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1.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 564-570, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009388

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To establish a method for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of etomidate and its metabolite etomidate acid in blood, and to discuss its application value in actual cases.@*METHODS@#Acetonitrile precipitate protein method was used, and C18 column was selected. Gradient elution was performed with acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate within 6 min. Electrospray ionization source in positive ion mode was used. The internal standard etomidate acid-d5 was obtained by etomidate-d5 alkaline hydrolysis reaction. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used for quantitative analysis. The methodological verification was conducted.@*RESULTS@#Etomidate and etomidate acid in blood showed good linear relationship in the quantitative linear range (r>0.999), with the lower limit of quantification was 2.5 ng/mL and 7.5 ng/mL, respectively. The accuracy, precision, recovery rate, and matrix effect of the method met the professional verification standards. The practical application results showed that etomidate and etomidate acid could be detected in the blood of the abusers, and their mass concentrations ranged from 17.24 to 379.93 ng/mL.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The method established in this study can simultaneously quantify etomidate and etomidate acid in blood, which is simple and convenient to operate with accuracy. It can meet the detection needs of actual cases and provide technical support for law enforcement to crack down on etomidate abuse.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Liquid , Etomidate , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Acetonitriles
2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 351-359, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965717

ABSTRACT

Along with the progress of pharmaceutical science in the past century, the theme of pharmacology has gone through pseudo agent scheme, to ligand-receptor model, and then to the theory of targeted therapy today. Due to the success of drug R&D, current drug research keeps its focus mainly on drugs with single target and precise treatment, in which the molecular mechanism is relatively clear but the therapeutic efficacy is often limited. Thus, there is a big space for exploration in the field of pharmacology. In the past 30 years, several novel chemical drugs, originated from traditional Chinese medicine, have been identified and then used in clinic, provoking a strong interest to explore new theory for pharmacology, of which the term of "Biao Ben Jian Zhi" (treating diseases by directing symptoms and root causes) has demonstrated a promising nature. We consider this concept useful for future drug discovery, drug design and clinical therapy. In this review, example drugs such as berberine, metformin and azvudine, are discussed, and "drug Cloud" (dCloud) model is introduced to elaborate the mechanism of treating diseases by directing symptoms and root causes of diseases.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 593-604, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-965639

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiota is a complex and dynamic system, and is essential for the health of the body. As the "second genome" of the body, it can establish communication with the important organs by regulating intestinal nerves, gastrointestinal hormones, intestinal barrier, immunity and metabolism, thus affecting host′s physiological functions. Short chain fatty acid (SCFA), known as one important metabolite of intestinal microbiota, is regarded as a significant messenger of the gut-organ communication, due to its extensive regulation in the body′s immunity, metabolism, endocrine and signal transduction. In this review, we summarize the interaction between gut-liver/brain/kidney/lung axis and diseases, and focus on the role and mechanism of SCFA in the gut-organ communication, hoping to provide new ideas for the treatment of the related diseases.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1196-1203, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978704

ABSTRACT

Pneumoconiosis is the most common occupational disease in China, which severely endangers people's health. Depending on the inhaled air pollutants, pneumoconiosis is classified as anthracosis, silicosis, asbestosis, etc., among which silicosis is the most common and serious. Silicosis is a systemic, poor prognostic disease characterized by diffuse fibrosis of lung tissue, which is caused by long-term exposure to dust with high levels of free silicon dioxide (SiO2) in the occupational environment. Appropriate treatment in time is important for the disease. Unfortunately, no effective drugs have been approved to delay or even reverse pulmonary fibrosis caused by SiO2. This review briefly classifies potent therapeutic drugs and compounds in term of mechanisms, providing the probability for clinical treatment of silicosis.

