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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-745012

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the influence factors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children under highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).Methods Retrospective cohort study of 652 children initiated HAART from 2005 to 2014 was conducted,and enrolled patients were followed-up until December,2015.Survival data was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model was used to identify independent predictors of mortality among these children on HARRT.Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for comparison between groups.Results Overall,26 of the children died over a follow-up period of 3 116.24 child-years,with a mortality rate of 0.83 per 100 child-years.Twelve (46%)of deaths occurred during the first six months after starting HAART.Cox regression analysis of variables showed that the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stages Ⅲ/Ⅳ (hazard rate [HR] =10.717,95%confidence interal [95% CI]:4.189-4.749,P =0.000),baseline hemoglobin < 80 g/L (HR =14.768,95 % CI:5.721-38.125,P =0.000),tuberculosis co-infection (HR =4.794,95% CI:2.105-10.918,P =0.000),baseline CD4+T lymphocyte < 50 cells/μL (HR =4.219,95% CI:1.524-11.680,P =0.006),weight-for-age z-score <-2 (HR =2.983,95 % CI:1.094-8.135,P =0.033) were independently associated with death,whereas the age < 7 year-old at HAART initiation was protectire (HR =0.293,95% CI:0.126-0.684,P =0.005).Conclusions The mortality of children receiving HAART is strongly associated with WHO stages Ⅲ/Ⅳ,hemoglobin < 80 g/L,weight-for-age z-score <-2,tuberculosis co-infection and older age at treatment.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707187

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the subtypes distribution of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 epidemic strains and the characteristics of amino acid variation in different areas of Yunnan Province.Methods Totally 800 HIV/AIDS plasma specimens and epidemiological information were collected between 2012 and 2015 from 14 areas of Yunnan.Viral RNA was extracted and amplified using RT polymerase chain reaction (PCR).4.5 kb 5'halves fragments were obtained and directly sequenced.Subtypes of strains were identified by Genotyping,MEGA 6.06 and BLAST.Grouping was analyzed by location and subtype.Entropy software was used to analyze the difference of amino acid sequences between different groups according to the sampling location and subtypes to analyze the regional distribution and genetic variation of HIV-1 subtypes in Yunnan Province.Results Of the 800 plasma specimens,a total of 446 genomic sequences from 12 areas were successfully amplified and sequenced.After genotypes were identified,the subtypes of HIV-1 strains prevalent in Yunnan were CRF08_BC (58.3%),CRF01_AE (19.3%),CRF07_BC (11.6%),unknown recombinant forms (7.1%),B(B') (1.7%) and C (1.3%).The geographical distribution in Yunnan was analyzed.The CRF01_AE predominated in Dehong,Xishuangbarma and Wenshan.The CRF08_BC predominated in Lincang,Honghe and Puer (more than 70.0%) and CRF08_BC was prevalent in the other areas.But CRF07_BC in Kunming,Yuxi and Dali accounted for more than 20 %.The constitutions of amino acid of three majors CRF08_BC,CRF01 _AE and CRF07_BC were different on 17,14 and 18 amino acid sites with statistical differences in the eastern and western regions of Yunnan Province (均P < 0.05).Conclusions HIV-1 strains transmit and vary genetically in the province widely.The amino acid mutation sites of eastern and western strains are different.This difference represents that the same subtype strains in different geographical distribution vary on different genetic background and are selected by immune responses.The epidemic trends need to be closely monitored.

3.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 740-745, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737718

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the differences of CD4 +T lymphocyte (CD4) counts between patients aged 18 and over,to explore the effect of age on treatment,36 months after having received the China National Free AIDS Antiretroviral Treatment on HIV/AIDS.Methods Through the National ART Information Ssystem,we selected those HIV/AIDS patients who initiated the ART 36 months after the ART,between January 1,2010 and December 31,2012 in Guangzhou,Liuzhou and Kunming.Patients were divided into age groups as 18-49,50-59 and 60 or over year olds,at the baseline of treatment.Under different levels of baseline CD4 counts,we chose the baseline and different time-point of CD4 counts as dependent variables,applied mixed linear model to analyze the effects of age,viral suppression,gender,baseline CD4/CDs ratio and initial treatment regimen.Results A total of 5 331 HIV/AIDS patients were recruited.No differences were found on age group ratios between different levels of baseline CD4 counts.At the level of baseline CD4<200 cells/μl,both the 50-59 and 60 or above years old groups had lower CD4 counts than the 18-49 year-old group,within 36 months after the initiation of ART.However,at the baseline CD4 level of 200-350 cells/μl,no signiftcant differences on CD4 counts between the 50-59 year-old and 18-49 year-old groups were noticed.CD4 counts seemed lower in the 60 and above year-old group than in the 18-49 year-old group.Conclusion Age might serve as an influencing factor on CD4 counts within 36 months after the initiation of ART,suggesting that earlier initiation of ART might be of help to the recovery of immune function in the 50-59 year-old group.

