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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810477

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To characterize the etiology and epidemiological characteristics of the acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome (AMES) in Jinan city in 2013-2016.@*Methods@#The epidemiological data, clinical diagnosis, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from 3 577 AMES cases in 6 sentinel hospitals in Jinan city in 2013-2016. Samples of all cases were made sero-diagnosis for Immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and negative cases of JEV for enterovirus (EV), mumps virus (MuV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Virus isolation and molecular identification were performed. Positive rates were analyzed by Chi-square test.@*Results@#In 2013-2016, the positive rates of JEV, EV, MuV and HSV were 9.0% (322/3 577 cases), 22.1% (643/2 916 cases), 9.9% (289/2 916 cases), 26.9% (783/2 916), respectively. Of these, the positive rates of JEV were 32.9% (261/794), 1.2% (14/1 175), 1.0% (8/807) and 4.9% (39/801 cases); EV: 19.5% (91/466), 35.1% (342/974 cases), 15.5% (115/743) and 13.0% (95/733); MuV: 9.2% (43/466), 14.4% (140/974), 9.0% (67/743) and 5.3% (39/733). HSV: 35.4% (165/466), 38.5% (375/974), 25.7% (191/743) and 7.1% (52/733). There were significant differences in positive rates of 4 kinds of viruses in 2013-2016 (P<0.001). A total of 81 EV strains belonging to 8 serotypes were isolated from 1 020 CSF specimens. The positive rates were 4.8% (6 cases), 13.1% (55 cases), 4.1% (7 cases) and 4.2% (13 cases) from 2013 to 2016. Coxsackievirus (CV) B5, echovirus (E) 6 and E30 accounted for 46% (37 isolates), 22% (18 isolates) and 21% (17 isolates) of all strains.@*Conclusion@#The AMES cases in Jinan city in 2013-2016 were mainly caused by HSV, EV, MuV, JEV. CVB5, E6 and E30 were the dominant serotypes of EV associated with AMES cases in Jinan city.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810476

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze epidemiological and clinical characteristics of laboratory confirmed epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis cases.@*Methods@#Epidemiological and clinical informations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood specimens of AMES (acute meningitis/encephalitis syndrome) cases were collected in the six sentinel hospitals from 2007 to 2016. neisseria meningitides (Nm) species and serogroup identification were detected by the methods of real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and bacterial culture, and epidemiological and clinical characteristics of laboratory confirmed epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis cases were analyzed.@*Results@#6 809 AMES cases were reported from 2007 to 2016. Total 4 422 cases were detected, and 90 cases were Nm positive. Through the methods of Real-time PCR, bacterial blood culture and CSF culture, the numbers of Nm positive cases were 90, 2 and 1 respectively. Twenty-two Nm cases were identified from 2007 to 2011 (4 cases were ungrouped), which with the highest incidence in serogroup C cases (17/18), and one cases was ungroupable Nm. Nm laboratory confirmed cases (68 cases) were increased dramatically and mainly occurred in serogroup B cases (43/67, 64.2%) from 2012 to 2016, with serogroup C cases highly decreased (5/67, 7.5%) and ungroupable Nm cases increased (13/67, 19.4%) meanwhile. Serogroup W135 and X cases were first detected at 2012 and 2014, and serogroup A remaining a low level which only detected one case at 2013. The morbidity of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis was occured in the whole year, and mainly in winter and spring. The ratio of Nm laboratory confirmed cases to AMES cases during November to May (3.5%, 67/1 920) was higher than that during June to October (0.9%, 23/2 502) (χ2=34.45, P<0.001). Most Nm cases were children, students and farmers, and account for 30.0% (27/90), 31.1% (28/90), 18.9% (17/90), respectively. The majority of Nm cases were under 20 years old (60/90, 66.67%), and serogroup C cases (17/22, 77.3%) mainly occurred in over 12 years old population, while serogroup B (24/43, 55.8%) and ungroupable (6/14) cases mainly occurred in under 12 years old population. The main clinical symptoms of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis cases were fever (78/90, 86.7%), headache (59/90, 65.6%) and vomiting (51/90, 56.7%). Misdiagnosis rate of admitting diagnosis was up to 87.8% (79/90) for the reason of atypical features in specific symptoms and blood or CSF positive index. The well-healed ratio in correct diagnosed group (7/11) was higher than that in misdiagnosed group (2.5%, 2/79) (χ2=40.61, P<0.001).@*Conclusion@#The clinical symptoms of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis cases were atypical, and the diagnosed sensitivity and accuracy would be improved by enhanced molecular biology detection. The predominant epidemic serogroup of Nm switched from serogroup C to B, and the key work was surveaylance of serogroup transition.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805146