5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3524-3534, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-964333

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and mechanism of Dengzhan Shengmai (DZSM) against nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). The animal experiment program was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. The NAFLD model of Syrian golden hamsters was established by high fat diets. After 6 weeks of DZSM treatment, the serum lipid, hepatic lipid accumulation, liver function and inflammatory response were determined. The regulations of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids were detected by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, respectively. The gut barrier function was evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), Western blot and histopathological methods and further verified in HepG2 cells. The results showed that the efficacy of DZSM against NAFLD was remarkably reduced after removal of the gut microbiota. The study of mechanism showed that DZSM significantly regulated the composition of gut microbiota, promoted the production and absorption of intestinal short-chain fatty acids, then leading to the reduction of hepatic lipid accumulation. Moreover, after DZSM treatment, the decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) level by improving the intestinal barrier function significantly inhibited the hepatic inflammation through down-regulating Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4)-nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) signaling pathway. These results indicate that DZSM inhibits NAFLD via regulating intestinal microenvironment.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 966-971, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-886990

ABSTRACT

In recent years, with the improvement in living standards, the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases has increased markedly. Atherosclerosis is the main pathological basis for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and there are many risk factors for atherosclerosis. The pharmacological effects of puerarin are broad, and considerable clinical data confirms that puerarin has a definite effect on cardiovascular diseases resulting from atherosclerosis. The use of puerarin for atherosclerosis has increased in recent years. This article reviews the effect and mechanism of puerarin on atherosclerosis.

7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5792-5796, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921697

ABSTRACT

Fusarium is the major pathogen of root rot of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. This study aims to explain the possible distribution of Fusarium species and the contamination of its toxin-chemotypes in tuberous root of P. heterophylla. A total of 89 strains of fungi were isolated from the tuberous root of P. heterophylla. Among them, 29 strains were identified as Fusarium by ITS2 sequence, accounting for 32.5%. They were identified as five species of F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum, F. fujikuroi, F. oxysporum, and F. graminearum based on β-Tubulin and EF-1α genes. LC-MS/MS detected 18, 1, and 5 strains able to produce ZEN, DON, and T2, which accounted for 62.1%, 3.4%, and 17.2%, respectively. Strain JK3-3 can produce ZEN, DON, and T2, while strains BH1-4-1, BH6-5, and BH16-2 can produce ZEN and T2. PCR detected six key synthase genes of Tri1, Tri7, Tri8, Tri13, PKS14, and PKS13 in strain JK3-3, which synthesized three toxins of ZEN, DON, and T2. Four key synthase genes of Tri8, Tri13, PKS14, and PKS13 were detected in strains BH1-4-1, BH6-5, and BH16-2, which were responsible for the synthesis of ZEN and T2. The results showed that the key genes of toxin biosynthesis were highly correlated with the toxins produced by Fusarium, and the biosynthesis of toxin was strictly controlled by the genetic information of the strain. This study provides a data basis for the targeted prevention and control of exo-genous mycotoxins in P. heterophylla and a possibility for the development of PCR for rapid detection of toxin contamination.


Subject(s)
Caryophyllaceae , Chromatography, Liquid , Fusarium/genetics , Mycotoxins , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1864-1868, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879103

ABSTRACT

Dendrobium huoshanense is a precious medicinal plant belonging to Dendrobium of Orchidaceae. It is a special medicinal material and extremely scarce in Huoshan county, Anhui province. At present, D. huoshanense has been greatly protected, which also makes it possible to industrialize relying on tissue culture and artificial cultivation technology. Three main planting methods were utilized for cultivating D. huoshanense including facility cultivation, under forest cultivation and simulative habitat cultivation. Firstly, the three cultivation modes and technical characteristics of D. huoshanense were compared and analyzed, and it was found that the ecological environment of D. huoshanense cultivated in the simulated environment was closer to that of wild D. huoshanense. Secondly, based on comparing the characters and quality of three cultivation modes, the results showed that the shape of D. huoshanense cultivated in simulated environment was more similar to that of "grasshopper thigh" recorded in Bencao Jing Jizhu, and its quality was better than that of facilities and under forest cultivation. The comprehensive benefit comparison of three modes showed that the simulated cultivation had high income, the lowest input-output ratio and significant economic benefit. The quality of cultivated D. huoshanense was further evaluated from four aspects of "excellent environment" "excellent shape" "high quality" "excellent effect", which summarized the comprehensive advantages of simulative habitat cultivation of D. huoshanense as follows: the original habitat and site environment of simulated wild D. huoshanense, the closer shape to the wild, the more content of main medicinal components, and higher economic benefit and better efficacy. The quality of D. huoshanense was improved by the use of simulative habitat cultivation, which has practical significance to guide its large-scale cultivation.