4.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 740-745, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736250

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the differences of CD4 +T lymphocyte (CD4) counts between patients aged 18 and over,to explore the effect of age on treatment,36 months after having received the China National Free AIDS Antiretroviral Treatment on HIV/AIDS.Methods Through the National ART Information Ssystem,we selected those HIV/AIDS patients who initiated the ART 36 months after the ART,between January 1,2010 and December 31,2012 in Guangzhou,Liuzhou and Kunming.Patients were divided into age groups as 18-49,50-59 and 60 or over year olds,at the baseline of treatment.Under different levels of baseline CD4 counts,we chose the baseline and different time-point of CD4 counts as dependent variables,applied mixed linear model to analyze the effects of age,viral suppression,gender,baseline CD4/CDs ratio and initial treatment regimen.Results A total of 5 331 HIV/AIDS patients were recruited.No differences were found on age group ratios between different levels of baseline CD4 counts.At the level of baseline CD4<200 cells/μl,both the 50-59 and 60 or above years old groups had lower CD4 counts than the 18-49 year-old group,within 36 months after the initiation of ART.However,at the baseline CD4 level of 200-350 cells/μl,no signiftcant differences on CD4 counts between the 50-59 year-old and 18-49 year-old groups were noticed.CD4 counts seemed lower in the 60 and above year-old group than in the 18-49 year-old group.Conclusion Age might serve as an influencing factor on CD4 counts within 36 months after the initiation of ART,suggesting that earlier initiation of ART might be of help to the recovery of immune function in the 50-59 year-old group.

5.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 528-532, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737364

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution patterns of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture,Yunnan province,China. Methods Mosquito samples were collected using the mosquito traps from five counties of Dehong prefecture on July,2007 and 2010. Mosquitoes were cell cultured for viral isolation,and positive isolates were identified using RT-PCR and sequence analysis. Results A total of 43 634 mosquitoes comprised of 29 species representing six genera were collected. Culex tritaeriorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis comprised 78.69% and 14.77% of the total. Six strains of viruses were isolated from the mosquito pools. RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis revealed three strains from Cx. tritaeriorhynchus,identified as genotypeⅠJapanese encephalitis virus(JEV). One strain was identified from Cx. tritaeriorhynchus,as Getah virus (GETV). Two strains isolated from Cx. tritaeriorhynchus and Anopheles vagus were identified as Culex pipiens pallens Densovirus(CppDNV). Conclusion Cx. tritaeriorhynchus had been the major species of mosquitoes and mainly transmitting vector of mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture. GenotypeⅠJEV,GETV and CppDNV were the vectors causing transmission of mosquitoe-borne diseases in this area. Data from phylogenetic analysis showed that these newly discovered isolates seemed to have had close relationship with those viruses previously circulating in Yunnan and other provinces of China.

6.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 528-532, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-735896

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the distribution patterns of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture,Yunnan province,China. Methods Mosquito samples were collected using the mosquito traps from five counties of Dehong prefecture on July,2007 and 2010. Mosquitoes were cell cultured for viral isolation,and positive isolates were identified using RT-PCR and sequence analysis. Results A total of 43 634 mosquitoes comprised of 29 species representing six genera were collected. Culex tritaeriorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis comprised 78.69% and 14.77% of the total. Six strains of viruses were isolated from the mosquito pools. RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis revealed three strains from Cx. tritaeriorhynchus,identified as genotypeⅠJapanese encephalitis virus(JEV). One strain was identified from Cx. tritaeriorhynchus,as Getah virus (GETV). Two strains isolated from Cx. tritaeriorhynchus and Anopheles vagus were identified as Culex pipiens pallens Densovirus(CppDNV). Conclusion Cx. tritaeriorhynchus had been the major species of mosquitoes and mainly transmitting vector of mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture. GenotypeⅠJEV,GETV and CppDNV were the vectors causing transmission of mosquitoe-borne diseases in this area. Data from phylogenetic analysis showed that these newly discovered isolates seemed to have had close relationship with those viruses previously circulating in Yunnan and other provinces of China.

