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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 576-592, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922887

ABSTRACT

Over the course of human civilization, viral infections have been a part of human life and still represent one of the heaviest burdens for human and society, with a huge devastating socioeconomic impact. Inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry have made important contributions to medical science and human health in the past half century. In this paper, we selected the representative cases in recent years, and reviewed the research progress of antiviral drug discovery from the perspective of bioinorganic chemistry.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-793316

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of smoking on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) and respiratory symptoms. Methods A multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling strategy was used to select participants aged 40 or older in 5 surveillance points of Anhui Province. Questionnaires, body measurements and spirometry were used to collect data. Based on complex sampling design, Logistic regression model was conducted to analyze the effects of smoking on COPD and respiratory symptoms. Results The smokers who had smoked for ≥30 pack-years accounted for 13.9% (95% CI:10.3%-17.5%, P<0.001) of the total population. And the smokers who had smoked for ≥40 years accounted for 8.5% (95% CI:6.7%-10.3%, P<0.001) of the total population. On average, one smoker had smoked for 32.4 years (95% CI:31.2-33.5). Average daily cigarette consumption of daily smokers was 21.1 cigarettes (95% CI:19.6-22.7). As shown by multiple-variables Logistic regression analyses, the risk of COPD and respiratory symptoms increased with the increment of smoking pack-years and duration (all Ptrend <0.001). Conclusions Smoking was associated with COPD and respiratory symptoms. The risk of developing COPD and respiratory symptoms was greater with the increment of smoking pack-years and duration.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 537-553, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820872

ABSTRACT

The epidemic caused by coronavirus poses a serious threat to human health, but there is no specific drug or vaccine for the treatment of this kind of virus infection. Herein, this article selects typical case studies in recent years and reviews the medicinal chemistry strategies of anti-SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and other coronavirus drugs from the perspective of medicinal chemistry, and tries to provide some clues to current drug research againstSARS-CoV-2.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 763-772, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820871

ABSTRACT

West Nile virus is a flavivirus transmitted by culex mosquitoes. People are generally susceptible to it, West Nile virus infection can cause west Nile fever, which can develop West Nile viral encephalitis and even lead to death. There are currently no approved specific antiviral drugs against West Nile virus. Therefore, seeking effective West Nile virus inhibitors is a hot topic in current community of medicinal chemistry. In this article, based on the main targets of West Nile virus, we summarize the new progress research on West Nile virus inhibitors.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 754-762, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820870

ABSTRACT

Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is an arthropod-borne infection disease caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which represents a serious health problem worldwide. There is no antiviral drugs treatment for CHIKV infections, neither is there an effective vaccine for prevention of the disease. Herein, we reviewed the recent reported and classical inhibitors of CHIKV, and summarized the medicinal chemistry strategies for discovering CHIKV inhibitors.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 744-753, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820869

ABSTRACT

In recent years, enterovirus infection has become a frequent epidemic and developed into an important public health problem. For example, hand-foot-mouth disease has become a common infection among children in China. Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) has been spreading globally since 1997, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens causing HFMD. And now there is no drug available to treat EV71 infection. This review summarizes the research progress of anti-enterovirus-71 drugs from the perspective of medicinal chemistry.

7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 734-743, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820868

ABSTRACT

Poxvirus is the largest and most complex virus of the known virions, and the main pathogenicity to humans is Orthopoxvirus. In recent years, with the deep understanding of the biological structure and replication cycle of Orthopoxvirus, new small molecular compounds with high efficiency and low toxicity have been discovered as new drugs, and some have entered the clinical trial stage. This article summarizes the research progress of poxvirus inhibitors with different targets.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 720-733, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820867

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus is a common cause of infection in children and adults with acute respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract. It can cause serious and even fatal infections in patients with low immune function. Therefore, it poses a great threat to human health. Currently, there are no specific anti-adenoviral drugs in market. With in-depth investigation of the pathogenic mechanism and biological characteristics of adenovirus, and the rapid development of drug screening technology, new generation of anti-adenovirus drug targets and related inhibitors have been discovered, providing new options for treatment. This review selects the representative case studies in recent years and summarizes the advances in anti-adenoviral medicinal chemistry.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 703-719, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820866

ABSTRACT

Long-term use of approved antiviral drugs can lead to drug resistance and side effects. On the other hand, there are currently no antiviral drugs or vaccines available to treat some newly emerging virus infections. Therefore, antiviral drugs research has always been a hot research topic in the field of medicinal chemistry. Natural products are an important source of antiviral drugs. This article reviews the progress of antiviral natural products discovered in the past decade to provide potential lead compounds for drug development.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 694-702, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820865

ABSTRACT

Ebola virus is extremely virulent and highly contagious. Ebola virus causes outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic fever, with human mortality rates of up to 90%. There is currently no preventive or therapeutic treatment in the form of vaccines, biological or small molecular agents. Currently, a lot of anti-Ebola virus agents have been reported. Here, we review the latest advances in this field.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 679-693, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820864