Subject(s)
Dendrobium , Ecosystem , Forests , Plants, Medicinal
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1851-1857, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879101

ABSTRACT

This study steps through four key principles, four open problems and future perspectives of Chinese materia medica(CMM) ecological agriculture by presenting the historical development, existing theories and practice outcomes. Then, it focuses on refining the main principles of CMM ecological agriculture:(1)the principles of ecological niche associated with yield and comprehensive income;(2)principles of biological diversity associated with the integrated control of diseases, pests and weeds;(3)principles of adversity effects associated with the quality improvement of CMM;(4)principles of structural stability associated with the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture. On this basis, four burning issues of CMM ecological agriculture were obtained,(1)ecological planting mode and supporting technologies need to be perfect;(2)multi-integrated industrial coupling remains to strengthen;(3) quality assurance system of CMM ecological agriculture and high-quality and favorable price model remains to be formed;(4)awareness of the demonstration and extension of CMM ecological agriculture needs to be desired. Finally, suggestions for the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture are put forward:(1)strengthen the national planning and layout, develop CMM ecological agriculture accor-ding to local conditions;(2)pay equal attention to inheritance and innovation, and strengthen the theory and practical technology research of CMM ecological agriculture;(3)strengthen industrial coupling and realize the transformation of CMM ecological agriculture from a production-based to a multi-in-one compound model;(4)intensify standards and brands, building a quality assurance system for CMM ecological products;(5) publicize the demonstration and popularization of CMM ecological agriculture. In summary, the development of CMM ecological agriculture possessed a firmer theory and practice foundation, although there is still much room for improvement. A better field of Chinese medicine agricultural development with immense economic and social benefits will not a question of "if" but "when" by accurately grasp the way forward.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 298-305, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878974

ABSTRACT

The differences of the active ingredients in Dendrobium huoshanense of different growth years and their protective effects on acute liver injury were studied to provide evidence for optimizing harvest time. The contents of polysaccharides, total flavonoids and total alkaloids in D. huoshanense of different growth years were determined by UV spectrophotometry, and the contents of gigantol in D. huoshanense were determined by HPLC. C57 BL/6 mice were randomly divided into blank control group(saline), modeling group(saline), high-dose(7.5 g·kg~(-1)) and low-dose(1.25 g·kg~(-1)) groups of D. huoshanense of different growth years. Each group was intragastrically administered every day for 2 weeks. 500 mg·kg~(-1) paracetamol was injected intraperitoneally 2 h after last treatment except the control group. After 12 hours, the serum and liver tissues were collected to detect the activities of ALT and AST, and the levels of SOD and MDA. The hepatic histopathological examination was performed. The results showed that the chemical constituents of D. huo-shanense of different growth years were significantly different(P<0.05). The contents of polysaccharide and gigantol of D. huoshanense of 2 growth years were the highest. The contents of flavonoids and alkaloids of D. huoshanense of 3 growth years were the hig-hest, followed by the D. huoshanense of 2 growth years, and the lowest were that of 1 growth year. Compared with the modeling group, D. huoshanense of different growth years could decrease the activities of ALT and AST in serum. Meanwhile, the levels of MDA reduced significantly, while those of SOD increased markedly. Histopathological results suggested that all D. huoshanense samples were effective in the reduction of the necrosis of hepatocytes in different degrees. The results of the multi-component SPSS paired tests showed that polysaccharide and gigantol probably played a leading role in the liver protection effects, while D. huoshanense of 2 growth years showed the best efficacy. The optimal harvesting time of D. huoshanense is 2 growth years.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Alkaloids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Dendrobium , Liver , Polysaccharides
11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1599-1605, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881560

