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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-615603

ABSTRACT

Objective To know the contamination status of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium in drinking water of Jiangsu Province,so as to provide the evidence for producing hygiene and safety drinking water. Methods A total of 28 water plants of 13 cities in Jiangsu Province were selected,and the source water(10 L),chlorinated water(100 L)and tap water(100 L) were collected separately in each site. The water samples were then treated by filtration,washing,centrifuging concentration, immune magnetic separation,and immunofluorescent assay,to detect the numbers of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Results Totally 84 samples from 13 cities were collected,including 28 source water,28 chlorinated water and 28 tap water samples. Among the chlorinated water and tap water samples,no Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were found. Howev-er,Giardia cysts were detected in 3(10.71%,3/28)source water samples(Yancheng,Lianyungang,Changzhou cities),with the density of 1 cyst/10 L of all. Cryptosporidium oocysts were also detected in 3(10.71%,3/28)source water samples(Nan-jing,Zhenjiang,Yangzhou cities),with the density of 1 oocyst/10 L of all. Conclusions The source water in partial areas of Ji-angsu Province has been contaminated by Giardia and Cryptosporidium. To ensure the safety of drinking,the regulation of source water and surveillance of drinking water should be strengthened.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-615590

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the integrated ability of parasitic disease prevention and control of professional person-nel of Jiangsu Province through the contest. Methods Totally 56 players from the whole province were selected,and all the players participated in the contest. The theory knowledge and skill scores were collected and the statistical analyses were con-ducted. Results The average theoretical score of the participants was 88.86±15.56 and the passing rate was 91.1%. The aver-age skill operating score was 69.16 ± 16.01 and the passing rate was 67.9%. The average Plasmodium microscopy score was 16.54±8.09 and the passing rate was 50%. The average helminth egg microscopy score was 34.27±10.66 and the passing rate was 67.9%. There were statistical differences among the age groups and different levels of schistosomiasis endemic situation (F =5.10,6.39,both P<0.01). The theoretical knowledge including schistosomiasis,malaria,hydatid disease and others and the score rates were 91.07%,90.94%,85.83%and 90.93%,respectively. The hydatid disease score rate was lower(χ2=19.17, P<0.01). The radar chart displayed that the score rates of tabletting and microscopy test in Kato-Katz film production ,malaria blood film production and microscopy test were all low. Conclusion In Jiangsu Province,the participants have higher score in the theory test. However,they have lower skill test score,especially in the parasite species identification. The operational skills still need to be strengthened for center for disease control(CDC)participants.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-502864

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the status of soil?transmitted nematode infections in rural residents so as to provide the evidence for formulating the guidance for prevention and control of the diseases. Methods The national surveillance sites of soil?transmitted nematode infections were established in Shuyang County,Suqian City,Jiangsu Province from 2006 to 2015. At least 1 000 fecal samples of residents aged 3 years or above were collected in every autumn,and the intestinal helminth eggs were detected with the Kato?Katz technique and the Enterubius vermicularis eggs were detected by the cellophane tape method for children aged 3-12 years. The soil samples were collected from vegetable fields,lavatories,courtyards and kitchens to exam?ine Ascaris lumbricoides eggs and larvae of hookworm. Results The infection rates of soil?transmitted nematodes in residents and E. vermicularis in children reduced from 1.81%(19/1 049)and 4.72%(5/106)in 2006 to 0.25%(3/1 180)and 0(0/263) in 2015,respectively,in the surveillance sites. The infection intensity was mild in all the infected cases. The soil samples were negative for detecting A. lumbricoides eggs and hookworm larvae. Conclusion The infection rates of soil?transmitted nema?todes in the residents and E. vermicularis in the children show a decreasing trend and keep at a low level of prevalence in Shuy?ang County.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-418102

ABSTRACT

The need of eight-year clinical students for bioinformatics undergraduate courses is described.In addition,the measures and experiences on textbooks choosing,teaching content assignment,teaching methods designing and test means innovation are also discussed.All these provide a reference implementation for the development of eight-year clinical bioinformatics courses.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-415241

