the persistence of anti-HBs but possibly would not be able to prevent the HBV infection.</p>


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , Case-Control Studies , Child , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Blood , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology , Hepatitis B virus , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Infant , Prevalence , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination
16.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 378-383,384, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-603568

ABSTRACT

Aim To study the protection and possible mechanism of 5-hydroxy-1 H-indazole against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium iodide ( MPP+)-induced SH-SY5 Y cell apoptosis. Methods An apoptotic model was es-tablished in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5 Y by MPP+in vitro. MTT analysis was used to evaluate the protec-tive effect of 5-hydroxy-1H-indazole. Immunochemistry and Hoechst33258 nuclear staining were used to ob-serve the neuroprotection and anti-apoptosis of 5-hy-droxy-1H-indazole. Western blot was used to detect the levels of P-tau ( Ser396 ) closely related to neuronal apoptosis and its upstream kinases:P-GSK-3β and CDK5 . Results MPP+ induced activation of GSK-3β, increase of activity of CDK5 , tau hyperphosphory-lation and neuronal cell apoptosis. However,5-hydrox-y-1 H-indazole reduced the activities of GSK-3β and CDK5,then decreased the level of tau hyperphosphory-lation and inhibited MPP+-induced SH-SY5 Y cells ap-optosis. Conclusions 5-hydroxy-1H-indazole could attenuate MPP+-induced SH-SY5 Y neuronal cell apop-tosis. Possible mechanism is that 5-hydroxy-1H-in-dazole inhibits GSK-3βand CDK5 two signal transduc-tion pathways to lower the level of tau phosphorylation, then plays a role of neuroprotection.

17.
The Journal of Practical Medicine ; (24): 1044-1047, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-492244

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the mechanism of brain function connection (FC) by observing the changes of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) and non-USN patients, using functional magnetic resonance imaging technique (fMRI). Methods 8 USN and 8 control patients participated in the study and fMRI data were collected. The data was analyzed by independent component analysis method. Results USN group showed increased FC in the left frontal/temporal lobeas well and decreased FC in the right cingulate gyrus, precuneus, temporalgyrus compared with control group. These were highly related to behavioral scores. Conclusions Abnormal brain function connection may be related to USN. The findings were helpful for understanding the potential mechanism underlying of USN.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-492159

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the relationship between injury site (right or left) or pathological type (hemorrhage or infarct) and atten-tion impairment in post stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI). Methods June, 2014 to June 2015, 49 patients with PSCI were assessed with Test of Attentional Performance (TAP) within 1 week of admission. The reaction time and the numbers of correct response were recorded. Results The reaction time of alertness (with or without alarm) was shorter in the patients with left infarction (Z=-2.32, t=-3.76, P2.32, t=-3.10, P<0.05). Conclusion A trend of lateralization was found in patients with PSCI, rather than in the pathology.

19.
Tianjin Medical Journal ; (12): 110-113, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-483734

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infections among general population in Tianjin. Methods Individuals (n=11 096) who visited our hospital for medical examination and H. Pylori infection screen were included in the research objects. Rapid urease method was utilized to rapidly detect H. pylori infection among the popultion. Individuals were grouped based on their gender, age and occupations, and then were analyzed. Results H. pylori-positive rate was 30.52%(3 386/11 096) in 11 096 individuals, in which there were 34.77%(1 784/5 131) male and 26.86%(1 602/5 965) female respectively. Individuals were divided into 5 groups according to their ages:19 to 29 years old group, 30 to 39 years old group, 40 to 49 years old group, 50 to 59 years old group, 60 to 69 years old group and 70 to 92 years old group. The positive rates of H. pylori increased with age:19.50%( 379/1 944 ) in 19-29 years old group, 25.82%(650/2 517 ) in 30-39 years old group, 31.59%( 908/2 874 ) in 40-49 years old group, 37.48%(915/2 441 ) in 50-59 years old group, 41.09%( 353/859 ) in 60-69 years old group and 39.18%(181/462) in 70-92 years old group. The differences in positive rates between different age groups were all of statistically significant (P<0.05). Individuals were also divided into seven groups according to their occupations: medical worker group, worker group, teacher group, engineer group, clerk group, civil worker group and other career group. The positive rates of H. pylori infection were 25.42%(586/2 305), 29.35%(1 062/3 618), 30.61%(360/1 176), 32.49%(116/357), 33.44%(205/613), 34.52%(455/1 318)and 35.23%(602/1 709) respectively. The positive rate was 25.42% (586/2 305) medical workers, which was lower than that of other occupation groups with significant difference (P<0.002). Conclusion Good management of H. pylori diagnosis and treatment in mid-dle age and elderly together with popularizing knowledge of H.pylori prevention can effectively reduce H.pylori incidence.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291652

ABSTRACT

Along with the society and economy development in China, life expectancy of Chinese increased substantially since 1990, chronic and non-communicable disease has became a serious disease effecting on health. In the process of transition of the health mode, it's a complicated challenge how to effectively reduce the burden of and improve the health of Chinese. Based on the results of the burden of disease study of Chinese, referring to the experience of other countries and combining with the practice in our country, we put forward some suggestions to solve the health problems in China, and we hope we can promote the development of the prevention and control of disease, and realize the health dream of Chinese.


Subject(s)
China , Chronic Disease , Cost of Illness , Health , Humans , Life Expectancy
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