ABSTRACT

In this study, the regulatory effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), as well as the role of interferon γ (IFN-γ), has been discussed using both in vitro and in vivo animal models. ESCC murine model was established according to the standard operating procedures (SOP) of Animal Experiment Center of Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. The expression of PD-L1 in esophageal tissues of murine models was analyzed using the microarray assay. Then, the results were verified by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, the molecular mechanism was explored in KYSE180 and KYSE510 ESCC cells in vitro. The results showed that CGA could suppress the expression of PD-L1 in tumor tissues in murine models significantly, rather than the expression in KYSE180 and KYSE510 ESCC cells in vitro. However, after the pretreatment of IFN-γ, the expression of PD-L1 was significantly increased, then it was down-regulated by CGA in both dose- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), an upstream regulatory factor of PD-L1, was suppressed by CGA in both KYSE180 and KYSE510 pretreated with IFN-γ, which was consistent with the expression of PD-L1. These results indicate that CGA down-regulates the expression of PD-L1 in ESCC via IFN-γ-IRF1 signaling pathway, providing the molecular theoretical basis for exploration of new treatment of ESCC.

12.
International Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (6): 889-894, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-863688

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the metabolites of isoacteoside in rat's urine after oral administration by UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap and then summarize its metabolic pathways.Methods:The rats were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. Isoacteoside dissolved in saline was orally administered to the rats in the treatment group witht a single dose of 100 mg/kg. At the same time, saline was orally administered to the control group with the same volume. The urine samples were collected for 12 h and then purified. Sample analyses were performed on a Thermo Scientific BOS Hypersil C18 column (2.1 mm × 150 mm, 2.4 μm), the mobile phase consisted of water containing 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile in a gradient program, the flow rate was set at 0.3 ml/min and the column was maintained at 30 ℃. The urine samples of the treatment group and control groups were detected with negative ion mode.Results:The metabolites were identified according to their protonated molecular ions and fragment ions and by comparing the mass data with that of reference standards and the published data. In total, 8 metabolites of isoacteoside were detected and identified in the urine samples of treatment group and the major metabolic pathway of isoacteoside included glucuronide conjugation, dehydroxylation, hydrolyzation, methyl conjugation and sulphate conjugation.Conclusions:UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap could be used to analyze the main metabolites and metabolic pathways of isophylloside in rats, which can provide references for further studies on pharmacodynamics and pharmacological mechanisms.

13.
International Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (6): 151-156, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-863569

ABSTRACT

Objective:By adopting network pharmacology to study the mechanism of the two classical Chinese herbs Danggui-Baishao in treating cardiovascular diseases. Methods:By searching from TCMSP and related literature, together with the databases of TCMSP, SWISS and STITCH, potential active compounds of Danggui-Baishao were collected, while the targets for cardiovascular diseases were obtained from TTD, OMIM and DrugBank databases. Then the PPI network was screened for the major targets. The KEGG Pathway annotation analyses of major targets were performed by using the DAVID database. The ingredient-major target-key pathway network was constructed by Cytoscape. Results:There were 17 compounds and 54 major targets in the ingredient-target-pathway network, as well as 10 key pathways, including inflammation-related pathway (TNF signaling pathway), pathways related to cardiovascular system (such as PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, FoxO signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway, Rap1 signaling pathway), prolactin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathway.Conclusions:The study verified the characteristics of multi-components, multi-targets and integral regulation for Danggui-Baishao with the application of network pharmacology. It predicted that Dangui-Baishao couldtreat cardiovascular diseases mainly by regulating angiogenesis, inflammatory response and apoptosis.