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate non-hazardous treatment efficiency of night soil in the three-grille mode septic tanks so as to give the evidence to government for policy-making. Methods One hundred and thirty normally runningthree-grille mode septic tanks were surveyed in five cities of Jiangsu Province in 2009. The fecal samples from first chamber and wastewater samples from third chamber were collected and examined for fecal coliform (FC) , parasite eggs including Schistosoma japonicum eggs, As-caris eggs and hookworm eggs, chemical oxygen demand ( COD), five-day chemical oxygen demand (BOD_5) and ammonia nitrogen (NH,-N) in lab. The data were analyzed by statistical software SPSS 13.0. Results The mean qualified rates of FC in the first chamber and third chamber of septic tanks were 3.1% and 100% respectively, showing significant difference (P <0.001). Hookworm eggs and Ascaris eggs were found in the first chamber of one and four septic tanks respectively and the density was one or two eggs in one hundred milliliter. The mean removal rates of FC, COD, BOD_5 and NH_3 -N were (99.96 ± 0.03) % , (60.69 ± 21.77) % , (60.13 ± 23. 20 ) % and (44. 14 ± 24.61) % , respectively. For the value of FC, COD, BOD, and NH_3 -N, there were significant difference between the first chamber and the third chamber (P_(FC) =0.000 1, P_(COD) =0.000 1, P_(BOD5) =0.000 1, P_(NH3-N) = 0.000 1, P < 0.001). Conclusion The treatment efficiency of septic tank could meet the sanitary standard for non-hazardous treatment of night soil, and it could use as a useful primary facility for human feces and urine treatment in rural areas.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-415224

ABSTRACT

Seven cases of cystic eckinococcosis( CE) were surveyed retrospectively in 2008. The results showed that 6 of thosepatients were locally infected. It is important to investigate the course and characteristics of CE transmission in non-endemic areas.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-583624

ABSTRACT

Objective: To screen the best genetic engineering bacterium for the production of peptide antibiotic hPAB-? and evaluate its fermentation level in bottle. Methods:After analysis of the interest fusion protein expression levels of 8 recombinant bacteria containing 1-8 copies of human peptide antibiotic hPAB-? expressing plasmid respectively,2-5 copies expressing bacteria were chosen for the further study of their bacteria yield,expression forms of the target protein, dissolution of the inclusion bodies and the efficiency of fusion protein purification by affinity chromatography, then the best engineering bacterium with the certain copies of interest peptide expressing plasmid was screened out and its optimal fermentation parameters in bottle were also studied. Results:The recombinant bacterium transformed by 3 copies of interest peptide expressing plasmid was the best candidate for its bacteria yield (3.153 g/L) and fusion protein expression level (27.7%) were the highest among 1-8 copies candidates. The inclusion bodies of 3 copies target fusion protein could be easily dissolved by 8 mol/L urea and captured by Ni-NTA column. The elution of the fusion protein could be directly cleaved to monomer by adding 2 mol/L hydroxylamine, adjusting pH to 9.0 and incubating at 45℃ for 2 h. The optimal fermentation conditions of the selected recombinant bacteria were: culture the organisms with modified M9-CAA media at 37℃ and 160 r/min to (A 600 )≈2.5, then add IPTG to the final concentration 100 ?mol/L to induce the expression of target fusion protein for 5 h. Conclusion:The engineering bacterium containing 3 copies interest peptide recombinant expressing plasmid is the best candidate for the production of peptide antibiotic hPAB-?,and its fermentation parameters are confirmed.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-684259

