OBJECTIVE@#To reveal the effect and mechanism of Jiaotai Pill (, JTP) on insomniac rats.@*METHODS@#The insomniac model was established by intraperitoneal injection of p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). In behavioral experiments, rats were divided into control, insomniac model, JTP [3.3 g/(kg•d)], and diazepam [4 mg/(kg•d)] groups. The treatment effect of JTP was evaluated by weight measurement (increasement of body weight), open field test (number of crossings) and forced swimming test (immobility time). A high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method was built to determine the concentration of monoamine transmitters in hypothalamus and peripheral organs from normal, model, JTP, citalopram [30 mg/(kg•d)], maprotiline [40 mg/(kg•d)] and bupropion [40 mg/(kg•d)] groups. Expressions of serotonin transporter (SERT), dopamine transporter (DAT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot in normal, model and JTP groups. A high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was established to determine the pharmacokinetics, urine cumulative excretion of metformin in vivo, and tissue slice uptake in vitro, which were applied to assess the activity of organic cation transporters (OCTs) in hypothalamus and peripheral organs.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the insomniac model group, the body weight and spontaneous locomotor were increased, and the immobility time was decreased after treatment with JTP (P<0.01). Both serotonin and dopamine contents in hypothalamus and peripheral organs were increased (P<0.01). The norepinephrine content was increased in peripheral organs and decreased in hypothalamus (P<0.05 or P<0.01). At the same time, SERT, DAT, OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 were down-regulated in hypothalamus and peripheral organs (P<0.05). NET was down-regulated in peripheral organs and up-regulated in hypothalamus (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, the activity of OCTs in hypothalamus and peripheral organs was inhibited (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#JTP alleviates insomnia through regulation of monoaminergic system and OCTs in hypothalamus and peripheral organs.
To explore the pathogenesis of heart and kidney imbalance insomnia and the regulatory effect of Jiaotai Pills, in order to study the changes of central and peripheral neurotransmitters in rat. Insomnia rats with heart and kidney imbalance were induced through intraperitoneal injection with p-chlorophenylalanine(PCPA, 400 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and the model rats were intragastrically administrated with Jiaotai Pills(3.3 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) for 7 days. Nine neurotransmitters were determined by UPLC-MS/MS and principal component analysis(PCA) method in serum, urine, brain, heart, liver, kidney and adrenal gland of rats. The results showed that the ratio of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in platelet of insomnia rats was significantly lower than that in the normal group, and Jiaotai Pills had a significant up-regulatory or down-regulatory effect. Compared with the normal group, the changed neurotransmitters in blood of insomnia rats were 5-HIAA, E, NE, DA, Glu and ACH, and except ACH, the changes of 7 kinds of neurotransmitters in urine were more significant, Jiaotai Pills had a significant up-regulatory or down-regulatory effect. Compared with the normal group, all of the 8 neurotransmitters in insomnia rats except HVA were changed. Jiaotai Pills could regulate the neurotransmitters in each tissue of insomnia rats, especially in brain, liver and adrenal gland. In conclusion, insomnia is caused by not only a change of neurotransmitters in brain, but also a series of changes in peripheral tissues. It indicates that insomnia is a systematic imbalance of neurotransmitters. Jiaotai Pills not only regulates the central nervous system, but also has a certain protective effect on other organs, reflecting the multi-target and systematic effect of Jiaotai Pills in the treatment of insomnia.
Subject(s)Animals , Rats , Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Neurotransmitter Agents , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
To explore the possible mechanism of liver injury, the effects of Ploygoni Multiflori Caulis and its extractive on the function of bilirubin-associated transporters were investigated in normal (N) and idiosyncratic (LPS) rats (M). The normal and LPS rats were respectively administrated powder of Ploygoni Multiflori Caulis, its extractive and same volume of 0.5% CMC-Na solution for 7 d. BSP, a substrate of the transporters of Oatp1a1 and Oatp1b2 was selected, and its pharmacokinetic parameters of intravenous injection were determined to examined the activity these transporters. Meanwhile the mRNA expressions of transporters were detected. Compared with N-blank control group, besides M-powder group, the Cmax has no significantly different from other groups, t1/2, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were significantly increased, and CL were significantly decreased. However, compared with N- blank control group, AST and ALT decreased significantly. The expression of Oatp1a1, Oatp1b2 and MRP2 mRNA was significantly decreased (P<0.05), but there was no act synergistically when Ploygoni Multiflori Caulis and extractive were combined with LPS. The function of Oatp1a1, Oatp1b2 and MRP2 in rats were significantly inhibited by Ploygoni Multiflori Caulis and extractive, which may be an important cause of hepatotoxicity.