14.
International Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (6): 151-156, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799696

ABSTRACT

Objective@#By adopting network pharmacology to study the mechanism of the two classical Chinese herbs Danggui-Baishao in treating cardiovascular diseases.@*Methods@#By searching from TCMSP and related literature, together with the databases of TCMSP, SWISS and STITCH, potential active compounds of Danggui-Baishao were collected, while the targets for cardiovascular diseases were obtained from TTD, OMIM and DrugBank databases. Then the PPI network was screened for the major targets. The KEGG Pathway annotation analyses of major targets were performed by using the DAVID database. The ingredient-major target-key pathway network was constructed by Cytoscape.@*Results@#There were 17 compounds and 54 major targets in the ingredient-target-pathway network, as well as 10 key pathways, including inflammation-related pathway (TNF signaling pathway), pathways related to cardiovascular system (such as PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, FoxO signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway, Rap1 signaling pathway), prolactin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathway.@*Conclusions@#The study verified the characteristics of multi-components, multi-targets and integral regulation for Danggui-Baishao with the application of network pharmacology. It predicted that Dangui-Baishao couldtreat cardiovascular diseases mainly by regulating angiogenesis, inflammatory response and apoptosis.

15.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 113-118, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873355

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the protective mechanism of oxymatrine on oxidative stress induced by high glucose in H9C2 cells. Method:H9C2 cardiomyocytes were cultured in groups and divided into normal group, high glucose (HG) group, low-dose oxymatrine (OMT) group (50 mg·L-1), high-dose OMT group (100 mg·L-1), positive drug vitamin E (VE) group (1×10-4 mol·L-1) and mannitol (M) wasotonic control group. Cell damage was detected by lactate dehydrogenase leakage, changes in cell superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were detected, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and cellular mitochondria and functional integrity were detected by fluorescent probes, and Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of Bcl family proteins. Result:Compared with the normal group, the content of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species and the expression level of pro-apoptotic protein in the high glucose group were significantly increased (P<0.01), while the activity of superoxide dismutase and the expression levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and anti-apoptotic protein were significantly decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the high glucose group, oxymatrine significantly reduced the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, significantly inhibited the production of intracellular ROS (P<0.01), reduced the amount of malondialdehyde and down-regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic protein (P<0.05), increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, regulated MMP and improved the expression of anti-apoptotic protein (P<0.01). Conclusion:Oxymatrine can regulate oxidative stress by improving mitochondrial function, so as to inhibit the apoptosis of H9C2 cardiomyocytes induced by high glucose.

16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 90-95, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873126

ABSTRACT

Objective::To discuss the clinical efficacy of Liuwei Dihuangwan combined with Danzi Xiaoyaosan on H-type hypertension with syndrome of Yin deficiency and Yang hyperactivity and its effect on vascular endothelial function and inflammatory factors. Method::One hundred and fifty patients were randomly divided into control group (75 cases) and observation group (75 cases) by random number table.Patients in control group got enalapril maleate and folic acid tablets, 1 tablet/time, 1 time/day, and patients with uncontrollable blood pressure were also given nifedipine sustained-release tablets, 20-30 mg/time, 2 times/days.In addition of the therapy of control group, patients in observation group were also given modified Liuwei Dihuangwan combined with Danzi Xiaoyaosan, 1 dose/day.The course of treatment was 12 weeks.Before and after treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and up-to-standard blood pressure were detected.And ambulatory blood pressure, standard deviation of 24-hours systolic blood pressure (24 h SSD), standard deviation of 24-hour diastolic blood pressure 24 h DSD), 24 h mean systolic blood pressure (24 h SBP), 24 h mean diastolic blood pressure (24 h DBP) were recorded.And ankle brachial index (ABI) and brachial artery blood flow mediated diamete (FMD) were discussed, syndrome of Yin deficiency and Yang hyperactivity was scored, and levels of iterleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) were detected. Result::The levels of SBP, DBP, 24 h SSD, 24 h DSD, 24 h SBP and 24 h DBP were all lower than those in control group (P<0.01). The achievement rate of accidental blood pressure in observation group was 81.19%, which was higher than 66.98% in control group (χ2=29.81, P<0.01). And levels of ABI, FMD and IL-10 were higher than those in control group (P<0.01), while the score of syndrome of Yin Deficiency and Yang Hyperactivity and the levels of Hcy, leptin, IL-6 and hs-CRP were lower than those in control group (P<0.01). Conclusion::In addition to the therapy of antihypertensive and folic acid, Liuwei Dihuangwan combined with Danzi Xiaoyaosan can be given to control the level of blood pressure and Hcy, relieve the variability of blood pressure, alleviate clinical symptoms, raise the rate of achievement rate of blood pressure, improve the function of vascular endothelium, and regulate inflammatory factors.