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To design the mutants of peptide antibiotics hPAB ? based on its molecular structure. Methods: The three dimension structure of hPAB ? was constructed by protein homology modeling method. The mutant molecules were designed and generated by PCR and inserted into pQE CP4 expression plasmid. The recombinant plasmids were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing and then transformed into Escherichia coli JM109 to express target fusion proteins. Results:Peptide hPAB ? shows one ? helical and three ? sheet in its structure. Its ? helical regions seem play a key role in the formation of active oligomer. Aside from positioning Thr 7 and Lys 10 into contact positions, the orientation of the ? helix is conserved about the oligome core, forming a ridge around it. Additionally, the dipoles of the helices would overlap to create a positively charged region near the core. These dipoles may be offset, however, by the presence of Asp 4 at the base of the helix. Two mutant molecules, hPAB ? 38 and hPAB ? 34, were designed by deleting N or/and C terminal 2~5 amino acid residues based on hPAB ? structure. The recombinant plasmids containing the mutants gene can express interest fusion proteins in E. coli JM109 successfully. Conclusions: Design, cloning and expression of the mutants of peptide antibiotics hPAB ? lay down the foundation for screening of the mutant of shorter peptide chain and having high or same antimicrobial activity.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-622284

ABSTRACT

Aim To clone LVA calcium channel (also known as T-type calcium channel) from INS-1 cell line derived from rat pancreatic β cells. Methods RT-PCR, 3′ -RACE and 5′ -RACE were used to clone coding sequence of the whole gene. DNA sequencing and genomic DNA walking were used to identify the primary structure features and exons. Results The cloned gene, named as α 1 G-INS, was composed of 6 864 bp, encoding 2 288 amino acids, which shares 96.3% identity to α 1G, the neuronal T-type calcium channel. Compared to α 1G, the amino acids in membrane-spanning regions of four transmembrane domains and intracellular loop LI-II of α 1G-INS were highly conserved, but there are three distinct regions. This discrepancy was due to alternative mRNA splicing. Scattering on other regions of the molecule there were 10 single amino acid substitutions, which could be explained as site-mutations of the gene. Conclusion A new isoform,α 1G-INS, of T-type calcium channel is successfully cloned from rat insulin-secreting cell line INS-1, which is significant to further understanding many Ca2+ -involved biologically essential processes.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-560091

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a fast and sensitive method to detect Plasmodium sporozoites in mosquitoes. Methods Anopheles anthropophagus (An.a) artificially infected with Plasmodium vivax (P.v), Anopheles dirus (An.d) infected with Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) and both of P.v and P.f, field mosquitoes of Anopheles sinensis (An.s) captured in epidemic seasons were detected by nested-PCR. Results The results of 28 batches of An.a infected with P.v, 2 batches of An.d with P.f and 1 batch of An.d mixed with P.v and P.f by nested-PCR were accorded with the microscopical examination absolutely. Two positives of 589 An.s field mosquitoes were discovered with a positive rate of 0.34%. Conclusion The nested-PCR is fast and sensitive for detecting different species of Plasmodium in mosquitoes.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-554359

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the genetic characteristics of deltamethrin resistant strain of Anopheles anthropophagus. Methods The study was performed with LC-P curve method for the genetic mode of deltamethrin resistant of An. anthropophagus. Results The resistant coefficient of F_1 generation from cross and reciprocal cross were 15.19 and 16. 66 respectively. The LC-P curve of F_1 generation got near to that of resistant parents (D=0.651). There were no obvious platforms in 50% mortality of BC generation and 25% - 75% mortality of F_2 generation.There were significant differences between the determining curve and theoretical cure in both BC and F_2 generations, P