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the genotype distribution and molecular epidemiological characteristics of the group A rotavirus (RVA) in domestic sewage, and further explore the importance of environmental surveillance in investigating RVA regional circulation.@*Methods@#Sewage samples were collected monthly in the city of Yantai from January 2014 to December 2016. After concentration, total RNA was extracted, and RVA VP7 and VP4 coding regions were amplified via RT-PCR. PCR products were purified, cloned and Sanger sequenced. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on the sequences.@*Results@#Thirty-six sewage samples were collected and 86.1% was positive with VP7 and VP4 sequences. A total of 205 VP7 and 239 VP4 nucleotide sequences were obtained, belonging to 4 G genotypes and 6 P genotypes. Among these, G9 (95.6%, 196/205), P[8] (58.6%, 140/239) and P[4] (28.0%, 67/239) were the most common genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis for G9, P[8] and P[4] sequences revealed co-circulation of multiple transmission chains in local population.@*Conclusions@#This study describes the genotype distribution and sequence characteristics of local RVA in Shandong province, and the result demonstrate that surveillance on environmental sewage is an effective way in investigating RVA molecular epidemiology.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771954

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To identify mutation of the PAX6 gene in a patient with congenital aniridia.@*METHODS@#DNA was extracted from peripheral blood sample of the patient and analyzed by direct PCR-Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The proband was found to harbor a heterozygous c.239T>A (p.Ile80Asn) mutation of the PAX6 gene. The same mutation was not found in his parents and 150 healthy controls.@*CONCLUSION@#A novel mutation of the PAX6 gene has been identified in a sporadic case with congenital aniridia.


Subject(s)
Aniridia , Genetics , Base Sequence , Humans , Mutation , PAX6 Transcription Factor , Genetics , Pedigree
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805909

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analysis the genotype of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in mosquitoes from Shandong province.@*Methods@#Mosquitoes were collected between August and September in Weishan county, Junan county, and Kenli county of Shandong province in 2016. Viruses were isolated by BHK-21 cell and identified by molecular method . Real-Time RT-PCR was conducted to detect the Japanese encephalitis virus carried by the mosquitoes.@*Results@#A total of 8418 mosquitoes divided into 81 pools including 3 species, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres obturbans. Eight Japanese encephalitis viruses were isolated; 23 pools were positive by JEV specific real-time RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis on E sequence of JEV showed all JEV strains belonged to genotype Ⅰ JEV, and new strains that were homogenous with previous JEV strains isolated from Shandong.@*Conclusions@#Genotype Ⅰ JEV was the dominant genotype in Shandong province.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-711249

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate phenylalanine hydroxylase ( PA H ) gene mutations and to perform prenatal diagnosis in 55 pedigrees with classical phenylketonuria (PKU). Methods Subjects of this study were 55 probands diagnosed with PKU in the Gansu Provincial Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital from 2013 to 2017 and their pedigrees. Sanger sequencing/Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was used to investigate PA H gene mutations in these probands and their parents. Sanger sequencing/MLPA, linkage analysis of three common short tandem repeats (STR) including PAH-26, PAH-STR and PAH-32 in the PA H gene and paternity testing were used in combination for prenatal diagnosis of 60 fetuses in the 55 pedigrees. Results Among the 110 alleles in the 55 probands, 108 mutant alleles (98.2%) were found by Sanger sequencing. The 108 mutant alleles located in 38 regions resulting in 22 missense mutations, nine splice site mutations, five nonsense mutations and two microdeletion. The most common mutations were c.728G>A (22.2%, 24/108), c.442-1G>A (5.6%, 6/108), c.611A>G (5.6%, 6/108), c.764T>C (5.6%, 6/108), c.1068C>A (5.6%, 6/108) and c.331C>T (4.6%, 5/108). Loss of heterozygosity in 4-5 and 4-7 exons were detected by MLPA in two probands, in which only one mutation was unidentified. Prenatal diagnosis for the 60 fetuses were successfully performed. Among them, 17 fetuses (28.3%) were affected, 29 fetuses (48.3%) were heterozygous carriers and fetuses 14(23.4%) were unaffected ones. Conclusions Combination of Sanger sequencing/MLPA, linkage analysis and paternity testing could provide accurate prenatal diagnosis in pedigrees with PKU.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-486222

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the genetic characteristics of echovirus 6 ( E-6) strains isolated from patients with acute meningitis/encephalitis syndrome ( AMES) in 2014 and sewage samples in 2013—2014 in Shandong province and to investigate their correlations.Methods Enterovirus strains were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid, stool and throat swab samples collected from 940 cases of AMES and 96 sewage samples used for environmental surveillance.The positive isolates were identified by molecular typing meth-od.Homologous and phylogenetic analyses based on the VP1 sequences of E-6 isolates were performed.Re-sults Altogether 47 E-6 strains were isolated from patients with AMES in 2014, accounting for 29.56%of all isolated enteroviruses ( EVs) strains.No E-6 strains were isolated from AMES cases in 2013.Data of the environmental surveillance showed that E-6 virus strains had been frequently detected in sewage samples since the summer of 2013 to the end of 2014.In total, 40 E-6 virus strains were isolated (7.87% of total isolated EVs strains) in 2013 and 139 E-6 virus strains (26.18%) in 2014.Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the E-6 isolates recruited in this study belonged to clusters A and C with high intracluster sequence iden-tities between AMES and environmental isolates.The nucleotide identities were 98.3%-100% among cluster A E-6 virus strains isolated from AMES cases in 2014 and 96.6%-100% among cluster A E-6 virus environ-mental isolates during the surveillance year 2013—2014.The cluster A E-6 virus strains shared 97.1%-100% nucleotide identities between the AMES and environmental isolates.For cluster C E-6 virus strains, the nucleotide identities were 100%, 98.7%-100% and 99.1%-100%, respectively.Conclusion The epidemic of viral encephalitis in Shandong province in 2014 was associated the transmission of two lineages of E-6 virus.Environmental surveillance revealed the potential epidemic of E-6 virus even before the epidemic of viral encephalitis in Shandong province, indicating the possibility of using environmental surveillance for early warning of related diseases.