17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1969-1974, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827993

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzed life form, habitats and environmental stresses of medicinal plants and algal fungi collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015). ①It was found that only 0.94% of the medicinal plants mainly cultivated in field. The most common habitats of medicinal plants are divided into two types: those whose natural habitats are forest margins/undergrowth(about 42.53%) and those whose natural habitats are roadside, hillside, wasteland/sand(about 43.78%). The former mainly faces environmental stresses such as weak light, pests and diseases; the latter often faces the main environmental stresses of drought, strong light, ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, low temperature(day and night or annual temperature difference is large), nutrient deficiency, pests and so on. ②Based on analyzing the strategies of medicinal plants to adapt to environmental stresses, it is pointed out that the synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites are the most important strategies of medicinal plants to protect against environmental stresses. In the process of long-term adaptation to specific stress, the accumulation of relevant genetic variation and epigenetic inheritance has become an important condition for the formation of quality of medicinal plants. ③It is proposed that "simulative habitat cultivation" has obvious advantages in balancing growth and secondary metabolism and guaranting the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ecosystem , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Ultraviolet Rays
18.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 362-367, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the changes of extracellular space (ECS) structure and local drug distribution in adult brain and aged brain at different drug delivery rates in minimally invasive treatment of encephalopathy by convection enhanced delivery (CED) via ECS pathway.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six SD male rats were divided into adult rats group (2-8 months, n=18) and aged rats group (18-24 months, n=18) according to the age of the month. According to the drug rates (0.1 μL/min, 0.2 μL/min, and 0.3 μL/min), they were randomly divided into 3 subgroups, 6 in each subgroup. Gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) with a concentration of 10 mmol/L were introduced into the caudate nucleus of each group of rats by stereotactic injection. Tracer-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to dynamically monitor the diffusion and distribution images of the Gd-DTPA in the brain interstitial system (ISS). Using the self-developed MRI image measurement and analysis system software to process and analyze the obtained images, the diffusion coefficient, clearance rate, volume fraction, and half-life of each group of rats in the caudate nucleus ECS could be acquired. The effects and differences of drug clearance and ECS structural function in the brain of aged rats and adult rats were compared and analyzed at different drug delivery rates. Magnetic tracer DECS-mapping technique was used to observe the distribution and drainage of tracer in caudate nucleus.@*RESULTS@#At the injection rate of 0.1 μL/min, the volume fraction in the aged rats was increased compared with that in the adult rats (18.20%±0.04% vs. 17.20%±0.03%, t=3.752, P=0.004), and the degree of tortuosity was decreased (1.63±0.04 vs. 1.78±0.09, t=-3.680, P=0.004), the drug clearance rate was decreased [(1.94±0.68) mm2/s vs. (3.25±0.43) mm2/s, t=-3.971, P=0.003], and the molecular diffusion in ECS was increased [(3.99±0.21)×10-4 mm2/s vs. (3.36±0.37)×10-4 mm2/s, t=3.663, P=0.004]. When the rate of injection increased to 0.2 μL/min, the drug clearance in ECS of the aged rats was slowed down [(2.53±0.45) mmol/L vs. (3.37±0.72) mmol/L, t=-1.828, P=0.021]. However, there were no significant differences in volume fraction, molecular diffusion in ECS and macroscopic drug metabolism parameters. When the rate of injection increased to 0.3 μL/min, the volume fraction in the aged rats was decreased (17.20%±0.03% vs. 18.20%±0.05%, t=-0.869, P=0.045), and the drug clearance rate in ECS was significantly accelerated [(4.04±0.76) mmol/L vs. (3.26±0.55) mmol/L, t=1.786, P=0.014], and there was no significant difference in tortuosity and the rate of molecular diffusion in the ECS.@*CONCLUSION@#The drug clearance and ECS structural parameters of brain ECS in aged brain with CED administration were changed at different rates, and it has the least effect on ECS in the aged brain at the injection rate of 0.2 μL/min. For the application of CED for the treatment of encephalopathy, we should consider the influence of factors such as age and injection rate, and provide reference for the development of individualized clinical treatment plan for minimally invasive treatment of encephalopathy via ECS pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Brain , Convection , Extracellular Space , Gadolinium DTPA , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
19.
Mycobiology ; : 441-448, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918535