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-557040

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo observe the effectiveness of Responsar against Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles anthropophagus. MethodsThe cotton and nylon gauze absorbing Responsar solutions of 10,15 and 20 mg/m~2 (effective dosage) were used in the test. An. sinensis and An. anthropophagus raised in the lab were used as probational worms, having the knockdown power, lethiferous power and effective keeping observation. ResultsWith Responsar of 10,15 and 20 (mg/m~2) impregnating two different kinds of bednets, the KT_(50(s)) of An. sinensis and An. anthropophagus were between 3.98 and 7.30 min after touching the bednets. The knocked down mosquitoes were resumed breeding for 24 h, and the mortality was 100%. Touching nets 3 min, resuming breeding for 24 h, the mortality of mosquitoes was more than 90%. The nets hung for 180 d after impregnated with the insecticide and the knockdown power was still between 8.57 and 16.31 min for Anopheles vector, and resuming breeding for 24 h, the mortality was still 100%. ConclusionThere is strong deadly effect of Responsar to Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles anthropophagus, and the effect can keep more than 180 d.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-556057

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the real incidence of malaria in Sihong County located in the north of Jiangsu Province and estimate the epidemic actuality in this area. Methods By using the capture-recapture method (CRM), the patients and incidence of malaria were estimated in Sihong. Results In 9 villages of 3 townships, 4896 residents among 1248 families were investigated and 56 cases of malaria found (65 cases reported before) in 2002.There were 121 cases calculated by using CRM and the theoretic cases were 1.86 times of those which had been reported. Conclusion The data of blood-examination collected from the county and towns are obviously different. It indicates that there are potential troubles in the routine blood examination to the fevered patients in this county. The incidence of a certain town is still above 0.2%. The epidemic actuality of malaria is still serious in this county.[

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-564037

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the susceptibility of Anopheles anthropophagus from Jiangsu, Guangdong and Liaoning provinces in China to Plasmodium vivax.Methods The blood samples of patients with P. vivax in endemic areas of China were collected to feed the mosquitoes of An. anthropophagus from different areas by using the artificial in vitro membrane feeding system in the lab, and then the mosquitoes were dissected during the 7-9th day and on the 14th day after the feeding and the oocysts and sporozoites in the stomach and salivy gland of mosquitoes were counted. Results The mosquitoes from Jiangsu, Guangdong and Liaoning were simultaneously fed with the blood of 35 cases of P. vivax. The oocyst positive rates of An. anthropophagus from Jiangsu, Guangdong and Liaoning during the 7-9th day after the feeding were 68.57%, 60.00% and 68.57%, as well as the sporozoite positive rates of them on the 14th day after the feeding were 22.86%, 14.29% and 22.86%, respectively. On the 7th day after the feeding, 228, 235, 228 mosquitoes of An. anthropophagus from Jiangsu, Guangdong and Liaoning were dissected, and the positive mosquito rates with oocyst infection were 28.07%, 25.11% and 26.75%, respectively. On the 14th day after the feeding, 150, 142, 135 mosquitoes of An. anthropophagus from the three areas were dissected, the positive rates with sporozoite infection were 10.67%, 8.45% and 11.85%, respectively. The num-bers of mosquitoes dissected with infective grade("+","++","+++","++++") of sporozoites of An. anthropophagus from Jiangsu, Guangdong and Liaoning were 4, 3, 2, 7; 2, 2, 3, 7 and 1, 6, 3, 8, respectively. Conclusions An. anthropophagus from Jiangsu, Guangdong and Liaoning is susceptible to the parasites of Plasmodium vivax and there is no significant difference among the susceptibilities of An. anthropophagus from the three areas to Plasmodium vivax.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-561991

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the growth of Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles sinensis(An.s) and Anopheles anthropophagus(An.a) during the periods of malaria clinic attack and diapause. Methods The blood samples of patients during the clinic attack and diapause of vivax malaria patients in the vivax epidemic area in China were collected, feeding the mosquitoes of An.s and An.a by using the artificial membrane feeding system in vivo in the lab, and the mosquitoes were dissected during the day 7-9th and 14th after the infection and the oocysts and sporozoites in the stomach and gland of the mosquitoes were counted, respectively. Results The oocyst positive rate in An.s fed by Plasmodium vivax during the fever stage was lower than that in non-fever stage, the sporozoite positive rate in An.a fed by Plasmodium vivax during the fever stage was lower than that in non-fever stage. The positive mosquito rate with oocyst and sporozoite infected by Plasmodium vivax in the fever stage to An.s and An.a were lower than those in non-fever stage. The infective sporozoite intensity of An.s fed by Plasmodium vivax in the fever stage was lower than that in non-fever stage, but the reverse result was found to An.a. Conclusion There is a significant difference between the periods of malaria clinic attack and diapause of the oocyst and sporozoite infection to An.s and An.a.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-561604