8.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 542-547, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296250

ABSTRACT

To analyze the genetic characteristics of a polio-I highly variant vaccine recombinant virus in Shandong Province (China) in 2011 and to identify isolates from healthy contacts, two stool specimens from one patient with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and 40 stool specimens from his contacts were collected for virus isolation. The complete genome of poliovirus and VP1 coding region of the non-polio enterovirus were sequenced. Homologous comparison and phylogenetic analyses based on VP1 sequences were undertaken among coxsackievirus (CV) B1, CV-B3 isolates, and those in GenBank. One poliovirus (P1/11186), CV-A4 and CV-A8 were isolated from the AFP patient; one CV-A2, Echovirus 3 (E-3), E-12 and E-14, ten CV-B1, and five CV-B3 strains were isolated from his contacts. These results led us to believe that there may be a human enterovirus epidemic in this area, and that surveillance must be enhanced. P1/11186 was a type-1 vaccine-related poliovirus; it combined with type-2 and type-3 polioviruses in 2A and 3A regions, respectively. There were 25 nucleotide mutations with 9 amino-acid alterations in the entire genome. There were 8 nucleotide mutations with 5 amino-acid alterations in the VP1 region compared with the corresponding Sabin strains. Homology analyses suggested that the ten CV-B1 isolates had 97.0%-100% nucleotide and 98.9%-100% amino-acid identities with each other, as well as 92.6%-100% nucleotide and 99.2%-100% amino-acid identities among the five CV-B3 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses on the complete sequences of VP1 among CV-B1 and CV-B3 isolates showed that Shandong strains, together with strains from other provinces in China, had a close relationship and belonged to the same group.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Capsid Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Child, Preschool , China , Humans , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Poliomyelitis , Virology , Poliovirus , Classification , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Poliovirus Vaccines , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-460954

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the therapeutic effect of donepezil combined nimodipine on vascular dementia. Methods:A total of 45 patients with vascular dementia aging 54~76 years were randomly divided into donepezil +nimodipine group (n= 24)and huperzine + piracetam group (n= 21).Scores of mini-mental state examination (MMSE)and activity of daily living (ADL)were examined in two groups before and after treatment,and therapeu-tic effect was compared between two groups.Results:Compared with before treatment,after treatment,MMSE score [(15.8±6.3)scores vs.(21.6±7.4)scores]significantly rose and ADL score [(50.3±6.4)scores vs.(40.2 ±7.1)scores]significantly reduced in donepezil + nimodipine group;MMSE score [(14.6±6.9)scores vs.(18.5 ±7.2)scores]significantly rose,ADL score [(49.3±7.8)scores vs.(43.5±8.2)scores]significantly reduced in huperzine + piracetam group,P <0.01 all;but there were no significant difference between two group after treat-ment (P =0.08,0.07).Conclusion:Therapeutic effect of donepezil combined nimodipine on vascular dementia is quite to huperzine + piracetam.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-418441

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo identify the pathogen of an aseptic meningitis outbreak which occurred in Linyi City of Shandong Province during the summer of 2009,and to analyze the genetic variations of Coxsackicvirus B5 (CVB5) isolates.MethodsForty-two cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) specimens were collected from aseptic meningitis cases and virus isolation was performed. The viral RNA was extracted and amplified from the positive specimens using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).The partial VP1 coding region was purified and sequenced. The phylogenetic trees based on VP1 sequences were constructed among CVB5 isolates and those in GenBank.ResultsSeventeen enteroviruse strains were isolated from 42 CSF samples with 40.5% isolation positive rate. All these strains were identified as CVB5 using both microneutralization test and molecular typing methods. Homology comparisons indicated that the nucleotide acid identities and amino acid sequence identities were 92.3 %- 100.0% and 98.7 %- 100.0%,respectively among these CVB5 isolate.s,and compared with the Faulkner prototype strain,which were 81.0%-82.4% and 96.6%97.0%,respectively.Phylogenetic analysis on VP1 sequences showed that all CVB5 could be separated into four genogroups of A,B,C and D.Isolates of this outbreak belonged to genogroup D.Interestingly,two distinct genogroups in the phylogenetic tree were observed among the 17 isolates.Conclusions CVB5 is responsible for the outbreak of aseptic meningitis in Linyi City of Shandong Province,China. The genetic diversity is high among the isolates and all belong to genogroup D.

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