ABSTRACT

Two new SAM-dependent methyltransferase encoding genes (fvsmt1 and fvsmt2) were identified from the genome of Flammulina velutipes. In order to make a comprehensive characterization of both genes, we performed in silico analysis of both genes and used qRT-PCR to reveal their expression patterns during the development of F. velutipes. There are 4 and 6 exons with total length of 693 and 978 bp in fvsmt2 and fvsmt1, respectively. The deduced proteins, i.e., FVSMT1 and FVSMT2 contained 325 and 230 amino acids with molecular weight 36297 and 24894 Da, respectively. Both proteins contained a SAM-dependent catalytic domain with signature motifs (I, p-I, II, and III) defining the SAM fold. SAM-dependent catalytic domain is located either in the middle or at the N-terminal of FVSMT2 and FVSMT1, respectively. Alignment and phylogenic analysis showed that FVSMT1 is a homolog to a protein–arginine omega-N-methyltransferase, while FVSMT2 is of cinnamoyl CoA O-methyltransferase type and predicted subcellular locations of these proteins are mitochondria and cytoplasm, respectively. qRT-PCR showed that fvsmt1 and fvsmt2 expression was regulated in different developmental stages. The maximum expression levels of fvsmt1 and fvsmt2 were observed in stipe elongation, while no difference was found in mycelium and pileus. These results positively demonstrate that both the methyltransferase encoding genes are involved in the stipe elongation of F. velutipes.

20.
Journal of China Pharmaceutical University ; (6): 423-437, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805871

ABSTRACT

@#To identify the related substances of cyclosporin A by LC-MS techniques, the separation of cyclosporin A and its related substances was carried out on a Hypersil BDS C18(100 mm×4. 6 mm, 2. 4 μm)column with isocratic elution by a mixture of acetonitrile-water-MTBE and formic acid(430 ∶520 ∶50 ∶1)as the mobile phase. Cyclosporin A and its 29 related substances(9 process related and 20 degradants)were well separated under the established conditions. Among them, 13 were listed in EP and the rest 16 were unknown products having not been reported before. Electrospray positive ionization high resolution TOF/MS was used for the determination of the accurate mass and elemental composition of parent ions of all the components, and triple quadrupoles tandem mass was employed for the product mass spectra determination. Thence, the structures of all the 29 detected substances were successfully characterized through spectra elucidation and the fragmentation pathways analysis. The established LC-MS method was successfully employed for the separation and identification of the related substances of cyclosporin A and it is useful for its fermentation processes and quality control.

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