ABSTRACT

Viral infections have always threatened human health. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents (BSAs) can either target host proteins that are essential for viral replication, or act on multiple viruses or multiple genotypes of the same virus. More importantly, BSAs could reduce the possibility of drug resistance. From the perspective of medicinal chemistry, this review summarizes recent advances in the research of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs with privileged structures or targeting specific targets in the viral life cycle.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 669-678, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820863

ABSTRACT

Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne human diseases caused by mosquito vector Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Dengue virus can cause dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. There are no approved drugs for the treatment of dengue disease so far. In this paper, combined with the latest progress in the research of anti-dengue virus, the new progress in the research of anti-dengue virus drugs was reviewed from the aspects of protease inhibitors, virus polymerase inhibitors, entry inhibitors, virus replication-related host factor inhibitors, capsid protein inhibitors and nucleic acid inhibitors.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 652-668, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820862

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the global public health issues. Approximately, 130-150 million individuals are chronically infected worldwide and a quarter of these patients are at increased risk of developing liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and even liver failure. A complete eradication of the virus is one of the most important treatment goals for antiviral research. From the point of view of medicinal chemistry, we summarize and discuss current endeavors towards the discovery and development of novel inhibitors with various scaffolds or distinct mechanisms of action.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 640-651, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820861

ABSTRACT

Norovirus (NoV) is the main pathogen causing the global acute gastroenteritis in humans and NoV infection has become an important public health problem that threatens human health. Because of the lack of appropriate animal models and in vitro cell culture models, the development of NoV biology and antiviral research has been restricted, and there is currently no effective antiviral drug or vaccine against NoV. In the past few years, considerable progress has been made toward the development of norovirus antivirals. This review selects the most representative research examples and provides an overview of recent advances in anti-norovirus drugs and vaccines.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 627-639, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820860

ABSTRACT

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a kind of mosquito-borne flavivirus. ZIKV infection initially shows mild symptoms on patients, but will lead to severe neurological complications (such as Guillain-Barré syndrome) in the end. Meanwhile, pregnant women are sensitive to ZIKV, since the viruses may cause microcephaly. In 2015, after the epidemic in Brazil, ZIKV draws the public attention around the world because of its increased virulence and rapid dissemination. However, there is no approved specific anti-ZIKV drugs at present. This review summarizes progress on anti-zika virus drug research and provides prospects in this field.

16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 611-626, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820859

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the influenza viruses (IFV) caused significant harm to our health and life. Human infections caused by pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV) have continually brought great panic and death threats to people all over the world. With the in-depth study of the biological characteristics of influenza viruses and the rapid development of drug discovery screening technology, a new generation of anti-influenza drug targets and their inhibitors have been continuously discovered, providing more options for the treatment of influenza. From the point of view of medicinal chemistry, this review summarizes and discusses current endeavours towards the discovery and development of novel inhibitors and also provides examples illustrating new methodologies that contribute to the identification of novel anti-influenza drugs.

17.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 597-610, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820858

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main pathogen causing respiratory infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Currently, ribavirin and the humanized monoclonal antibody palivizumab are commonly used for lower respiratory tract infections caused by RSV. However, their clinical application has been limited by their efficacy, economy and safety. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new RSV inhibitors to meet the needs of clinical prevention and treatment. This paper selects typical research cases and reviews the research progress of different target inhibitors from the perspective of medicinal chemistry.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 585-596, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820857

ABSTRACT

At present, the anti-HCMV (human cytomegalovirus) drugs have some problems, such as moderate activity, poor bioavailability, which urge people to develop new anti-HCMV drugs. With the continuous study on the pathogenesis and biological characteristics of HCMV and the rapid development of new drug design strategies, new generation of anti-HCMV targets and drugs have been identified. This review selects the most representative research examples in recent years, and summarizes the new targets and research progress of anti-HCMV drugs from the perspective of medicinal chemistry.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 575-584, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820856

ABSTRACT

At present, the most widely used anti-herpesviruses drugs are acyclovir (ACV) and its derivatives, but the emergence of herpesvirus resistance to these drugs forces people to continue to seek new anti-herpesviruses drugs. More and more new targets and inhibitors against herpesviruses have been discovered, one reason is the in-depth study of the biological characteristics and pathogenic mechanism of herpesviruses, and the other is the rapid development of new drug design and screening technology. Therefore, there are more options for the treatment of herpes infections. This review summarizes the representative achievements in the field of anti-herpesviruses drugs in recent years.

20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 566-574, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820855

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B has become one of the major diseases which seriously affect people's health and social development. Hepatitis B, with high incidence and long disease course, cannot be cured by approved drugs such as the nucleoside analogues. Therefore, the discovery of safe and efficient novel HBV inhibitors is of great significance. From the point of view of medicinal chemistry, we summarized and discussed current endeavours towards the discovery and development of anti-HBV agents of RNase H and other novel target inhibitors with various scaffolds or distinct mechanisms of action, besides the existing capsid protein inhibitors.

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