7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 528-532, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348630

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the distribution patterns of mosquito and mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Mosquito samples were collected using the mosquito traps from five counties of Dehong prefecture on July, 2007 and 2010. Mosquito were cell cultured for viral isolation, and positive isolates were identified using RT-PCR and sequence analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 43 634 mosquito comprised of 29 species representing six genera were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis comprised 78.69% and 14.77% of the total. Six strains of viruses were isolated from the mosquito pools. RT-PCR and phylogenetic analysis revealed three strains from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, identified as genotype I Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). One strain was identified from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, as Getah virus (GETV). Two strains isolated from Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles vagus were identified as Culex pipiens pallens Densovirus (CppDNV).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Cx. tritaeniorhynchus had been the major species of mosquito and mainly transmitting vector of mosquito-borne viruses in Dehong prefecture. Genotype I JEV, GETV and CppDNV were the vectors causing transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in this area. Data from phylogenetic analysis showed that these newly discovered isolates seemed to have had close relationship with those viruses previously circulating in Yunnan and other provinces of China.</p>


Subject(s)
Alphavirus , Animals , Arboviruses , Classification , China , Culicidae , Virology , Disease Vectors , Classification , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-564676

ABSTRACT

Objective To develop a spatio-temporal model of mountainous Oncomelania hupensis snails based on the Bayes-ian model,and to analyze and identify the spatio-temporal pattern at a village scale. Methods The data including the intensity and spatial distribution of live and infected snails from 2000 to 2006 and the village boundary were collected. The independent and interactive spatio-temporal models were established,and then the best fitness model was selected to analyze the spatio-temporal pattern of live and infected snails. Results The interactive model of live snails and the independent model of infected snails were relative fitness models,and the models showed 95%CI(confidence interval)of the spatial and temporal coefficient included ze-ro,and indicated that the spatial and temporal correlation of live and infected snails was not significant at a village scale. Conclu-sion There is no significant spatial and temporal correlation of live and infected mountainous snails at a village scale,and the fur-thermore study should be carried out at a small scale.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-415253

ABSTRACT

According to the requirement of the national assessment for achieving the infection control criteria, 42 villages (among them,25 villages belonged to the first stratum, and 17 villages belonged to the second stratum) in 14 counties from 5 provinces, including Hunnan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui and Yunnan, were selected as sampling villages for the assessment.The results from the field assessment showed that 154 out of 9 067 people were found infected with Sckistosoma japonicum, with an average infection rate of 1.7% ranged from 0.31 % to 4.10% , and only Yongping Village from Weishan County and Tenglong Village from Eryuan County were not found any case. A total of 46 out of 3 323 head of cattle were infected with S. japonicum, with an average infection rate of 1.38% ranged from 0.26% to 3.79% , and no any infected individual detected in Nanling County. No outbreak occurred in those sampling villages. Therefore, it is indicated that the five sampling provinces have reached the national criteria on infection control of schistosomiasis.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-574109

ABSTRACT

Geographic information system (CIS) was applied to analyse the endemic situation of schistosomiasis and the distribution of snails in Dali City. Hie data of endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Dali City from 2002 to 2008 were collected and a CIS database was set up. The endemic situation and the distribution of snails and acute schistosomiasis cases were analyzed by ArcGIS 9. 2 software. The results showed that the schistosomiasis transmission areas included 11 towns, 91 villages, and 401 nature villages. The trend surface analysis suggested that snail distribution in 2008 had a trend to accumulate in the northwest, while the population infection had a trend of gathering to the southeast. All acute schistosomiasis cases distributed in 6 towns, 23 villages, which showed significant aggregation by space-time clustering analysis, and three endemic villages in Xizhou Town in 2002 were identified as the first stratum endemic areas. It is concluded that CIS as database and graphics management tools can describe the epidemic situation intuitively, imaginably and macrosopically.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-558599

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the epidemiologic trend and characteristics of the distribution of schistosomiasis in Yunnan Province, China. Methods The data of two sampling surveys on schistosomiasis in Yunnan in 1995 and 2003 were collected, and the database of GIS was set up. The spatial status of rates of human infection and cattle infection were analyzed by using the GIS software, ArcView 3.2, contours method. The relationships between rates of human infection and cattle infection in 1995 and 2003 were analyzed with SPSS statistical software. Results The high-risk areas of schistosomiasis in Yunnan were Dali City, Yongsheng, Heqing, Eryuan, Weishan and Nanjian counties, and those areas contained different infection grades which were intertwine. The rate of human infection was descendent and the distribution of high-risk areas of schistosomiasis was decreasing. The infection rate of cattle was higher than before in the south of epidemic areas in Yunnan. Those epidemic areas of schistosomiasis could be identified as three spatial distributions. Conclusions The control and prevention of schistosomiasis in Yunnan should be focus on Dali City, Eryuan, Weishan, Yongsheng, Heqing and Nanjian counties, and the key is synchronistical chemotherapy in human and cattle.

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