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the current status of malaria prevalence,its impacts and malaria transmission trends in Jiangsu Province.MethodsThe malaria incidence,and its symptoms,mosquito preventive measures,Anopheles density,mosquito biting rates and related factors were investigated in malaria epidemic villages as surveillance sites such as Guanshan Town of Suining County,Tangzhang Town of Tongshan County,Tianganghu town of Sihong County,Qiuji Town of Xuyi County and Zhangzhu Twon of Yixing City.ResultsIn 2006,the bednet coverage was 20.29% and bednet-using rate was 34.32% in 27903 residents of 7921 households of 15 administrative villages.In 2005,750 Anopheles sinensi were captured from 50 bednets in the early morning,the human biting ratio was 0.17/person per night,and in 2006,1927 Anopheles sinensi were captured from 50 bednets in the early morning,human biting ratio was 0.38/person per night.The average blood smear checking rate was 2.72%(6089 people)and the average positive rate was 0.48%(29 plasmodium positive individuals).ConclusionThe lower blood smear microscopy testing,few positive rates of febrile patients and increased Anopheles sinensis density were the main factors of malaria relapses in the area of the North Huaihe River in Jiangsu Province.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-555315

ABSTRACT

Objective To discuss the malaria control strategy and its effects in different stages during past 30 years, and search anti-malaria measures fit for the current situation. Methods The historical anti-malaria and epidemical data in Jiangsu Province during the past 30 years were collected and analyzed. Results 6216128 malaria cases were reported in the province in 1973, and the incidence was 1136.34/10000. Through the five anti-malaria stages in past 30 years, the epidemic has been effectively controlled gradually. Six hundred and thirty-eight malaria cases were reported in the province in 2003, and no individual locally infected with P.falciparum was found for 16 successive years. Conclusion The anti-malaria strategy of the five stages is basically suitable for the actual situation of malaria control in Jiangsu Province.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-555062

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the resistance of Anopheles vectors to pyrethroid after several years mosquito control with the impregnated bed net method. Methods The resistant level was measured by the tentative diagnostic dose and degree method of China combined with the standard methods of WHO. Results In the area after more than 5 years mosquito control with the impregnated bed net method, An.sinensis had initial resistance to deltamethrin and permethrin. However, An.anthropophagus did not be captured. In the area after less than 5 years mosquito control with the impregnated bed net method, both An. sinensis and An.anthropophagus were susceptive to deltamethrin and permethrin. Conclusion In this research, no resistance of An.anthropophagus to deltamethrin and permethrin has been found. An.sinensis has initial resistance to them. So we must pay more attention to monitor the resistance in future malaria control programs.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-589372

ABSTRACT

In 2006, there were 767 reported malaria cases in Jiangsu Province with an incidence of 1.07‰ and increased by 16.57% in comparison to the previous year. Positive rate of blood examination in local febrile patients was 0.08% (293/361 896) but 1.23% (251/204 40) in mobile population (P

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-550704

ABSTRACT

Rabbits were intoxicated with hypodermic injection of 0.8% CdCl2 in normal saline every other day for 3 months,and the blood level of urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) and the activities of Na/K-ATpase,Ca-ATPase,and ?-GT in the renal cortex were determined.It was found that there were no remarkable changes of BUN and Cr level but significant reduction of the activities of the 3 enzymes.It is believed that the reduction of the enzyme activities is one of the factors to initiate the functional disturbances and morphological damages of the kidneys and plays an important role in the mechanism of renal failure if it is not promptly corrected.

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